Skip to main content

Full text of "ERIC ED056961: Report of the White House Conference on Youth."

See other formats


DOCUMENT RESUME 



ED 056 961 
TITLE 

INSTITUTION 
PUB DATE 
NOTE 

AVAILABLE FROM 



SDRS PRICE 
DESCRIPTORS 



SO 002 149 

Report of the White House conference on Youth. 
White House conference on Youth, Washington, D.c. 

71 

305p. 

Superintendent of Documents , U, 

Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 <$2.50) 



S. Government Printing 



IDENTIFIERS 



MF-S0.65 HC Not Available from EDRS. . 

Business Responsibility; *Civil Liberties; Civil 
Rights; conference Reports; Drug Abuse; ^Economic 
Disadvantagement; Educational Problems* Employment 
Problems; Environment; ^Foreign Relations; Government 
Role; Humanism; Political Attitudes; Program , 

Proposals; *Race Relations; social Attitudes; Social 
Problems; Values; World problems 
Selective Service; *White House conference on 
Youth 



Rpc T'H A.O 1 ! 1 

The proposals reported here evolved out of the 
conference held in Estes Park. Colorado ftpril IB-22, 1971 to find new 

accroaches to ten major issues, and new ways for youth between the 
ages of 14 and 24 to become more involved in the decision-making 
©recesses of the social and political institutions of the united 
States. 918 youth delegates were invited to represent the national 
demograDhlc variables; geography, race, sex, age, and current statu 
with respect to school, work, or unemployment; they tended to be 
actively involved in their communities. The power structure was 
represented by 503 invited adults from education, business and 
industry, labor, media, religion, foundations, national 

organisations, and the arts. Over 500 proposals are included here on. 
1) the Draft, National service, and Alternatives; 2 ) Drugs; 3) 

Economy and Employment; 4) the Environment; 5) Foreign Relations; 6) 
Legal Rights and Justice; 7) Poverty; 8) Race and Minority Group 
Relations; and, 9) Values, Ethics, and Culture. In summary, there 
were six apparent themes that ran through all of the work of the 
conference* 11 Youth involvement. Rights, and Representation; 2 ) 
community? self-control and Participation; 3) Equality |nd Pluralism; 
4) Libertarianism as a freedom to choose ones own way of life, 5) 
Humanization; individual, social, and economic; and, 6) 
Humanitarianism, (Author/SBE) 



O 

ERIC 



ED056961 






Report of the 
White House Conference 
on Youth 



"PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS COPY- 
RIGHTED MATERIAL BY MICROFICHE ONLY 
HAS BEEN GRANTED BY 



April 18-22, 1971 
Estes Park, Colorado 



Ghr &i_0-£ 

TO ERIC AND t ORGANIZATIONS OPERATING 
UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH THE US OFFICE 
OF EDUCATION FURTHER REPRODUCTION 
OUTSIDE THE ERIC SYSTEM REQUIRES PER 
MISSION OF THE COPYRIGHT OWNER 







**c> 



<40 

WTN 



U,S. DiPARTMlNT OF HEALTH* i 

EDUCATION & WELFARE i 

OFFICE UF EDUCATION \ 

THIS DOCUMENT HAS BIEN REFRO- \ 

DUCiD EXACTLY AS RECEIVED FROM ! 

THE PERSON OR ORGANIZATION ORK3- I 

INATING IT- POINTS OF VIEW OR OPIN- 
IONS STATED DO NOT NECESSARILY 
REPRESENT OFFICIAL OFFICE OF EDU- 
CATION POSITION OR POLICY. 



2 




ERIC CLEARING HOUSE FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION 

855 BROADWAY ...» " 

BOULDER, COLORADO 80302 



3 




For sale by th© Superintendent of Documents, U.S, Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $2.50 
StoeK Number 4000-0267 



Contents 



Introduction . 

Preamble 

Task Force Recommendations and Resolutions 

The Draft, National Service and Alternatives 

Drugs 

Economy and Employment 

Education 

Environment 

Foreign Relations * 

Legal Rights and Justice 

Poverty 

Race and Minority Group Relations 

Values, Ethics, and Culture 

Caucus Statements 

Balloting Results • — 

Institutional indexes 

Arts and Humanities 

Business and Industry 

Education * ■ 

Government, Federal 

Government, State and Local 

International Organizations 

Judiciary and Law Enforcement 

Labor 

Private, Non-Profit and Volunteer Organizations 

Religious Organizations 

Appendix 

Staff List and Acknowledgements 



1 

15 

19 

31 

51 

79 

109 

141 

163 

193 

213 

239 

255 

285 

289 

290 
292 
294 
298 

300 

301 

302 

303 
305 



307 



i 

| 

\ 



i 










id 



Introduction 




Introduction 



The 1971 White House Conference on Youth was a unique event 
in the public life of the nation. It was the first time that a 
White House Conference has been devoted solely to the concerns 
of young people. It was the first time that a majority of delegates to a 
White House Conference were young people. It was the first national 
gathering that made a careful attempt to have its participants 
truly reflect the diversity of American youth. And its outcome- 
surprising to many — should give pause to those who have insisted 
that there is a divisive, even dangerous, "generation gap” in the 
United States. 

When on December 5, 1969, President Nixon appointed me as 
National Chairman of the White House Conference on Children and 
Youth, he asked that I "listen well to the voices of young Americans 
—in the universities, on the farms, the assembly lines, the street 
corners.” The President stated: 

At a time when government often seems far away and 
immovable — when many of our youth are rightly asking, 
"Who's listening? Who cares?" — I hope this White House 
Conference, especially through the active involvement 
of a great many young people, will provide the answer. 

This then was our mandate. 



The First White House 
Conference on Youth 



While the White House Conference on Children and Youth is a 
venerable institution in American life, dating back to 1909 and having 
been held since then once each decade, past conferences have 
been largely adult-run and child-related. This conference, however, 
came at a time when young people were increasingly questioning 
the responsiveness of all major institutions, and were seeking a 
greater opportunity to participate in the decisions that affect 
their lives. 

Thus it was decided to have two separate conferences, giving the 
concerns of children and of youth their own national platforms. 

The White House Conference on Children was held on December 
13-18, 1970, and the first White House Conference on Youth 
convened at Estes Park, Colorado, on April 18, 1971. 



The Conference 
Design 



In planning the Conference, we were repeatedly told by young 
people that they did not wish merely to talk to each other; they 
■wanted a meeting with “the adults who count” in our society. 
Moreover, they wanted to deal with the issues. In short, they wanted 
not so much a conference on youth as a conference primarily 
of youth and on those issues of highest priority to the nation. 

Therefore, the Conference needed to provide a process of interaction 
and communication between young people and adults in positions 
of authority in various institutions, both governmental and 
non-governmental. Two-thirds of the delegates would be young 
people between the ages of 14 and 24; one-third would be adults. 




7 





The goals would be to find new approaches to major issues and 
new ways for youth to become more involved in the decision- 
making process. The ten issue areas in which the delegates were 
asked to seek a common ground of understanding and 
agreement were: 

The Draft, National Service and Alternatives 
Drugs 

Economy and Employment 

Education 

Environment 

Foreign Relations 

Legal Rights and Justice 

Poverty 

Race and Minority Group Relations 
Values, Ethics and Culture 


ie Advisory Task 
rces 


During the summer of 1970 an advisory task force consisting 
of eight youths and four adults was appointed in each of the subject 
areas. Each group was co-chaired by an adult and a youth. 

The 120 task force members met together in late August at the 
Irvine Campus of the University of California to define the scope of 
their work and to plan their operations for the following six months. 

At Irvine the members of each advisory task force received a 
report assessing the current status of government and private 
programs and policies relating to their issue, which had been 
prepared for them as a point of departure by 45 summer interns. 
The task forces were to carry this work forward by providing draft 
recommendations for Conference consideration. They were asked to 
put their emphasis on specific implementable proposals directed 
to ai! of the nation’s institutions. 

In addition, the advisory task force members began to define the 
character of the Conference. They recommended; 

1. That the Conference be held outside of Washington in order to 
encourage the maximum interaction between youth and adult 
delegates. It was felt that the Irvine meeting demonstrated the 
effectiveness of a semi-remote setting: adults were not distracted 
by their other commitments and an informal setting was most 
conducive to serious work. The staff, however, was directed not to 
select a college campus since it was felt important to underscore 
that this was to be a youth conference, not a student conference. 

2. That delegates to the Conference be a demographic 
cross-section of American youth. Since the Conference was to be 
divided into subject areas, it was decided that ethnic youth should 
be somewhat over-represented so that the numerically small 
minority groups could have adequate representation on all task 
forces. Delegates were also expected to have shown some interest in 
the subject area to which he or she would be assigned. State 
committees on children and youth and national organizations were 
expected to sponsor approximately 700 of the 1000 youth delegates. 

3. That 100 international delegates be invited to participate 
in the Conference. 


O 

ERIC 


At the close of the meetjng, President Nixon invited a group of the 
advisory task force members to meet with him at the Western 
White House in nearby San Clemente and urged them to reach out 
across the country to gather the views of as many youth as possible 
in preparing their reports for the Conference. 

& 






The Advisory Reports 



During the period of September, 1970, to March, 1971, each task 
force met several times to hold hearings, to review position papers, 
and to draft their advisory reports to the delegates. One of the 
more remarkable aspects of this effort was the emphasis th 
members of the advisory task forces plaeed on gaining information 
through hearings with other youth groups. They traveled from 
San Francisco to San Juan, from New York City to New Orleans, 
listening to a multitude of points of view. 

Those concerned with the environment, for example, traveled to 
seven regions. In California they met with inner-city black youths in 
Watts and with middle-class white youth in the San Fernando Valley. 
They spoke with Mexican-American youth in San Antonio and 
with rural black youth in south Macon County, Alabama. They held 
sessions with Indian youth on the Pima Reservation at Gila River, 
Arizona, with rural white youth in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 
and with Appalachian youth in Eastern Kentucky. 

Members of the Advisory Task Force on Race and Minority Group 
Relations held informal hearings with Asian-American youth in 
San Francisco, with black urban youth in Washington, D.C.^ 
and black Southern youth in New Orleans, with Puerto Rican youth 
in New York City, and with Indian and Chicano youth in Albuquerque, 
New Mexico. 

Some groups took a different tack. The Foreign Relations Advisory 
Task Force, for instance, commissioned a professional nationwide 
survey of youth attitudes on American foreign policy. Similarly, 
the Future Teachers of America conducted a national poll of student 
attitudes for the Education Task Force, which posed such questions 
as, "Flow do you think school can be made more relevant?” 

"What are your recommendations for insuring equal education 
opportunity for all students?” and "What would you recommend to 
reduce school dropouts?” 



i- 

L 

?' 



I 



I 



F 



The Youth Delegates 




The Legal Rights and Justice Advisory Task Force combined both 
approaches. Traveling to New Orleans, it met with 20 students 
from universities in the area to discuss the legal relationships 
between student and college. In addition, the Task Force members 
designed and distributed to 1,600 youth across the country 
questionnaires on such subjects as “Youth and the Police" and 
“Student Rights and Responsibilities." 

The reports were completed by March 15, 1971, and were sent to 
the delegates with a questionnaire asking for their reactions to ^ 

the reports prior to the Conference, and for their suggestions for 
additional issues to be discussed. On the basis of these responses, 
each task force set its tentative agenda for the April Conference, j 



-i 

One of the elements that most distinguished the 1971 White House 
Conference on Youth from the many previous attempts to bring 
together large numbers of young people was the representativeness ; 
of the participants, 

j 

This is not to say that the delegates were randomly selected. 

We did not blindly invite every 10th or 20th person in the United 
States between the ages of 14 and 24. Rather, within the demographic 
variables used— geography, race, sex, age, current status 
(in school or working or unemployed) — the delegates tended to . 

be actively involved in their communities. Thus if we sought a rural, | 



3 



white, high school male, the odds were that he was also the 
president of his class or in some way had displayed a knowledge of 
one of the ten subject areas of the Conference. One could also 
assume that he would most likely become a voter, a worker in political 
and community causes, and a more-than average participant in the 
affairs of his city, state, and nation. 

We did not totally succeed in meeting our selection goals. Five percent 
fewer working youth showed up at Estes Park than had been invited. 
There were three percent fewer females there than in the youth 
population. On the other hand, 38. S percent of the youth delegates 
were high school students, which is their exact percentage of 
the population. It is thus difficult to attribute action taken at the 
Conference to statistical bias in our selection. 









National 




# Attending 


% Attending 


Percentage 


TOTAL 


918 


100% 


100% 


Male 


492 


53.6 


50.6 


Female 


426 


46.4 


49.4 


Indian 


30 


3.3 


.3 


Black 


143 


15.6 


11.2 


Mexican American 


53 


5,8 


4.4 


Puerto Rican 


19 


2.1 


1,2 


Oriental 


21 


2.3 


.5 


White and Other 


652 


71.0 


82.4 


Military 


40 


4.4 


5.9 


College 


204 


22.2 


15.6 


High School 


356 


38.8 


38.8 


Vocational School 


20 \ 






Working 


278 1 


34.6 


39.7 


Volunteer 


6 1 






Unemployed 


14) 







Among the youth delegates were authors, state legislators, 
beauticians, laborers, a college president and the nation's youngest 
dean of women, as well as young people who had been victimized 
by both physical and social handicaps. 

Among the delegates to the Draft, National Service and Alternatives 
Task Force were a U. S. Marine and the recipient of three bronze 
stars for combat in Vietnam, the President of the Junior Young 
Buddhists, the Director of the National Council to Repeal the Draft, 
and a recipient of the Columbia University Book Award'. 

The Legal Rights and Justice Task Force delegates included a 
17-year-old unwed mother who spent two years in a Connecticut 
correctional institution, a Massachusetts youth who works as a 
probation officer for the Boston Municipal Court, and a young lady 
who serves on the Burbank (California) City Youth Council. 



While the majority of youth delegates were chosen from names 
submitted by State committees on children and youth and by national 
organizations, a substantial number were nominated by community 
organizations and by private citizens. Advisory task force members 
aided in the selection process and the co-chairmen retained the 
prerogative of review for those assigned to their task forces. 

Ml# 



The Adult Delegates 



The Conference, 
April 18-22 



O 

ERIC 

5 



The 500 invited adults were chosen to represent the “power 
structure"; they were, as I said in my opening remarks at the 
Conference, “the type of people who must understand what young 
people believe if this Conference is to move from recommendations 
to action.’’ 

A delegate selection committee of advisory task force members and 
representatives from various institutions was convened for each 
subject area to identify a pool of institutional leaders to whom 
invitations should be sent. Adults were drawn from such sources as 
Federal, state and local governments, education, business and 
industry, labor, media, religion, foundations, national organizations 
and the arts. The adult delegates at Estes Park included 
10 members of Congress, 14 presidents of colleges or universities, 

8 judges, and 7 mayors. 



The Conference site was the “YMCA of the Rockies” at Estes Park, 
Colorado. As one youth delegate from Illinois later wrote; 

We met amid the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, 

7,500 feet above sea level and 1,800 miles from Washington. 
The camp was a complex of buildings spread among small 
rises, and surrounded and secluded by towering peaks. 
Because of the setting, the Conference was an informal 
affair. We did not have to concern ourselves with the 
special conditioning and mind-set a city demands. I was 
pleased to be out among the mountains. I believe the mood 
was less rigid and useful because of them. I found it much 
easier to respond truthfully there than I did in a traditional 
meeting situation with its peculiar stigmas. 

While the site fulfilled the Irvine recommendation for an isolated 
setting, there were still present well over 100 members of the press 
(including all the TV networks), insuring that what happened 
would be relayed to the nation. Indeed, media coverage far 
exceeded that generated by the larger White House Conference on 
Children in Washington, D. C. 

The 1,486 delegates were divided equally into the ten subject areas, 
with approximately 50 adults and 100 youth on each task force. 

All meetings were open to observers sent by the governors, 
national organizations, and the press. 

Mechanisms were established so that issues of concern to more 
than one task force could be discussed on a conference-wide 
basis or by delegations from several task forces meeting together. 
For example, on Monday evening, April 19, the Foreign Relations 
Task Force sponsored a session on Indochina in the largest meeting 
hall which attracted over 300 delegates. The Environment Task 
Force held separate evening meetings with business executives 
and government officials. Interesting evening film programs were 
planned by several of the task forces, and there were informal 
coffeehouses where music was provided by a rock band composed 
of delegates from Wisconsin, 



A committee elected by the delegates from each task force was 
charged with planning the final plenary session. It quickly devised a 
caucus system by which delegates with shared concerns could 
address the Conference outside of the task force structure, A simple 
procedure for registering caucuses was set up, with no requirements 




as to minimum number or relevancy of issues. This procedure, 
operating on good faith, allowed a group, no matter how small, 
to speak at the final session of the Conference and to have its 
recommendations printed in the final report. Some 24 caucuses 
registered in all, ranging from ethnic groups to a caucus concerned 
with the Alaskan pipeline, In addition, most caucus members 
continued to work within their assigned task forces and the leaders 
of the ethnic caucuses were included as members of the 
Conference’s governing body. 

The delegate committee felt it would be futile to attempt to 
debate and vote upon all the recommendations (which turned out 
to~b5~6ver 5S0) at a final plenary session attended by nearly 
1500 delegates. They also decided not to ask the Conference to 
assign priorities to the recommendations, feeling that all recom- 
mendations drafted by the task forces should have equal weight. 
However, all task forces and caucuses had the right to bring their 
recommendations before the Conference for a vote, but the vote 
was "in no way to indicate priorities of the Conference”. And finally, 
whether they had an issue on the ballot or not, all task forces 
and caucuses were allotted time at the final plenary session to 
report their actions to the general body. Also at the final session, 
the Conference Preamble was read, having been drafted by 
the Values, Ethics and Culture Task Force. 



Many predicted in advance that the Youth Conference was doomed 
from the start. It was convened by "the establishment”; it deliberately 
chose to deal with the most controversial issues facing the nation; 
it selected the delegates because of their diversity; it asked the 
delegates to formulate specific implementable recommendations 
within a period of three-and-a-half days. 

Yet by almost all accounting the process of the Conference was 
an overwhelming success. 

The following is from an interview in the University of Denver 
Clarion with James Simon Kunen, author of The Strawberry Statement 
and a delegate to the Conference: 

Clarion: Do you think that the Gestalt of the entire 
conference was worthwhile? A lot of people are saying that 
just the experience was rewarding and that it is incredible 
that this demographic collection, even if it is supposedly 
slanted toward the White House, could come up with 
these proposals. 

Kunen: Especially if it’s slanted toward the White House, 

I’m still tripping out on that. That’s right, it’s not what these 
suggestions are going to do, it’s the process by which these 
suggestions were arrived at. It’s the fact that I found out 
there are many compassionate kids all over this country. 
Girl Scouts from Texas, 4-H Clubs in Nebraska, I’m very 
excited about it. 

There was shouting, disagreement, and controversy to be sure. 

But there were also long hours of positive discussion, with virtually 
no split between youth and adults on most major issues. This can 
be attributed in large part to the seriousness of the participants, 
the flexibility of the program, the willingness of the Conference to 
hear those with special concerns, and the resiliency of the delegates 
to the adversity which came in the form of an unseasonal 
blizzard that lasted the duration of the Conference. 



A poll of the delegates taken by CBS at the final session reported 
that 73% of the delegates felt the Conference was a success, 
with the 15% who categorized it as unsuccessful being divided 
almost equally between those who rated themselves either radical 
or conservative. 

The representativeness of the participants combined with the 
noninflammatory manner in which they performed their task means 
to me that we as a nation now have a special obligation to study 
well what they said. 



jr- 

I: 

F 







The Conference Themes 



The specific recommendations of the Conference, which comprise 
the body of this volume, speak for themselves. I shall not try to 
summarize the over 550 proposals made by the delegates. 

But I would like to take this opportunity to try to state some of the 
basic themes that run through all of the work of the Conference. 

These themes are six in number. Together, I feel, they comprise a 
set of criteria by which policy-makers and others can judge how 
young Americans will respond to any given action. (One could 
suggest that if any proposed action meets ail of these criteria it will 
be accepted by youth; if it meets a majority of the criteria it may 
be accepted by youth, and so forth.) 

X. Youth Involvement: Whether it was the call for Youth Opportu- 
nity Programs in employment or the devising of a statement on 
the rights and responsibilities of students or proposals for youth 
representation on such bodies as the American Revolution 
Bicentennial Commission and the National Council on the Arts, 
the delegates who came to Estes Park were not seeking to escape 
from “the system’’. Rather, they were demanding a greater voice 
in the decisions that affect their lives. 

This comes at a time when governmental and educational policies 
in particular have tended to prolong that period of life which we call 
"youth”. While we know that young people reach physical maturity 
at an earlier age than ever before and that, judging from such 
evidence as College Board scores, they have more knowledge than 
their fathers had at the same age, our technological, credentials- 
oriented culture now admits young people to full participation 
in society at a much later age. For example, the need to get 
“accredited”, whether it be with a PhD or an MD, may mean 
that a young person today enters the world of work and familial 
responsibilities a full decade later than his or her parents. 

Clearly young people are seeking "anti-dependency" measures, 
measures which shorten the period between childhood and adult- 
hood. This may take the form of seeking the right to vote in all 
elections at age 18 or the across-the-board lowering of the legal 
age of majority by the states (as has already been done in Vermont, 
Tennessee and Michigan). 

It should be pointed out that young people are not asking for 
"separate-but-equal” representation. This, of course, was recognized 
in the design of the Conference. And based on this experience 
youth and adults together dealing with the most critical issues of 
the day — it is my opinion that there is no unusual generation gap in 
the United States at this time. 

- * ■ V' .■ 

13 



7 



Out of the hundreds of issues discussed, there were only two on 
which there were appreciable differences in the way youth and adults 
voted: these were the legalization of marijuana and the "People's 
Peace Treaty", a cause of the National Student Association. 
Ideological differences among the delegates, yes; generational 
differences, no. As Fred Hechinger, the Education Editor of the 
New York Times, wrote, the Conference “raised serious doubts 
about the proposition that youth is as separate an interest group 
as legend and sociology often make it appear.” 

2. Community Control/Participation: The Youth Conference dele- 
gates generally proposed programs that vested control in — or at 
least substantial participation by — those most affected. Paradoxically 
perhaps, they usually recommended that these programs should 
be Federally-funded, 



O 

ERLC 



While the delegates approved the creation of the new Action Corps, 
they specifically opposed the concept of a large centrally-directed 
program. Instead they preferred to see the Action Corps support 
"projects which are locally conceived and directed, projects 
which take their direction from people who serve in them and from 
the people in the communities who are served." 

Likewise, the Drugs Task Force called for Federal money to allow 
the individual community to "Implement a variety of prevention 
and treatment programs appropriate to the particular needs of the 
drug abuser and his community"; the Education Task Force saw 
education as more relevant “when the school is viewed as a 
l-boratory within the community" and proposed that every high 
school and coiiege establish a course on the school and its 
community; the Poverty Task Force (though not the Education 
Task Force) advocated "full community control of schools for 
poverty areas”; the Environment Task Force felt that "urban human 
ecology must be a people-oriented movement stressing community 
involvement" and defined community involvement as "grass roots 
participation in planning and implementation of all rrograms 
involving the social and physical well-being of people' ; the legal 
Rights and Justice Task Force contended that "the individual 
police officer should make every effort to become involved in the 
community he serves” and civilian community review boards should 
be established on the precinct level; and, as the final example, the 
Task Force on Values, Ethics and Culture asked for "the 
development of local cable television systems which would be 
subject to local community control and local community 
ownership," 

3. Equality/Pluralism: From the opening Preamble, and running 
through all the work of the Conference, there is a recurring theme 
that the high ideals upon which this country was founded have 
never been a reality for all its people. The delegates demanded an 
end to discriminatory practices, overt and more subtle, racial and 
otherwise, (as the Preamble put it) "out of the rage of love for 
the unimplemented principles” of our country. 

These young people have been taught to take seriously and literally 
the words of our nation’s founding documents, the Declaration 
of Independence and the Constitution, particularly its Bill of Rights. 
They now raise disturbing questions and accusations about the 
practice of these ideals. 




8 



The Conference has been accused of looking primarily at the dark 
side of our society. Indeed, we might also wish that our young 
people would take more pride in the progress we have made. 

In some areas the Conference indicated that we have earned their 
respect. But this does not discount their concerns, which are 
not frivolous. 

The minority groups at the Conference (and here “minority groups” 
are defined as any delegates who wished to consider themselves 
as a minority — blacks, women, Asian-Americans, Appalachian 
whites, American Indians, the Spanish surnamed, the ethnic whites) 
— definitely rejected a “melting pot” theory of America. The 
delegates considered as a right, “the right to preserve and cultivate 
ethnic and cultural heritages.” 

Therefore, it is not surprising that many of the delegates chose to 
conduct their work at Estes Park within an array of special interest 
workshops and caucuses. This was not, in my opinion, a sign of 
divisivensss, but rather a display of heaithy diversity within 
our society. 

Beyond the obvious acts of discrimination, these minority delegates 
tried to tell us how guilty society is of insensitivities that can cause 
as much pain as a door slammed in one's face. Often they pointed 
to the mass media as a prime offender. The following statement 
by the Appalachian Youth Caucus might well indicate one of the 
ways we have perfected for hurting each other: 

In September CBS began its new television season with the 
theme “Let’s All Get Together”. If you watch television 
on Tuesday nights, you know that who got together, 
back-to-back, were the stars of three of America’s most 
popular T.V. programs: “The Beverly Hillbillies”, “Green 
Acres”, and “Hee-Haw”. Each week millions of Americans 
gather around their sets to watch this combination, 
which has to be the most intensive effort ever exerted by a 
nation to belittle, demean, and otherwise destroy a minority 
people within its boundaries. Within the three shows on 
one night, hillbillies are shown being conned into buying the 
White House, coddling a talking pig, and rising from a 
corn patch to crack the sickest jokes on T.V. 

4 . Libertarianism: “We interpret liberty,” wrote the Advisory Task 
Force on Values, Ethics and Culture, “as the freedom of all human 
beings conscientiously to choose their own way of life when their 
choices do not limit or harm this right of others.” 

This doctrine, which has been called libertarianism, was at the 
heart of much of the Youth Conference work. 

While few of the delegates went so far as the pure libertarians, 
who formed their own caucus and questioned “the very process of 
even one person making decisions that affect another s life , 
nevertheless there may be some truth to their claim that ^ 

libertarianism is “the fastest growing youth movement in America”. 

This doctrine gave rise to some of the more controversial proposals 
at Estes Park, such as approval of “any sexual behavior when 
occurring between consenting responsible individuals” and the right 
of a woman “to determine for herself . . . her own reproductive life . 



But It was also a strong influence in youth’s acceptance of an 
all-volunteer (non-compulsory) army, the reason for strongly 
supporting the right of privacy, and the motivation for the following . 
recommendation of the Legal Rights and Justice Task Force: 

A significant body of our criminal law — local, state, and 
Federal — concerns itself with criminal activities involving 
purely voluntary participants. These are widely termed 
“crimes without victims". Many people, and especially 
young people, object to laws proscribing such activities on 
the grounds that individuals should be free to do as. they 
choose so long as they do not infringe on the freedoms of 
others. . . , We recommend that practices which have not 
been objectively demonstrated to do serious injury be licensed 
and controlled as any other business, the controls to give 
special attention to protecting the customer or participant 
and to insulating from the activity all those who wish not to 
be exposed to it. . . . In short, we recommend a “no smoking 
car" approach to some of these questions, legalizing a 
practice so as to protect innocent persons from its real 
or fancied effects. 



5, Humanization: The youth delegates were especially sensitive 
to what they viewed as threats "to dehumanize our society". 

They saw these threats as coming, in part, from “uncontrolled 
technology”. Yet they were not anti-technology per se. Rather, they 
recognized “the contribution that technology has made and the 
contributions that it can make in the future, if properly used", 
"Technology itself,” wrote the Values, Ethics and Culture Task 
Force, “has no inherent ethical values,” Its importance is in how 
man uses it and how aware he is of its social implications. 

"Its ultimate goal," as they defined it, is to give “man increased 
control over his environment in order to improve the quality of 
his existence." 

As humanization relates to employment and the economy, 
the delegates called for more “meaningful" work; for “less 
impersonal" employer-employee relationships; for attempts “to tailor 
jobs to fit the individual”; for increased understanding of the 
relationship between one’s job assignment and the total organization, 
for further exploration of worker rotation on assembly lines, 
a flexible four-day work week, increased sponsorship by manage- 
ment and labor of cultural activities for workers and their families, 
and greater participation in decision-making. 

The delegates, however, recognized that the problem of dehumani 
zation is not exclusively economic. Indeed the problem, which the 
Economy and Employment Task Force defined as “a basic dissatis- 
faction with the overall conditions of life . . . increasingly referred 
to as a concern for the ‘quality of life’," stems from the primacy 
that “materialism" has had in our society. Although I suspect that 
the “have-not” delegates were more concerned with having an 
opportunity to share in the wealth of our nation, there was still a 
general call on the part of all delegates for an increased emphasis 
on those individual and social concerns not directly within the 
sphere of economics. 



6, Humanitarianism : The Conference delegates were perhaps most 
concerned with human plight. In some respects their recommenda- 
tions resemble a listing of perceived injustices — from Angola and 
the Sudan to Pakistan and the District of Columbia. 




They strongly endorsed such actions as an end to discrimination 
against Soviet Jews, greater financial support for Palestinian 
refugees, approval by the U. S, Senate of the UN Genocide 
Convention, and condemnation through boycott and economic 
sanctions of the racist policies of southern Africa. 

Where such actions may be contradictory with other stated or implied 
goals — such as limiting U, S. involvement in the internal affairs 
of other nation-states- — + he majority of youth can be expected 
to opt for the humanitarian consideration. 



I. 

J: 

f- 

P 

| Post-Conference 

| Response 



£ 

f 



» 

I 

o 

ERJC 



£ # * m 

Young people, of course, are not all as altruistic as these themes 
might make them appear. Like the rest of us, they are and can 
be inconsistent. Also, like many adults, they can be more supportive 
of the liberties of those with whom they agree than of those with 
whom they disagree. 

Yet, if ! am right about the six recurring themes of the Conference, 
the following are the sorts of questions that decision-makers 
should ask themselves if they wish to judge youth's response to a 
given action: 

Wilt young people be involved or consulted before the 

action is taken, especially if it is an action that personally 
affects them? 

Does the action provide for participation by all those 

affected, and If possible, will control be vested on the 
community level? 

——Is the action equitable and non-discri minatory, and, 

if it involves minority groups, will it preserve and respect their 
special heritages? 

— Will the action correct an injustice? 

Will the action expand the personal freedom of the 

individual? 

And, will the action improve the “quality of life" and the 

individual’s sense of meaningfulness? 

These are hardly unimportant questions. 



Speaking at the opening session of the Conference, Elliot Richardson, 
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, pledged on behalf 
of the President that the Administration would “look carefully at 
every one of the recommendations’’ directed to the Federal 
government. He pledged further that a procedure would be estab- 
lished whereby “we can render to you an accounting not only 
of what we have done, but what we have not done, and why’’. 

On the Tuesday after the Conference the President and his Cabinet 
reviewed the Conference and its recommendations. As a result 
of this Cabinet meeting, the President directed all departmental 
secretaries and agency heads to appoint liaison officers who would 
coordinate a government-wide response to the Conference proposals. 
Subsequently, departmental and agency heads received guidance 
on the specific format they were to follow in responding to the work 
of the Conference. The results of this detailed “accounting” 
will be completed shortly. 



IX 



But the ederal government is not the only institution to whom 
these recommendations were addressed. The delegates also spoke 
to the leaders of the nation's businesses and industries, unions, 
churches, mass media, foundations, voluntary organizations, 
state and local governments, judiciary, and educational institutions. 
For this reason the Report of the White House Conference on Youth 
is being sent to approximately 26,000 institutional leaders 
throughout the country, identifying recommendations that pertain 
to them, and requesting that they follow the President's lead in 
responding to the work of the Conference. 

These leaders will find that some of these proposals hit hard at 
the very foundations of our system, that some may be entirely 
impractical, that some already are being implemented. But let us 
not allow this opportunity for self-assessment to pass by default. 

Our young people are telling us more than ever that our institutions 
are not responsive enough to necessary change. Through the 
mechanism of the White House Conference on Youth, they have 
provided us with an opportunity for self-examination and reappraisal. 
We should respond to their call, 




Stephen Hess 
National Chairman 



18 



o 

ERIC 

MMffltfililLlJ 



The Preamble 



To the people: 



O 

ERIC 



We are in the midst of a political, social and cultural revolution. 
Uncontrolled technology and the exploitation of people by people 
threaten to dehumanize our society. We must reaffirm the 
recognition of life as the supreme value which will not bear 
manipulation for other ends. 

The approach of the two hundredth anniversary of the Revolution 
which gave birth to the United States of America leads us to 
reexamine the foundations of this country. We find that the high 
ideals upon which this country was ostensibly founded have never 
been a reality for all peoples from the beginning to the present day. 
The Constitution itself was both racist and sexist in its conception. 

The greatest blemish on the history of the United States of America 
is slavery and its evil legacy. The annihilation of Indians, genocide, 
exploitation of labor, and militaristic expansion have been among 
the important short-comings which have undermined the ideals 
to which the people of this country have aspired. 

It is time now finally to affirm and implement the rights articulated 
in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Each 
Individual must be given the full rights of life, liberty, and the 
pursuit of happiness; the Bill of Rights must be reinterpreted so as to 
be meaningful to all persons in our society. In addition the 
following rights are crucial: 

The Right to adequate food, clothing, and a decent home. 

The Right of the individual to do her/his thing, so long as 
it does not interfere with the rights of another. 

The Right to preserve and cultivate ethnic and cultural 

heritages. 

The Right to do whatever is necessary to preserve these 
Rights. 

Governments and nation-states are created to secure and protect 
these rights. Through the acquiescence of its citizenery, the 
government and other power structures of this nation have not 
fulfilled their responsibilities to the people, seeming instead to be 
concerned primarily with their self-perpetuation through serving 
the interests of the powerful at the expense of the people. In so far 
as any branch, agency, or member of the government or other - 
power structure neglects its responsibility, it forfeits its legitimacy. 

We proclaim the following grievances: _ , 

Denial of equal opportunity has led to privation in the midst 

of plenty. 

Repression has denied the free exercise of political rights 
in a “free society”* 

The system of justice lacks legitimacy for vast segments of 
the people, particularly minority groups and the poor. 

Free cultural expression is discouraged in a supposedly 
pluralistic society. 

Appeals to chauvinism, nationalism and militarism smother 
the individual's right to conscientious free choice of action 
and belief. 

A war which :is abhorrent to the majority of Americans and 
which inflicts inestimable anguish on a foreign people 
continues. 

The government and the people have allowed economic and 
^ ^ political power to be concentrated in institutions which 

20 are not responsive or answerable to the people, resulting in 

the waste and destruction of human and natural resources, 
and the failure to meet the people’s needs. 



The fear of youth identifying with adults and vice-versa, 
the fear of people identifying with themselves, the fear of 
people identifying with their race, the fear of people 
identifying with a country — all create a climate of fear 
which permeates this nation. 

Internal divisiveness has contributed to a loss of national 
purpose. 

The recommendations which follow we submit to the people as a 
realistic, positive, fundamental, minimal program for the redress of 
such grievances and the recognition of these Rights. 

We are aware that “commissions,” “conferences” and “reports” 
have often been used as a mechanism to divert the attention and 
energy of the people, in the guise of furthering “communication,” 
This Conference shall not be so used. 



Youth has been seeking reform of political and social institutions. 
Evidently these institutions are threatened by the basic insecurity 
inherent in change. The result has bean repression which has 
transformed our struggle for reform into a struggle for survival. 

We must recognize that change is not restricted to the realm of 
history, but is an ongoing process, the central dynamic of life. 

We recognize further that while youth is often most receptive 
to change, they are not alone in desiring it. We affirm our kinship with 
persons of good will of all generations. This affirmation stems from 
our appreciation of the indivisible nature of liberty, 

We are aware of our responsibility to fight for the rights of all 
people, We recognize that we in the United States of America have 
strayed from the fundamental tenet of this nation, that the 
government is responsible to the people, in whom power resides, 
and that the people are therefore fully responsible for the policies 
and actions pursued m their name. 

We, as have so many before us, dedicate ourselves to struggle 

and sacrifice for the realization of the Ideals embodied in the program 

we have set forth. 



Out of the rage of love for the unimplemented principles we here 
assert, we challenge the government and power structures to respond 
swiftly, actively, and constructively to our proposals. We are 
motivated not by hatred, but by disappointment over, and love for, 
the unfulfilled potential of this Nation, 



21 




All recommendations were voted upon by the Task Force members 
present in general session after open debate on each item. Drafts 
of many of the recommendations were initiated in workshops. 



Draft and the All- 
Volunteer Force 



All-Volunteer Force 



0 




1.1 The Task Force on the Draft. National Service, and Alternatives 
endorses an end to the draft and the establishment of an 
all-volunteer Armed Force. In arriving at our conclusions, we 
examined in detail the need for an adequate national defense, the 
inequities of conscription, and the feasibility and social desirability 
of an all-volunteer force and recommended policies needed to 
improve the Armed Services to achieve such a force. The Advisory 
Task Force report, prepared by eight youth and foil r adult 
members, analyzed these issues and served as the basis for our 
deliberations. In the course of our discussions at Estes Park, 
we have accepted most of these recommendations, revised others 
and introduced some additional proposals. In this report, we 
present the recommendations of the full task force. 

The draft has alienated many youth against their country, and 
many others against their peers who were able to avoid service; 
it has caused many young Americans to adopt life styles different 
from those which they would otherwise have chosen; and it 
has had untold effects on the many who have unwillingly served 
two years in the military. This is not to suggest that there are 
not many who truly volunteer or willingly serve when called, nor 
that many draftees do not benefit from their military service. 
However, the human cost that the draft has levied can never be 
measured. The irony of the draft is that such forced servitude, 
such compulsion, is unnecessary. 

For these reasons, the full task force unanimously supports 
our first and most important recommendation: 

1.1a We endorse the concept of an all-volunteer Armed Force, Some 
have expressed fears that an all-volunteer force would be socially 
undesirable, an army of the poor and the black, a professional 
army of mercenaries, a threat to domestic and international 
stability. Behind these questions of potential dangers, is the 
tacit assumption that an all-volunteer force would be substantially 
different from a mixed force of draftees and volunteers both in 
its composition and in the way that it would be used. The Task 
Force found no evidence to support these alleged dangers and 
rejects them; we found instead that the socially desirable aspects 
of the all-volunteer force far outweigh the alleged dangers. 

All of us believe that the draft must be ended. But when? Some 
members of our Task Force felt that in order to best insure the 
national security, the draft must be extended during a transition 
period. Such a transition period would allow sufficient time to 
implement the manpower policies needed to attract enough true 
volunteers to maintain necessary force levels. Without such 
an extension, manpower deficits might arise that would result in 
a re-introduction of the draft. The Department of Defense has, 
indeed, recommended a two-year extension and within this period 



19 



they are confident that they can achieve the goal of an 
all-volunteer force. 



Repeal of the 
Draft Authority 


The Advisory Task Force report argued for a one-year extension 
of the draft to put the necessary pressure on Congress, the 
Department of Defense, and the public to expedite the policies 
needed to end the draft. The one-year extension would further 
serve to demonstrate the nation's sincerity in its effort to end the 
draft at the earliest possible date with no threat to our defense 
capability since Congress would still retain the authority to 
extend the law if such action became necessary. 

Other Task Force members argued that the draft is a form of 
involuntary servitude, and that such an abrogation of fundamental 
liberties can be justified only in time of grave national emergency. 
No such emergency now exists. Young people alone are directly 
affected by the draft, and if we do not speak out for our rights 
and liberties now, no one else will. We, therefore, favor an 
immediate repeal of the draft. 

The issue was hotly debated. The Task Force voted on the question 
of whether the draft authority should be allowed to expire or 
be extended. By a narrow margin of 45 to 43, we endorsed 
the following recommendation; 

1.1b Confident that the national security will not be jeopardized, 
we recommend that the draft law be allowed to expire on 
June 30, 1971. 

Although we endorse repeal of the draft, we cannot be sure that 
Congress will adopt our recommendation. Because the draft has 
such a profound impact on the lives of young Americans, we 
feel that it is imperative for us to propose recommendations 
that would minimize the inequities in who serves when not all 
serve. In recent years, the Selective Service System has been 
improved but still discriminates against some racial minorities 
and favors the more educated who can find loopholes in the law. 
To achieve greater equity in our present lottery draft, the full 
Task Force strongly endorsed the following recommendation to 
improve the operations of the System: 


Selective Service 
Changes 


l.lc The existing practices of the Selective Service System must 
be changed as follows: 

(1) We endorse the President’s intention to phase out the 
ll-S student deferment, but feel that it is unfair to make it 
retroactive by taking away any ll-S deferments that have been or 
might be granted before any new draft law becomes effective. 

We also support the President's effort to phase out the IV-D 
exemption for divinity students and urge that the IV-B exemption 
for certain elected officials also be phased out. 

(2) In order to achieve equal treatment in the granting of medical 
deferments, we recommend that physical examinations of black 
registrants must include a blood test for Sickle-cell anemia, 

a disease peculiar to blacks, and that the presence of the Sickle-cell 
anemia trait be accepted as the basis for a IV-F medical exemption. 
It should be noted that the Sickle-cell disease has already been 
accepted as the basis for medical exemption. 


0 

ERIC 

20 


(3) We recommend that the requirements for membership on local 
draft boards be modified as follows: First, local board members 
should live in the area oigi^which they have jurisdiction. 

HP 



Second, local board membership should reflect the ethnic and 
economic composition of its constituency. Third, the age 
requirements for local board membership should be not less 
than 18 years of age and not more than 55 years of age with 
terms of service limited to a ma>imum of five years. 

(4) We recommend that the present appeal procedure be altered 
to give every registrant the right to have witnesses and legal 
counsel present during personal appearances. Moreover, we urge 
that every registrant have the right to a Presidential appeal in 
the event that his appeal is rejected by a state appeals board. 



(5) In order to correct the present practice on appeal for 
reexamination for medical fitness wherein the registrant is 
re-examined by the same doctors, we recommend that any 
registrant making such an appeal be allowed to be re-examined 
at a Veterans Administration hospital or at a different Armed 
Forces Entrance Examining Station. 

All of these changes will require Congressional legislation in 
any new draft law, and we urge their adoption. 

Conscientious Objectors l.id A continuing problem that has plagued the Selective Service 

in Alternative Service System is that of determining who is a conscientious objector. 

Conscience is by its very nature, private, and no one can see 
inside the mind and heart of another. In order to mitigate the 
problems surrounding the granting of C.O. deferments, we 
recommend that the following provisions be adopted in any 
new draft law: 




y for 
iolators 



We recommend that the Selective Service System adopt the 
following practices with respect to conscientious objectors: 

(1) Recognizing the private nature of conscientious beliefs and 
the difficulties faced by Selective Service in determining the 
sincerity of a man claiming to be a conscientious objector, 

we recommend that any man claiming to bs a conscientious 
objector be granted such status subject to his willingness to perform , 
if called, two years of civilian work in the maintenance of the 
community or national health, safety, or interest. 

(2) We believe that sincere selective objection as such be 
recognized along with objection to war in any form. We urge 
that local draft boards be informed immediately that the Supreme 
Court has recognized one form of selective objection, namely 
that young men who object now, but who do not know what they 
would do in a future hypothetical circumstance, can still qualify 
for C.O. status. 

(3) We strongly urge that opportunities for civilian alternative 
service should be expanded to better utilize the skills of C.O.'s. 

In addition, a C.O. should be allowed to perform his service in 
his own community instead of the present system requiring him 
to find work outside of his community. Further, we reject the 
punitive provision in the present House draft legislation (HR 6531) 
wherein a C.O. who fails to perform satisfactorily in his alternative 
job is inducted into the Armed Services. 

l.le One of the more emotional issues facing our Task Force was, 
“What sj^aulH we do about those Americans who have knowingly 

25 



violated the draft law, or who are now in exile to avoid conscription?" 
Some believe that those who knowingly violated the draft law, 
thereby transferring the burden of service to others, deserve to 
be punished. Because of their strong beliefs that the draft is 
immoral, others favored the following recommendation that 
was adopted by a vote of 51 to 35: 

As an act of compassion, we call upon the President, when the 
draft ends, to exercise his power to grant amnesty to all draft 
violators and exiles, 

l.lf An important concern expressed by many in our Task Force 
was that when the draft authority is terminated, what machinery 
should be retained to provide for a flexible response to any 
contingency requiring force levels that cannot be met by the 
all-volunteer active and reserve forces? Some argued that no 
machinery should be kept because it would still entail compulsion 
and would make it easier to return to conscription. By a close 
vote of 46 to 42, the Task Force endorsed the following 
recommendation: 

We recommend that when the draft is ended, a standby registration 
authority should be established that (a) entails n6 physical 
examinations or classification of registrants; (b) requires only a 
simplified form calling for a minimum of personal information; 
and (c) can be accomplished at a post office or other local agency. 
Under this standby registration, the power to induct registrants 
can only be reinstituted by a joint resolution of Congress upon the 
recommendation of the President. We further recommend that 
this standby registration authority be instituted for a period of 
four years with a Congressional review to come at the end of 
the third year. 

l.lg In his memorandum of August 21, 1970, Secretary of Defense 
Melvin Laird announced a new Department of Defense policy 
that the Reserves and Guards will provide the trained manpower 
in the event of any future emergency requiring the augmentation 
and expansion of the active duty forces. We concur with this 
policy, but in order to assure compliance, we support the 
following amendment: 

When the draft is ended, Congress enact legislation to insure that 
no person be drafted until all Reserve and National Guard 
forces have first been activated. 

Draft reforms and the establishment of standby draft registration 
are important parts of a well-designed plan in the transition to 
an all-volunteer force. The movement towards an all-volunteer 
force has progressed rapidly in the last two years. Many provisions 
in the recent House draft legislation (HR 6531) go a long way 
toward this goal. We would like to see these provisions included 
in the final military service law, and we therefore support the 
following recommendation: 

l.lh Whereas President Nixon has played an important leadership 
role in promoting the concept of an all-volunteer armed force; 
and Whereas the President appointed a distinguished commission 
of prominent Americans who recommended that the draft could be 
ended by improving the conditions of military life; and Whereas 
military pay is currently so low as to force thousands of servicemen 
to depend on food stamps and public welfare for survival; and 
Whereas the House of Representatives has overwhelmingly passed 
legislatiorTwhlch substantially implements the pay proposals of 



Increase Military Pay 



3 

ERIC 



Activation of 
Reserve Forces 



Minimal Standby Draft 
Authority 



Implementation of an 
All-Volunteer Force 




the Gates Commission; and Whereas the President has asked 
this Conference to report to him on the draft and the volunteer force, 
RESOLVED: We, the Task Force on the Draft, National Service 
and Alternatives, of the White House Conference on Youth, urge 
the President to support openly the pay provisions of the House Bill 
(HR 6531) which is consistent with our recommendations. 

1.11 Although many men are drafted, a majority of our men In 
uniform are volunteers who freely chose to enter and remain in 
the Armed Services in preference to alternative civilian jobs. 

Our studies have shown that the numbers of these volunteers are 
diminished by extremely low rates of military pay (especially for 
the first-term enlisted man), poor housing, and often irrelevant 
work. If we are to end the draft and establish a viable all-volunteer 
force fully capable of providing for the nation’s defense, we must 
make some major policy changes. Towards this end, our Task Force 
endorsed by a unanimous vote that the provisions of the 
following recommendation be adopted: 

To implement the concept of an all-volunteer force, we recommend 
that certain steps be taken: 



(1) Military pay levels. Funds should be appropriated to raise 
the military pay of first-term enlisted men and officers to levels 
that are competitive with civilian wages. The regular pay of a 
recruit (including the value of room and board) should be raised 
to at least $444 a month. 

(2) Military pay structure. The structure of military pay should 
be revised to establish pay differentials for first-term enlisted men 
who bring civilian skills to the military service, who volunteer for 
occupational specialties suffering manpower shortages, or who 
commit themselves to longer terms of service. Moreover, once 
an individual qualifies for a specialty pay because he has a particular 
skill, he will continue to receive that pay as long as he possesses 

the qualifications and remains in the skill. 

(3) Recruiting, The recruiting organization should be modernized; 
authorized recruiter strengths should be expanded to produce 
the required number of volunteers; recruiters should be provided 
with petty cash funds and made eligible for higher rates of 
proficiency pay; and recruitment and advertising budgets should 

be increased. We further urge that precautions must be taken to 
insure that the Armed Forces adhere to strict standards of truth 
in advertising and recruiting, and that Armed Forces advertising 
budget should never assume such proportions that the Defense 
Department could significantly influence the media in their news 
reporting or programming. Finally, we strongly recommend 
that military recruiting operations be regularly monitored in order 
to prohibit the use of unfair or unethical practices to enlist the 
uninformed, the disadvantaged, or those who are coerced to 
accept military service in lieu of prosecution. 

(4) Officer acquisition. ROTC scholarships should be increased 
to an annual r ate equal to 10 percent of the authorized non-medscal 
officer strength with increases beginning September 1, 1971. We 
further urge that in the awarding of these scholarships, particular 
emphasis be placed on providing opportunities for officer training 

to members of ethnic minorities that are now under-represented 
In our active and reserve forces. The stipends paid to ROTC students 
should be increased to $g>&j£>er month. 

* 



Improving the Quality 
of Military Life 




(5) Medical manpower. The comprehensive medical scholarship 
program recommended by the Administration should be adopted. 
Under this program, the Department of Defense would award 
2,000 medical scholarships with annual stipends of about $10,000 
for an obligation of one year of military service for each year of 
scholarship support. We also endorse the Gates Commission 
recommendations that (a) salaries of military physicians should 
be raised to a level comparable with those of non-military physicians 
in group practice, and (b) that the military should study the 
possibility of negotiating contracts with groups of non-military 
physicians to care for military patients. Adoptions of these 
provisions would operate to reduce the need for the doctor draft. 

(6) We urge that Reserve and National Guard units should make 
every attempt to reflect the racial and ethnic composition of the 
communities from which they are drawn. These steps would 
reduce the likelihood of a situation where an all-white Guard unit 

is called in to quell a civil disturbance in a predominantly 
black community. 

(7) Reserve and Guard Forces. Additional funds should be 
appropriated to procure modern weapons and equipment for the 
Reserve and Guard forces. 

(S) Reserve Training. Summer training exercises of reserve units 
should be conducted jointly with units of the active duty forces 
stationed at overseas bases. The adoption of these recommendations 
would eliminate the financial penalties that now discourage many 
individuals who might otherwise have considered a military 
service career, thereby expanding the flow of qualified volunteers 
for our Armed Forces. 

l.lj The draft has encouraged the wasteful use of our nation’s scarce 
manpower resources and discouraged the development of 
personnel practices that would make service life more attractive. 
Assistant Secretary of Defense Roger T. Kelley summarized the 
problem when he stated: 

The ability to reach into the draft well and pick out 
whatever numbers you need can cover a lot of sins, 
of under-utilization of manpower, of misuse of man- 
power, of poor management. 

We applaud the efforts that the Department of Defense has made 
in the past two years to eliminate irrelevant make-work assignments, 
to provide better housing and to treat their men and women with 
respect. These steps that improve the image of our Armed 
Services and that raise the morale of our uniformed personnel are, 
in our opinion, essential for a truly viable all-volunteer force. 

We accordingly urge that the following recommendations be adopted: 

To effect a viable all-volunteer force, we recommend that at least 
the following steps be taken to improve the quality of military life: 

(1) The military social environment. We propose that a broad 
review be undertaken of the military rank and class structure, 
in particular, the enlisted-officer relationship; military regulations, 
especially the Uniform Code of Military Justice; traditional customs 
and courtesies; and all of those factors that contribute to the 
military social environment, bearing in mind the dignity and the 
need for respect of each individual in the Armed Forces. Those 
elements of military life which do not contribute to the overall 



success of the mission of the Armed Forces should be eliminated 
or changed as appropriate. 



All-Volunteer Force: 
Summing Up 



National Service and 
Service-Learning Program 



0 




oc 



(2) Civil Rights. We recommend that a civil rights provision 
should be included in the Uniform Code of Military Justice to 
insure that anyone who believes that he has been discriminated 
against for reasons of race, color, or creed, would have a 
normal channel for appeal. 

(3) Equal Opportunities. Comprehensive manpower development 
and training programs should be enlarged and maintained to 
assist members of disadvantaged groups to obtain, within the 
Armed Forces, the skills and knowledge required to compete 
effectively for those assignments and opportunities for which their 
interests and aptitudes could reasonably be expected to qualify 
them. Among the objectives of this resolution is to minimize the 
likelihood of the burden of combat duty falling disproportionately 
on members of disadvantaged groups. 

(4) Women in the Service. Ceilings set on representation of women 
in the services, now Congressional^ imposed, should be lifted, 
and all phases of military life should be equally accessible to 
members of both sexes. 



We believe that our plan for an all-volunteer force offers a program 
that we regard as the only equitable solution to the problems of 
the draft. It specifies a target date, June 30, 1971, for ending 
the draft and identifies those policies that must be adopted to 
attract men to our Armed Forces on a truly voluntary basis. 
Moreover, it contains safeguards, In the form of the standby draft 
registration authority and a truly Ready Reserve, to insure that our 
national security will be protected in the event of any contingency. 

Over twelve million young Americans have just received the 
franchise to vote and to actively participate* in the legislative 
process of our Government. In his address before the University of 
Nebraska student body. President Nixon stated, “You have now the 
opportunity and the obligation to mold the world you live in. 

You cannot escape this obligation.” 

The draft has been in existence for all of our lives, and it is an 
institution that vitally affects us. The Task Force on the Draft, 
National Service and Alternatives believes that it is in the national 
interest to end the draft, and to move to an all-voluneer Armed Force. 



1.2 America's youth wish to serve their society. Every poll testifies 
to their desire. But our Task Force opposes a compulsory program 
of national service and opposes as well the creation of a large 
centraiiy-directed Federal program of voluntary national service. 
Instead, we recommend that under the auspices of the Action Corps 
support be provided for volunteer service projects which are locally 
conceived and directed, projects which take their direction from 
people who serve in them, and from the people in the communities 
who are served. We particularly recommend programs of 
service-learning which are designed not only to meet pressing 
local needs but which also promote the educational growth 
of those who serve. 

We oppose a compulsory program for the reasons cited by the 
Scranton Commission on Campus Unrest: 



Whether in the form of pilot projects or a full-scale 
program, national service should be voluntary, and 
not as some have proposed before this Commission 
and elsewhere, compulsory. In addition to its 
enormous cost, a compulsory national service 
program would be an unwarranted infringement on 
individual freedom of choice. Nor should national 
service be considered as a method for reforming or 
replacing the draft. Proposals to make civilian 
service available as an alternative to the draft fail 
to resolve compelling problems of equity that plague 
any attempt to compare civilian programs with 
military service. 

Further, it would be hard to find props; work for unwilling 
civilian conscripts. And the devices whereby the affluent and 
well-advised now find ways to escape the draft would be used as 
well to avoid compulsory civilian service. Service, then , should be 
voluntary. It must stand on its own merits, attracting volunteers 
who seek the satisfactions of doing a needed job, of learning 
in the process and, hopefully, of helping accelerate some needed 
social changes. 

Service-learning is a relatively new idea. It links school and 
community. It is like the work-study or cooperative education 
programs in which students work part-time, or leave school for 
periods of work, then return for more study. But the number of 
part-time paid jobs is limited, whereas there are almost unlimited 
service jobs, as tutors, aides in health centers, mental institutions, 
day care centers, drug abuse and environmental programs, as 
parole officer assistants and as interns in government agencies. 
But whether the program is paid work-study or unpaid service- 
learning, the objectives and the processes are much the same. 

Work or service is considered as much a part of education as 
studies in school or college. Academic credit is given for what a 
person learns. Students, teachers, and job supervisors agree on 
what is to be learned by the work or service and by what criteria 
success will be measured. For example, work in drug programs 
may include precise learning objectives in chemistry, sociology 
or the law. 

Projects like these are well under-way in Urban Corps and 
College Volunteer programs. But, if they are to be expanded to 
other areas, money is needed for program development and for 
the training of project supervisors, who themselves may be 
volunteers who serve at subsistence pay for a year or two. Once 
under way, most of the costs of these programs can be borne by 
local schools and colleges, for service-learning would be a regular 
part of education which is designed to give meaning to formal 
studies, education which exposes the volunteer to future career 
opportunities, and education which breaks down the separation 
of school from community. The uses of society are learned by 
serving it. Academic credit at all times, from elementary school 
through college, is awarded in recognition of learning which takes 
place during service and in preparation for it. 

Federal support can help launch these programs. But they can 
then be carried on by local schools and communities. The Task 
Force on Draft, National Service and Alternatives therefore believes 
strongly that national service should be voluntary and supports 
the following recommendations: 

'> . 1 



Compulsory 
National Service 
Rejected 



Action Corps 
Endorsed 



Service* Learning 



Community 

Involvement 

Desirable 



Volunteer Program 
on Pilot Basis 



0 




1.2a We reject compulsory national service. We also reject those 
national service proposals which would utilize service as an 
alternative to the draft 

We believe that all young people who want to serve their fellow 
men have an opportunity to do so. We believe that programs of 
service have much to offer both to those who are served and 
to those who serve. Accordingly, we recommend the following; 



1.2b This Task Force endorses the creation of Action Corps to bring 
together volunteer service agencies (Peace Corps, VISTA, Teacher 
Corps, and other volunteer offices) to (a) expand opportunities 
available for full-time service, and (b) to serve as an agency 
designed to further utilize part-time, non -pa id volunteers. 

1.2c We further endorse an expansion of service-learning and work 
study opportunities in high schools and colleges. Specifically, 
we call for programs of part-time or temporary service which 
have precise learning objectives and for which appropriate 
academic credit can be given. 

1.2d After considerable debate about the need for an additional 
administrative body, and by a narrow margin, the Task Force 
adopts the following resolution: 



We believe that service activities should be directed and financed 
at the local level to the extent permitted by available resources, 
and should include projects organized and directed by young people. 
Service activities should be underwritten by a public foundation 
at the national level. This public foundation should be able to 
receive public and private funds and be governed by a board of 
directors with a majority of private citizens, including representatives 
from those who serve and from local communities, and be 
ultimately responsible to Congress. 



1,2a In order to provide support for the initial start up of local 
projects of service learning and in order to assess the effectiveness 
of service-learning as a means of education which might in time 
offer opportunities for service to almost half of all Americans from 
the elementary years through and beyond college age, we 
support the following: 

That the President call for appropriations under existing Action 
Corps legislation sufficient to provide training for approximately 
193,000 part-time volunteers and 5,000 full-time supervisors in 
order to test, over a two-year period, the feasibility of greater 
Federal assistance to locally designed and administered programs 
of work-study and service-learning. There should be several projects 
during this period with sufficient concentration of volunteers to 
test the ability of the projects to provide solutions to local problems 
such as delinquency, health services training and delivery, early 
childhood education, or comparable needs. Further, we recommend 
that the Director of the Action Corps undertake a program of 
research and evaluation to begin at the start of the above 
mentioned two-year trial program on June 30, 1971, and submit 
his recommendations regarding the feasibility of expanded Federal 
support for work-study and service-learning programs by 
June 30, 1973. 



We are concerned that programs supported by the Action Corps 
be responsive to local needs and desires and we therefore advocate 
that the people who participate in projects and representatives from 
local communities served by Action Corps, share in establishing 
the policies and procedures of the Action Corps and in 
developing, administering and evaluating local projects. 

And we advocate that service-learning projects, including those for 
which Federal support is already available, such as the College 
Work Study and the Neighborhood Youth Corps programs, should 
serve the needs of local communities, particularly those in 
low-income areas. 



Preamble 


Recommendations were drafted by Task Force workshops an 
discussed at a Task Force plenary session where recommendations 
were voted. The minority caucus report and recommendations 
were submitted separately. 

The White House Conference Drugs Task Force must address 
itself to the causes of drug abuse as well as the solutions. 

We acknowledge that drug abuse is largely a symptom of the 
individual’s inability to cope with his immediate personal 
environment. However, it must be understood that deep societal ills 
increase the individual's sense of personal alienation. Specifically, 
our society has permitted the perpetuation of the Indochina War, 
of institutional and personal racism, of the pollution of our 
environment, and of the urban crisis. 

The American people as a whole must deal immediately with 
these problems. The President of the United States has the special 
burden of providing moral and political leadership to our people. 
To date, this administration, as previous administrations, has 
failed to meet this burden of leadership. We cal! on the Presiden 
to respond immediately to our urgent concerns. 

Foremost, we call upon the President to end the war in Indochina 
NOW, and to apply our natural and human resources to our 
domestic needs. 

Should the administration respond to these issues, more young 
people of America will become motivated and contributing members 
of society. Conversely, if the administration does not respond to 
these issues, we risk having ever larger numbers of young people 
dropping out of a society which has great need of their contribution. 

If the administration is sincere in its concern with drug abuse, 
it must deal aggressively with the root causes as well as implement 
the recommendations contained herein. 


Armed Services and 
The Veterans 
Administration 


2.1 The subcommittee had done considerable research in the latest 
drug abuse program initiated by the Office of the Secretary of 
Defense and the Armed Services. Attached as enclosure No. 1 is 
the complete report of a task group appointed by the Department 
of Defense to drug abuse. * This report was approved by the 
Secretary of Defense and has been implemented by the Secretary 
in DOD Directive 1300.11, 23 October 1970. 


Revise DOD Drug 
Abuse Policy 


2 la The Task Force workshop recommends immediate 
implementation of the Mack Task Group Report of July 24 
1970, for revision to DOD drug abuse policy, in making this 
recommendation, we commend the recent attempts by the Armed 
Services to initiate prevention through education, non-punitive 
treatment via medical intervention (particularly the amnesty 
program) and responsible aftercare through the VA for those 
discharged under honorable conditions. 

* Space limitations preclude inclusion although we recommend it 
to the reader. 


O 

ERIC 


34 



i 



Evaluation of 
Marijuana 


2.1b Without impairing military efficiency, the Armed Forces 
should pioneer in the evaluation of marijuana — under modern and 
enlightened controls — in such a way as to recognize its relation to 
the real world of many young adults. In making this recommendation, 
the Task Force workshop recognizes the unique situation of military 
service which makes such a program particularly applicable. 


Establish 

Hot-Lines 


2,1c Recognizing the success of informal “hot-line' 1 arrangements 
geared to the special problems of certain communities, the Task 
Force workshop recommends the military should establish 24-hour 
“hot lines" and crisis intervention centers staffed by trained 
peers, outside the normal channels of military jusiice and medicine, 
with strict guarantees of anonymity. These facilities would be able 
to handle the stresses and strains normal to all young people 
plus the special frictions indigenous to military environment. 


Drug Abuse 
Education and 
Counseling 


2. Id We recommend creation of an organized system of drug 
abuse education utilizing formal and informal techniques and 
incorporating the most recent materials, This program should be 
disseminated uniformly throughout the armed services. We 
recommend expansion throughout the Department of Defense of 
informal and confidential mental health care clinics for therapeutic 
counseling to military personnel and their dependents available 
on both a non-referral and referral basis. 


Drug Record 
Information 


2.1e Information concerning drug related research and the use 
of drugs for other than conventional medically accepted reasons in 
the armed services should be made available to the general 
public within the boundaries of national security. 


Drug Education 
and Counseling 
Program 


2,2 It is impossible for drug education to be completely effective 
without radical alteration of attitudes, values, outlooks, and 
existing social institutions that perpetuate racism, economic 
exploitation, and other social Injustices, Much of existing drug 
education is inadequate and counterproductive because it tends 
to alienate the young and cause reactive alarm in adults* moreover, 
it disregards the fact that drug abuse is as much an adult problem 
as a youth problem. 

Drug education should not be confined to a specific curriculum 
within a school setting but approached on an individual, school 
and community-wide basis. It is imperative that drug education 
also take a positive approach by encouraging alternatives to drug 
abuse such as growth of self-respect, constructive social action, 
realization of personal goals, etc. 


Participation Is 
Important 


2.2a It is important to involve persons in drug education 
who, because of their own drug experience, are particularly credible 
and can relate to drug users. All potential contributors to drug 
education should be required to have appropriate and relevant 
training and experience. It is essential that youth be involved in the 
evaluation of existing drug education programs and In the 
development of new ones. Those involved in drug education on a 
long-term basis should be required to be trained in human growth 
and self-awareness techniques to increase their understanding of 
and sensitivity to group and individual differences. 


Coi v al Couseling 

MUfflBi*aB 3 rotected 


2.2b All persons involved In the drug counseling relationship 
should be apprised of their obligation to keep completely confidential 
any information which they gain in the course of this relationship. 





State legislators should extend to the persons being counseled 
the privilege to prevent the counselor and others, if group 
counseling is involved, from testifying as to statements made b« 
such person during counseling in any judicial, administrative, 
or legislative proceedings. 

All materials provided in drug education must be honest and 
present the reasons people use drugs as well as the consequences 

of abuse. 

Unresolved issue: Role of racism in preventing drug education with 
minority groups. 


Community Organizations 
and Unconventional 
Programs 


2 3 The ‘‘drug problem" is in actuality a "people problem 
and symptomatic of the pathology of our society and drug oriented 
culture. Treatment modalities should exist within this orientation. 
Every effort should be mu de to research the causes of drug abuse 
and alternatives should be sought to meet human needs instead 
of focusing on drugs alone. 


Funds for Drug 
T realm ent 


2 3a We recommend that additional grant funds should be 
made available for drug treatment programs. Furthermore, the 
Federal government should seek ways to distribute information in 
regard to funding, especially to possible peer-to-peer participant 
groups and ethnic groups and should assist these groups with 
applications in developing programs with expertise when asked 
and funding with a minimum of bureaucratic interference. 


Methadone and 
Other Programs 
Needed 


2 3b While we grant that methadone maintenance is the lesser 
evil in comparison to heroin addiction and that methadone 
maintenance programs are heavily funded and popular as a panacea, 
most methadone programs focus cn the drug and not the person. 
We recommend that funds should he set aside for other modalities 
so that the addict has available many different types of programs 
to him. We respect the arguments against methadone maintenance 
from the Chicano and Black groups. 


Allow Minors to Seek 
Help on Their Own 


2 3c We recommend that the consent laws be amended to 
include minors of 12 years of age and over, either living at home 
or away, allowing them to seek help on their own and. to sign for 
consent and thus be assured of confidentiality. 


Community Education 
and Action Programs 


2 3d Most of the effective treatment and prevention programs 
for drug abuse are innovative and experimental programs operated 
and controlled by those with personal drug experience. These 
programs are often not understood or accepted by the larger 
society. The larger society should be aided in understanding the 
methods, philosophy, and goals of these programs in ^ er to . 
enhance community acceptance and financial support. Efforts to 
foster community understanding can be accomplished through 
public forums such as the Council for Responsive Action and 
Awareness Councils. 


O 


We recommend that local communities be encouraged to form 
broadly representative organizations whose purpose is to assess 
the community' needs regarding drug abuse problems. These 
local organizations should solicit funds from Federal, state and 
private sources in order to implement a variety of prevention and 
treatment programs appropriate to the particular needs of the drug 
abuser and his community. Innovative, imaginative multi-modality 



concepts are encouraged for the treatment of all abusers— 
non narcotic as well as narcotic. Recognizing that different 
modalities are likely to be effective for different individuals, 
independent evaluative procedures should be designed and 
implemented to learn which modalities are effective for d if' ^ rent 
types of individuals. Autonomous local community programs should 
have preference over centralized Federal programs. 



Drug Production 2.4 Society's definition of "coping" has been undergoing a 

and Advertising change. As Margaret Mead has phrased it: 

Americans believe that it is better to alter the 
environment to take advantage of every possible 
externa! aid to the good life; that unnecessary and 
avoidable pain should be prevented, and that any 
continued attempt to cope — by altering or exercising 
one's character with things that could be fixed 
instead — is at best unenterprising rather than 
virtuous. Our definition of coping is altering the 
environment, or our social situation, using something 
external to the self, a new technique, money, 
medicine, budgetary arrangements, to attain a better, 
more human way of living. 



A person's attitude toward taking drugs, then, reflects that individual's 
feelings about how to handle the problems of living. These feelings 
have been shaped by virtually all factors in his environment 
since his mother first answered his hunger wails from the crib. 

The purpose of the subcommittee of the Task Force on Drugs was 
to examine what effect one of those environmental factors may 
have had in shaping the individual's attitude toward problem solving; 
i.e., the production and advertisement of legal medicines. 

The producers and distributors of all drug products, including 
alcohol and tobacco bear a strong responsibility to society. They 
must realize that the principle of "buyer beware" cannot apply 
to their products and should accept voluntarily a strict principle 
of truth in advertising. Consumers also have a responsibility to 
determine their wise use of such products by re-evaluating the 
necessity and extent of such usage 



Because we are concerned that much of contemporary drug use 
may be attributable to the growth o the production and advertising 
of drug products, we make the following recommendations. 

Enforce 2.4a We recommend that existing regulations governing the 

Existing Laws manufacture , distribution , foreign and domestic sales and 

advertising of all drug products , including tobacco and alcoholic 
beverages , be rigidly enforced , If this requires additional budgetary 
appropriations for the regulatory agencies, these funds should be 
allocated. Further, such agencies should have the power to 
impose stiff penalties for regulatory infractions. 



Eliminate Implications of 2,4b We recommend that both advertisers and regulatory agencies 
Current Advertising review existing or proposed advertisements of all drug products, 

including tobacco and alcoholic beverages, and eliminate 
implications that normal problems of human behavior can be solved 
by the use of drugs. 



Increase Power of 
lrnm er Advertising 



3* 



2.4c In order to enforce these policies, the Federal Trade 
Commission should be given by legislation the ability to impose 



$ t ;■ 

> if 




Ban Drug 
Advertising 


within three months stiff penalties for advertisements which are 
explicitly or implicitly untruthful. If the FTC should fail to act, 
individuals should be granted the right to seek court injunctions 
against the further use of such advert 1 sements. 

2.4d We recommend that all drug product advertising be banned 
from all media, with the exception of professional journals. 


Drugs and Law; 

No Criminal Sanctions 
for Personal Use 


2.5 We recommend that persons v\ ho possess drugs for 
their personal use no longer be subject to the criminal law. We 
make this recommendation because, regardless of the presence or 
absence of deterrent effect or possible efficacy of punitive sanction 
meted out by the criminal process, the use of the criminal law in 
the area of possession for personal use has proved too costly 
to the individual who is criminalized, degraded and outlawed by 
the process, tcj costly because of its impact on one's career and 
later life in general; too costly to our law enforcement system 
which exhausts so much effort at the bottom of the sale-use pyramid 
and too costly to our courts which are staggering under the load 
of drug related cases. 


Expunge Records 
and Release All 
Incarcerated Possessors 


2.5a We recommend that persons who have been convicted prior 
to recommendation No. 1 being implemented have the criminal 
record of their conviction expunged and that it be for all intents and 
purposes as if they had not been convicted of a crime and that 
any person who is incarcerated for the crime of possession be 
immediately released and his criminal record for that offense be 
similarly expunged. 


Seller-User 

Distinction 


2.5b We recommend that illegal sale and manufacture for sale 
of drugs continue to be dealt with bv the criminal process, with the 
full range of criminal sanctions continuing to be available. If a 
defendant is able to prove that (a) he is a drug dependent or drug 
addicted person and (b) he has not realized a significant economic 
gain from the transfer of the substance, and (c) that the transfer 
involved a small amount of the drug, we recommend that such 
person be looked upon by the law as a possessor and that he not 
be convicted as a drug seller. If a person is illegally in possession 
of large amounts of drugs, we recommend that he be presumed 
to be in possession with intent to sell and thus be subject to 
criminal sanction. 


Treatment in Lieu 
of Penalties 


2.5c We recommend that if a drug dependent or drug addicted 
person is arrested for and convicted of a criminal offense, drug 
related or non-drug related, following evaluation and confirmation 
of such dependency or addiction by persons who have relevant 
training, experience, and expertise, he be treated in a facility or 
program which can reasonably be expected to alleviate such 
dependency nr addiction, and that such treatment be in lieu of 
j lYtprisonment or other criminal sanctions. If such person is treated 
in an in-patient facility, he cannot be so held any longer than he 
could have been sentenced for the crime with which he was charged. 


Commitment to 
In-patient Facilities 


2.5d We recommend that involuntary civil commitment of 
drug addicted or drug dependent persons to an in-patient facHity 
be utilized only in situations where the person to be committed 
is in imminent danger of seriously harming himself or other persons 
and that such commitment remain in effect only so long as such 
danger exists, and that easily invoked legal processes and assistance 
be regularly available to such committed person. We further 



recommend that insofar as possible out-patient facilities be 
utilized in order to keep as many persons as possible functioning 
in the community and to avoid the deprivation of the fundamental 
right of liberty. 

2.5e We recommend ti.at Federal, state, and local government 
fund and otherwise encourage the development throughout the 
nation of the full range of treatment modalities and facilities in 
order that meaningful alternatives to the criminal law can become 
more widely available. 

2.5f We recommend that vigorous steps be undertaken immediately 
to eliminate syndicate and other large-scale importing and 
distribution operations, that Federal strike forces be continued 
against such operations, and that all law enforcement officials 
concentrate their attention on such operations. We further 
recommend that a Federal study be immediately undertaken to 
ascertain if the present failure to halt or even seriously diminish 
such operations is due to a manpower shortage, corruption, lack 
of legal tools, or a combination of these and other causes, and 
that steps be taken to deal with these causes as aggressively and 
as soon as possible. 



2.6 The Drugs Task Force hereby recommends to the White 
House Conference on Youth that a National Council for Responsive 
Action be established to cut across all divergent lines and act 
jointly on a local and national level to effectuate and continue 
programs responsible to community needs and deal specifically with 
all underlying social problems. 

The national directions are as follows: (a) The Council must 
create a social responsibility by providing a challenge for its 
members as well as those these members represent. These members 
will be independent thinkers from all divergent groups who will 
put a stop to patchwork programs and concentrate on community 
needs; (b) a constant communication program must be maintained 
on all community levels. This program must be in operation even 
before selection of the council members so all citizens have an 
equal opportunity to participate; (c) councils will be required to 
demonstrate their effectiveness in their communities through 
measurement by an objective group after a said time — perhaps 
by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) review. 

The National Council will serve not only as an information exchange 
but a lever for action. This group will seek solutions for the problems 
of the local councils — not act as an overseeing body. 

Local councils will have a responsibility to follow up on their 
individual programs. The councils will be set up in Congressional 
Districts with as many as 500 members in each council. The 
members will be volunteers and structure themselves for operation. 
One (or more) members will represent each district on the 
National Council. Anyone 14 years or older may volunteer. The 
council will decide to compensate those unable to attend without 
such compensation to allow for more diverse membership. 

A national level committee is being established to organize the 
National Council for Responsive Action. 



Areas of Need: 
Increase Research 


2.7 We recommend high quality research into the economic 
determinants of drug abuse, the political structures and techniques 
which support the sale and distribution of drugs, and the 
institutional barriers to prevention and treatment. There is a need 
to research criteria for determining the abilities needed by individuals 
who will be permitted to work in the areas of drug abuse treatment 
and drug abuse education. 


Role of HEW 


2.7a We recommend that the Federal government should act 
vigorously through HEW to encourage, organize, and supervise 
the performance of collaboratives, interdisciplinary studies of the 
effectiveness of alternative forms of chemotherapeutic and 
psychotherapeutic intervention in drug abuse. 


Pattern of Use 


2.7b We recommend that research be undertaken to study 
contemporary normative patterns of drug use throughout 
the nation. 


National Surveillance of 
Drug Conditions 


2.7c We recommend that research be undertaken to determine 
the most effective national surveillance system of drug related 
conditions and the prompt dissemination of this information, 


Goa! of Research 


2.7d We recommend that research be undertaken to determine 
effective therapeutic goals which meet the criteria of (a) 
meaningfulness to the individual, (b) achievability by the 
individual, (c) acceptability to the individual, and (d) acceptability 
to the specific community. 


Adequacy of Funds 


2,7e We recommend that every federally funded intervention 
program have adequate budgetary means to have on going 
evaluation of program efficacy. 


Marijuana; Legalizing Use 


2.8 We strongly recommend that government at appropriate 
levels control and license the sale , distribution , importation , 
retailing , advertising , purity , potency , age of user and the tax 
revenues of marijuana with a view to permitting its general use 
under reasonable standards. The Drugs Task Force has concluded 
that the social costs of the present legal framework for dealing 
with marijuana grossly exceed any damage or danger resulting 
from its use. 

In reaching this conclusion, we considered; (a) statistics indicating 
that the “drug problem'' is, in terms of numbers of citizens involved, 
largely a marijuana problem. If we can r jive this portion of the 
“problem/' we can prioritize our national efforts, redirecting limited 
resources to the more dangerous problems of other drugs; 

(b) widespread use has created serious disrespect for law and done 
much to undermine credibility of government and other social 
institutions; (c) a comparison of arrests, prosecutions, and 
convictions with responsible estimates of use indicates selective 
law enforcement necessarily based on criteria other than marijuana 
use. This describes a government of men rather than of laws 
which is the American goal; (d) we noted Chief Justice Burger's 
comments about cluttering the courts with so-called private or 
victimless crimes and the resulting impairment of our system of 
justice. We also question how far government should go in regulating 
private practices of citizens; (e) we reviewed the exhaustive report 
to the Congress (dated January 1971) of the National Institute of 
Mental Health. We agreed that no substance can ever be totally 



Statement of 
Concern 



harmless in all circumstances, individuals, or dosages, and there 
is a possible risk in its use by children and adolescents; but we 
concluded that medical hazards to individuals or society under 
reasonable standards are small enough to be acceptable to prudent 
citizens. On the other hand, we believe that under the suggested 
program, affirmative medical values probably will accrue. 

This statement was presented to the Final Plenary Session of the 
White House Conference on Youth by the Drugs Task Force. 



2,9 In the world in which we live, whenever power, prestige, 
and money are on the line, inevitably people find themselves in 
positions which compromise the issues and, indeed, effect even 
the good intentions of those who wish to deal with the issues to 
solve the problem. 

Unfortunately, these ambitions have served to interfere with the 
basic tasks and goals o» the White House Conference and specifically 
the Drugs Task Force. From its inception nearly S months ago, 
these drives and ambitions have served to divide and destroy the 
goals of our workshop Tragically, the issue of race has been the 
flame which has been used to satisfy the ambitions of a few. 



How much longer must we watch these games go on? We are tired of 
not being able to be heard. We reject the power plays, the racial 
innuendos, and the attempts to manipulate. Instead, we wish to 
go on record that the issues of drug abuse and its effects upon 
all generations should not be confused nor diluted. No one can 
argue that the war, racism, and urban blight contribute significantly 
to our present social situation and to the abuse of drugs. We 
understand these important factors in drug abuse. But that is not 
the issue . The issue is whether young people and enlightened adults 
must continue to be had by those whose intentions are for personal 
gain not to helping others. 



The time has come to call on youth and adults to work together 
without games or hidden agendas, but to seek to solve the problems 
of all generations on the basis of the issues. We owe ourselves 
and the young people of America no less! 



Minority Caucus of the 
Drugs Task Force: 
Preamble 




The minority members of the Drugs Task Force after having 
addressed themselves to the majority membership of the committee 
on the morning of the first plenary to recommended sessions of 
unity for the purposes of discussing the major issues relating to 
the global nature of the drug problem, found the majority 
membership to be opposed to such a recommendation. We also 
were aware of the subtle nature of insults, in the form of non-verbal 
incriminations— hisses, suggestions that the group vacate the 
Conference, and accusations of power play that emanated from 
the white majority membership of the task force present at 
this meeting. 

It is an unfortunate consequence of this meeting that we have not 
all had an opportunity to meet in toto. We believe deprivation is 
all encompassing, and if we are truly to live in an egalitarian 
society, it is mandatory that our people share knowledge on common 
problems. The availability and usage of drugs by our young is 
a problem common to all of us, and to this end, we the members 



of the Minority Caucus on the Drugs Task Force share with you this, 
our point of view. 

The Task Force planning group in prototypic of the apparent 
contempt with which you view the problem of drug abuse in the 
nomwhite community. 

We regret the situations that precipitated f he resignation of the 
two black youth members of the Drugs Task Force and the alienation 
and disillusionment of the remaining two members. We therefore 
dedicate this report to Ruth Pitts and Philip Hodge and the youths 
not present at the 1971 White House Conference on Youth, 

Drugs Task Force. 



Alternatives to 
the Criminal Law; 
Minority Caucus 




2.10 There are three apparent legal systems in the United States; 
one for the rich, one for the poor white and one for minorities. 
Public opinion in this country was not aroused in this decade 
relative to the "drug problem" until the legal system for the rich 
was confronted with the drug culture of middle class and rich youth. 

In participating in any discussion of or preparing any proposals 
relative to the drug problem in this country, of primary 
importance to the legal and criminal ramifications thereof to 
young Americans, too important to be discarded in the quagmire 
of prejudices of our legal system is the proposition that our 
humanity demands that we protect and save our young and, that 
in so doing, the laws relative to drugs must be uniformly applied 
to the end of protecting all of our youth and by so doing 
protecting society. 

We, the Minority Caucus of the Drugs Task Force, submit that 
blacks and other minorities are not impressed by but rather opposed 
to the hypocrisy of “cleaning up the drug problem in their 
neighborhoods" by arrests of large numbers of street hustlers 
and drug users, while ignoring the source of the problem and 
neglecting vigorous prosecution of the importers and wholesalers 
of drugs by non-members and non-residents of their community. 

Stringent control of drugs should be classified as to types of 
abuser rather than by the drug. 

Laws must distinguish between the Drug Profiteer and the 
Drug Abuser . 

We define the Drug Profiteer as a person or group who deals ac 
an importer or wholesaler of drugs for profit, capitalizing on the 
minds and bodies of our people, dealing in quantities in excess of 
amounts suitable to supply twenty-five individuals for a period of 
oHe" week. 



We define the Drug Abuser as any one who overuses drugs that 
are prescribed or who uses any drug that is not prescribed. This 



includes the individual at the street le^el who sells drugs in order 
to support his own habit and who is known as the “local hustler". 
There are five types of medico- psychological abusers recognized 
by our group, distinguishable in the law: (1) the experimenter- 
arising from peer group pressures, ( 2 ) the occasional user— arising 
from group usage, (3) the dependent— arising from a psychological 
and physiological need, (4) the addict — one who cannot pull away 
— arising from fear of psychological and physiological pain, and 
> ^ ' 



39 



(5) the junkie — arising from a life of day to day existence only 
for drugs 



Remove Criminal 
Sanctions 


In order to meaningfully control the drug problem, the United 
States Government and its relevant agencies and legal systems 
must initially confront the fact of the capitalism of drugs in our 
society and the hypocrisy of the methodology of control on 
all levels. 

The availability of drugs without public intervention by those who 
can afford to support their habit with private funds makes the 
uniform application of the laws meaningless. The scope of the 
problem as a health hazard and the availability of avenues to 
frustrate control justifies the establishment of a comprehensive 
system of drug control. If registration of drug users is deemed 
necessary, w© suggest that it be established in such a way that it 
cannot be used as an additional punitive measure against minorities. 
It should ensure the registration of all drug users regardless of 
race or financial status, and require the strict licensing of the 
manufacturers and distributors of all drugs. Penalties for the 
IHegal transfer by licensed persons and the improper record keeping 
and reporting of transfers should be established. 

2.10a We recommend that Drug Abusers be taken out of the criminal 
system and that civil commitment or “in community” treatment, 
under process of the court, be substituted according to the 
classification of the type of abuser in categories of dependent, 
addict and junkie. “First offender” therapeutic treatment should 
be given to the experimenter and occasional user. 


Civil Law Adjudication for 
Drug-related Crime 


2.10b We recommend that Drug Abusers arrested for drug related 
crimes be immediately transferred to the civil legal process for 
adjudication of the drug problem, without resort to the criminal 
process, until and unless such Is recommended by the civil 
authorities. 


li First-Offender Policy” 
Needed 


2.10c We recommend that Federal, state and local prosecutors 
establish a “First Offender Policy'' for all Drug Abusers classified 
as experimenters and occasional users, with the view to avoiding 
a life being ruined by the affliction and stigma of a criminal record. 


Review of Drug 
Production and Advertising 
Minority Caucus 


2.11 We strongly criticize the unfair publicity given to minority 
youth in regard to the drug problem. We feel that advertising, 
if used in a constructive manner, could serve as a weapon to help 
alleviate the problem of drug abuse. We are aware that the population 
of this country is effected in terms of its orientation toward most 
societal problems by the media of communications. The 
communications media serves as a Pavlovian conditioning mechanism 
to shape attitudinal responses. 

It would appear that some of the drug commercials have such 
redeeming artistic values that the educative purpose is obscured. 
The result may then be paradoxically antipreventive in their 
consequences upon the mind of the unsophisticated child 
and/or adult. 

We therefore recommend the following: 


"X Controls on 
ug Commercials 


2.11a The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) take steps 
to stop production of mood alteringdrug commercials on radio 

*' 4:3 


40 





Role of Consumer 
Affairs Bureau 



Drug Education: 
Minority Caucus 







and television because of the psychological effects on youth. The 
FCC should suggest to radio and television stations that public 
service time be focused on drugs and be presented to the public 
during prime time (6 p.m. to 8 p.m.) so that maximum benefit 
from these commercials will be derived by those persons most 
needy of this kind of education. We further suggest that 
sophisticated materials relating to the drug issue, presenting the 
full scope of the problems, be made available for all stations, in 
particular the small ones. 

The media should make some effort to focus attention on both 
the non-user pusher and the supplier of drugs who serve as 
entrepreneurs. 

More emphasis should be put on quality rather than quantity of 
production of audio-visual materials by the advertising media. 

2,11b We recommend that the Consumer Affairs Bureau take a 
look at the techniques used in drug advertising, evaluate these 
techniques, and make recommendations for regulation of the kinds 
of advertisements that will be allowed on the market. 



We understand that a contract for $150,000 has been given to the 
National Advertising Agency and some of the funds will be 
subcontracted to Zebra, a black advertising agency in New York City. 
We recommend that the government insists that responsible persons 
worrdng in the area of drugs be a part of the advertising staff and 
that a consultant panel proportionate in numbers to the severity 
of the problem in the greater community be established. We also 
recommend these agencies subcontract some of the money to 
community groups for the development of an effective, relevant, 
audio visual campaign against drug use. 



The communications media should be made aware and/or be 
reminded of their responsibility to the public to give accurate, 
complete accounts of drug related incidents. Reporters and 
broadcasters should be cognizant of the fact that glorification of 
the ex-addict could have a reverse effect on youth groups. 
Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the kinds of 
success stories written or broadcast. 



2.12 Much of the present educational system has failed America's 
youth. This failure to adequately prepare young people to assume 
the responsibilities of adulthood, to cope with ever changing 
internal and external environments, must be assumed to have 
contributed to the climate that made the drug culture possible 
and prosperous. The educational establishment must admit that 
its failure contributed to the drug problem and begin to alter 
its structure to accommodate programs designed to alleviate 
and, perhaps, eliminate drugs as a problem. 



Drugs, especially marijuana and other mind altering drugs, should 
be placed in their proper perspective with regards to those 
substances which have, because they are culturally accepted, 



received so little recent attention. There is evidence that the drug 
issue actually may be a displacement of emotions from the more 
awesome and real problems of the society. Drug education programs 
must, therefore, also be concerned with and focused upon the 
real drug inducing issues: white racism, urbanization, and greed. 



f: 






44 



41 



2.12a Th e Minority Caucus of th e Task Force on Drugs recommends 
that the following educational p rQ grarns D© implemented at the 
earliest possible date* If at all ^asible, where applicable, drug 
education sho u j C j no t be separa te d from other courses* but should 
be includ©d in curricula of sociU^gy* science, English, etc, 

2.12b AH in-service and pre ^ e b/ice teacher training programs 
should be modified to include cU m prehensi ve programs in drug 
use, the dangers of abuse, and th© institutions, both educational 
and therapeutic that have been Established to counter a drug 
oriented culture, 

2.12c In those states where df u t education is mandatory, training 
programs f or p ara professionals 5h Ould be set up. These para- 
professionals, who sh ou ld consist Plainly of parents from the school 
community, hg ve a r©al stake ,n drug education and have 
displayed the i n itiatW e and conC er n that such programs demand, 

2.12d Student oriented and di reeled drug Programs, especially 
for young and ado!es ce nt studC n ^, should be encouraged. These 
programs should a | £ o be made bailable to school dropouts and 
should be carried out in school 5, community centers, recreation 
centers, churches, etc, Self-prid e should be the focus of such 
programs and the development of alternative and personally 
profitable and sa tisfy in I life sty |a s should be their objective. 



2.12e SUPpl^rnental CLJ ltural ©durational centers should be 
established. These centers, established, organized, regulated, 
and implemented by the respect^ ethnic or minority peoples such 
as Blacks, Chi can os, Pu erto R|C a hs, Asians, and American Indians 
should be supported by Federal f u nds- By developing an adequate 
concept of self an d by producing in effective community role, 
the sense of hopelessness and d^ s bair that contributes to drug 
abuse miSht b© elirru^ated. 

2*12f in order t 0 insure that £b a “horror shows” presently used 
in d^ug education programs are e, iminated» truly qualified experts in 
the eld °f clr U g education shO ,J *d be authorized to review 
educational Materials, and they Should reflect the ethnic or 
minority character of the comm tJn ity which they serve. Innovative 
and interacting drug P r Qgrams sho u |d be encouraged. Audiovisual 
materials of a truly multi-media nature should be developed with 
specific 3ge groups ' n v iew ( 

2.12g At tha national level, a blue r ibb°n committee should 
be establishes to en unciate the r ^al goals of drug education. This 
group wo u ld review the problem *h enough breadth to include 
the use of illegal drugs, the abd s r or harm that comes from 
improper use Q f non-prescripti^ n preparations, the problems 
arising from the misuse of presC n btion drugs and the general 
problems of th© drug 5 We will a^°Pt In the future. The committee 
should consider mea ns of train ,n g people in an intelligent 
understanding Q f vvh^t a drug \ e^V is so that people can best be 
able to regulate their own con 5U hiption, The committee should 
consist oi members °f the wh it a End norv w hite communities In 
proportion to xhe extent of the dr ug prob |em in their respective 
communities. BecaU 56 the noh'^hite community is least able to 
finance the e§ tab |j s hment of indigenous drug programs, funds 
and services ni ac j e available to th e committee should be concentrated 
in that community. 



National Awareness of 
Drugs as Cross Racial 
Problem" Minority 
Caucus 



2.13 One of the most tragic consequences of American society 
has been its unwillingness to admit to the mil encompassing nature 
of the malignancy defined as drug abuse. Of even greater concern 
is the apparent callous disregard by the white power structure 
for the environmental components which have created cultural 
depression and despair. Periodically there are issues of such 
magnitude that a coalescence of efforts between all groups is 
attempted for the express purpose of maximizing international and 
experimental expertise. The crises of drugs, long considered a 
sociocultural phenomena among minorities, has touched the nerve 
of the nation; belatedly so, only because of its penetration into 
white middle class suburbia. The commonality of types of drugs 
used among both non-white and white would negate the belief 
that economics alone are responsible for the movement into a 
drug experience. 

We, however, cannot overlook the institutional nature of white 
supremacy domination in allowing the perpetuation of the inhumane 
systems of economic, social and political oppression that both 
foster and reinforce the drug abuse system in non-white 
communities. There has been little concerted effort on the part of 
presumed allies of non-whites to honestly address themselves to 
the elimination of these systems. Only in instances where 
j n + erve ntion has been of some economic importance— =i.e. urban 
renewal, dead-end jobs that give responsibility but allow no authority, 
new and innovative experimental methods of drug intervention, 
ad infinitum — have the legislative and executive branches of both 
state and national governments demonstrated concern. 



It does not seem critical at this meeting that we address our 
attention to establishing a new M pseudo*bureaucratic system”, 
still undefined in terms of structure and responsibility, to focus 
attention on the all visible problems and inequities that exist in 
non-white areas. 



Community Organizations 
and Unconventional 
Programs; Minority 
Caucus 



2.14 To successfully implement an effective treatment program, 
a unique and diversified approach is needed and must be adopted 
in the areas of evaluation and counseling, employment and 
fidelity bonding, treatment, recognizance release, and civic and 
social involvement. 



An adequate program should contain these basic elements; 



O 



ERLC 



A screening process which is designed to properly evaluate the 
applicant's problems, needs, and attitudes; and also to acquaint 
the applicant with the program goals and activities. Action at the 
appropriate level would follow. For example, if employment is 
indicated, central effort would be directed to the persuasion of 
employers to hire the ex-addict. The hitherto exclusionary fidelity 
bond covering the employer’s liability would be offered as an 
Inducement. Such persuasion would be enhanced by the superior 
record of ex-offenders whenever they are given employment 
opportunities. If the applicant then becomes addicted to narcotics 
or alcohol, referral for medically supervised treatment would be 
made, after which the subject returns to the program for group 
and/or individual discussion and the supportive aids as required. 

Complete assessment of his medical needs with adequate resources 
should be provided to meet those needs. 



Scope of 

Treatment Programs 


Rehabilitation would be reinforced through active involvement in 
lawful civic and social affairs. This includes addressing youths 
in the school systems on the disadvantages of crime and narcotics 
and contacting community groups for the purpose of developing 
an awareness and concern for related problems* 

Preventive education and consultation are among the measures that 
must be used in attempts to reduce narcotic abuse and subsequent 
predictable criminal behavior. 

Program activities should also include the broadening of fidelity 
bond coverage; efforts to persuade skeptical employers to entrust 
ex offenders with job opportunities; the deterrence of youthful 
criminality and narcotic abuse through example by corrected and 
rehabilitated men who have been “through the mill”; the abolition 
of U.S, Government barriers to employment following a period of 
good behavior; probation, conditional work release; and other 
practices through improved performance in the “square” world 
by individuals once considered incorrigible, 

2.14a Drug abuse program treatment centers should be so organized 
to provide comprehensive service to marijuana abusers, soft drug 
abusers and hard core addicts. 

Drop-in centers provide only social support for hard core heroin 
addicts. These centers are popular in treatment of soft drug abuse. 
We question the investment of money in this type of drop-in 
centers unless these centers have the capacity to cope with all the 
needs of hard core addicts as well. 


Financing of 
Treatment Programs 


2,14b Methadone maintenance programs should receive the financial 
support that allows the treatment of each participant for at least 
two years, if necessary, with all the medical, psychological and 
social services provided. Experience in existing programs indicates 
this means expending $1500.00 to $2000.00 per addict per year 
for two years. Maintenance programs should emphasize the human 
needs of the Individual rather than the urgent need to protect 
property. 

Special monies should be allocated to finance demonstration projects 
in areas of high incidence of heroin addiction. Grantees should be 
required only to maintain usual governmental fiscal procedures. 


Special Program 
Requirements 


2.14c A comprehensive drug abuse program should have the capacity 
for rendering specialized treatment of different kinds of drug abuse. 

Personnel in a comprehensive drug treatment center should be 
trained to cope with the substitution of one addiction for another 
(i.e., heroin addiction for alcoholic addiction). 

Support the establishment and adequate financing of live-in 
therapeutic facilities of various philosophies in all communities 
who have within their population a thousand known addicts. 


ERJC 


Every comprehensive drug treatment program should aggressively 
extend to every participant the opportunity to try to handle his 
drug problem without substitutive therapy but having all support 
services made available to him. He should not be excluded from 
comprehensive drug treatment programs because he refuses 
methadone maintenance. 

The ultimate goal of every program should be complete drug 
abstinence. 

ft ■ 

J’,' * ' 



AM treatment programs should encourage self-help. No programs 
should be so constructed to foster dependency and prolonged 
involvement in the program. 



The use of blocking drugs in place of opiate substitution Is to be 
preferred since the ultimate goal is, first, non-addiction and then 
a drug free life. 

Innovative community developmental projects should involve addicts, 
non-addicts, ex-addicts, anti-addicts and youth addicts in goal 
directed efforts toward altering life styles. Those projects can 
provide extension of therapeutic effects to individuals not ready 
for established treatment services. 



Drug Abuse in 
the Military; 
Veteran Treatment; 
Minority Caucus 



Military and VA 
Separation Briefing 



Transition to 
Civilian Life 



Change VA Policies 

O 

ERIC 

45 



2.15 There appears to be little question that the subject of 
drug abuse in all areas of the military and with returning veterans 
has evolved into a ma, r problem. This problem is particularly 
true with those veterans who have acquired a drug habit while in 
the service and returned to their respective communities who are 
not prepared to effectively deal with them. 



In view of the burden these individuals place on their families and 
communities, a much more meaningful and humanitarian posture 
must be assumed by the military and Veterans Administration. 

To this end, we strongly put forth the following recommendations; 

2.15a Just as all branches of the military provide a period of 
basic training for individuals entering service, they should also 
provide a comprehensive period of de-processing for individuals 
returning to civilian life. The purpose of these de-processing centers 
would be geared to reacclimating the individuals returning to civilian 
life, determining the existence of a drug problem, and taking proper 
steps to remove this problem before the individual returns to 
his community. 

2.15b The military should and must change their attitude 
about chronic drug users among their ranks from that of wrongdoers 
subject to discharge under other than honorable conditions to one 
of a medical problem which must be dealt with by the military. 

The medical aspect should take into consideration the elements 
of service and non-service connected disabilities. During the period 
of readjustment to civilian life and search for meaningful occupation, 
the level of frustration is frequently great, especially for the 
minority veteran. He is confronted with all the insensitivity, 
prejudice and discrimination accompanying such transition into 
the community. He turns to the use of diugs, or continues his 
usage, and the destructive behavior associated therewith. To 
alleviate the burdens of such activity, we recommend that a 
system be devised to determine the various levels of disability 
derived from the use of drugs during active duty or after separation 
from the service so that he will receive the support services from 
the Veterans Administration presently available to other service 
connected disabilities. 

2.15c The Veterans Administration must change the policy of its 
hospitals from treating only select neuropsychiatric disorder patients 
to include those individuals who have a drug problem. 



Marijuana Should 
NOT Be Legalized; 
Minority Caucus 


2,16 The Minority Caucus of the Drugs Task Force does not 
recommend that the use of marijuana be legalized . We do 
recommend that all judicial penalties be removed for possession 
or use of marijuana. Courts will be required to remand all violators 
to therapeutic agencies. The many judicial-sociological, and ethnic 
disadvantages of the present system of controlling the use of this 
drug has caused us to arrive at this position. It is important that 
the majority of the Task Force understand that .,e do recognize 
and fully understand the nature of the marijuana problem, and we 
do sympathize with those others desiring to alleviate it. However, 
the racist system within which we must struggle for survival, the 
lack of conclusive scientific evidence of the neurophysiological 
effects of the drug, and the possibility that its legalization r ^y 
render it yet another addition to the large number of capitalist 
enterprises that sap the energy and motivation of the residents and 
undercut the economic base of the minority communities, dictates 
this posture. 

Perhaps the most detrimental effects of the present legal status 
of marijuana in relation to minority groups is the use of marijuana 
as a tool for political and social repression and discrimination. 

The structure of these laws today permit a wide range of different 
punitive measures for the use of marijuana and thus it is the 
perfect tool for social and racial discrimination. There are numerous 
cases in which minority political activists and poor ghetto and 
barrio youths have been given excessive sentences for use of 
marijuana. Furthermore, the courts have a different standard for 
the application of justice in drug related problems to the poor, the 
white, and the racial minorities. 

The present method of dealing with the marijuana user not only 
unjustly considers him as a criminal but also there is a complete 
neglect for the social and psychological pressures which engenders 
marijuana use among minorities. Even though we do not advocate 
the outright legalization of marijuana, we do want to bring about 
a change in the legal structure of dealing with marijuana which 
would take into consideration the problems of minority groups 
which give rise to drug abuse. The keeping of marijuana illegal 
or its outright legalization would consider only the effects of a 
deep social problem and not its causes. 


Marijuana Laws 
Need Revision 


2.16a We, therefore , advocate a change in the marijuana laws 
which would take into consideration the underlying social problems 
vjhich cause drug abuse and also encourages help for abusers # 
Among the most important considerations which lead us to stress 
the need for the use of therapeutic methods is that in many 
instances the use of drugs among minorities is a reflection of 
the greater difficulty they encounter in coping with social and 
psychological pressures. Also, the demotivation and the lethargy 
sometimes produced by the over abuse of marijuana produces social 
ramifications which must be dealt with. Therefore, because the 
over abuse of marijuana can produce detrimental effects on a 
certain type of personality, it must he considered as a sickness, 
analogous to the problem of alcoholism. 


Therapy Should 
Replace Punishment 


2.16b Thus, the need for a shift from a punitive to a therapeutic 
treatment of the marijuana user is obvious. In consideration of the 
fact that the use of marijuana can have different results depending 
on the environment and the reasons surrounding the taking of the 


O 

ERIC 

46 


drug, it is also important to determine whether there is actual or 
potential over abuse of marijuana for any particular user. Once this 

49 



is determined by competent medical authorities, therapeutic 
treatment should follow. The kinds of treatment should consist 
basically of three types. There must be personal counseling with 
a person who would be qualified to deal with the problem not only 
in medical and psychological terms but also one to whom the 
patient can relate. The treatment must also be given by a person 
who is capable of instilling an image of self-respect and cultural 
identity in the patient. Another type of treatment would involve 
the use of educational devices for teaching the nature and effects 
of marijuna and the hard drugs. 

Finally, recognition should be given to the possibility of a relapse 
of marijuana abuse as being analogous to an acute exacerbation 
in a physiological or psychiatric illness. 

In those cases in which the user of marijuana is unable to enter 
into the mainstream of society as a productive self-sufficient 
member, there should be provided Federally financed training and 
job placement programs. 



Alcoholism and 
Drug Abuse Linked; 
Minority Caucus 



New Evaluation 
Measures Needed 



O 

ERIC 



2.17 We believe that one of the more insidious problems of 
the modern youth involves the use and abuse of alcohol. We define 
an associative phenomena between drugs and alcohol and recognize 
primary alcoholic use and habituation, cultural or acquired, and 
secondary alcoholic use and habituation superimposed upon a 
primary matrix of drug abuse. 

Economically deprived youths often begin drug abuse by excessive 
imbibing. The introduction to euphoria, nihilism and oblivion have 
their root causes in this process. It often continues after other drugs 
are added by an individual to his specific abuse list. There are 
some methadone maintenance patients and some patients 
psychotherapeutically maintained who turn to excessive alcohol 
use as a means to establish acceptable euphoriant states. Probably 
the greaest single deterrent to patient success in the age group of 
18-24 in methadone maintenance programs is excessive alcoholic 
intake to replace and reinforce early euphoriant states. Therefore, 
we strongly recommend that all drug addiction programs incorporate 
the treatment of the pre - and established alcoholic. 

The National Institute of Alcoholism has just received X number 
of dollars to combat the problems of alcoholism in the United States, 

It has been clearly established that 20 percent of all hard core 
narcotic addicts (heroin) have signs of alcoholism at necropsy. 

We strongly recommend that those skills that have been developed 
In the field of heroin addiction rehabilitation be used in the arena 
of alcoholic rehabilitation and that those programs in addiction be 
funded through N.I.A. to establish alcohol treatment programs in 
narcotic addiction centers. These programs should be pilot projects 
evaluated from day of formation. Health industrial jobs can then 
be expanded and renabed addicts can then be employed in this 
newly created area. 

2,17a Programs located in the “National Laboratory must 
have different yardsticks for measuring program success. Taj 
Mahal" based addiction programs located in the larger community 
have evaluative criteria specific to their patient population, drug 
assessment, and behavioral patterns. The aura of these very middle 

SO 

i ■ . t 



47 



class oriented programs are entirely different from those in highly 
ethnic populated areas. Therefore, we recommend a new set of 
criteria for their evaluation and measuring of patient progress of 
these programs. 




O 

ERIC 

•.'I.LTmITLJ 

48 



Economy 

and Employment 




Need for More Flexible 
and Job-Relevant 
School Curriculum 



Reduction of “Tracking 
and Elimination of 
“General Education" 



Expanded Counseling 



Cooperative Education 
Work-Study Programs 



O 




51 



All recommendations were approved by the Task Force members 
present in general session. Drafts were initiated in workshops. 



3.1 The existing educational system, especially at the high 
school level, has failed to keep options open for students to meet 
their individual needs, to adjust their educational curriculum as their 
interests and aspirations evolve and to adequately stimulate 
students in the pursuit of education. These failings have been 
especially acute in relation to preparing students to move into work. 
The recommendations which follow are designed to make the 
educational system more flexible and responsive to the specialized 
needs of certain groups. Moreover, society at large has placed 
excessive importance on attainment of a college education, to the 
point individuals not wishing to pursue higher education, or are 
unsuited for it, are pressured in this direction anyway. 

" 3.ia In order to make the basic educational system more flexible, 
major efforts must be undertaken to break down the current 
system of tracking students early in their high school careers. 
Specifically, the general education curriculum which typically 
prepares students for neither jobs nor college, should be phased 
out, and systems should be developed for integrating academic 
and vocational education curricula. At the same time, students 
should be given a much greater opportunity o transfer among 
vocational and academic curricula and, in fact, avail themselves 
of offerings from both areas. These developments will not only add 
to the flexibility of the school system, but wMI also help break down 
the stigma all too often associated with vocational and career 
preparation in the schools. 

3.1b To facilitate the adjustment of youth into a pattern of education 
relevant to their long-term employment and educational aspiration, 
there is need for a greatly strengthened vocational and educational 
counseling program, both in schools and in institutions outside the 
schools so that youth might initially make intelligent choices of 
academic and vocational pursuits. Moreover, the nature of this 
counseling should be increasingly focused on work and career 
options, as opposed to the typical “academic” oriented counseling 
offered in high schools today, which too often focuses on the con- 
tinuation of education into college at the expense of vocational 
related guidance. In addition, the nature of counseling provided 
should emphasize the needs, aspirations and interests of the 
individual student rather than excessive focus on the employment 
and occupational demands of the general economy. 

and 3.1c The ability of high schools to offer students curricula relevant 
to current going needs will be greatly enhanced by increased 
involvement of employers in development of the school curriculum. 
Also, students’ ability to move into work upon leaving school will 
be greatly enhanced by initial participation in work. Accordingly, 
stress should be placed on development of cooperative education 
and work-study programs which will simultaneously provide 
students with useful part-time and summer employment, experience 
in employment relevant to their career aspirations, where possible, 
and close involvement of employers with the school system. 




Implementation: The precise knowledge for basic implementation 
of all of these proposals immediately is not at hand. Counseling 
techniques and knowledge remain uncertain, ways of breaking 
down curricula barriers while retaining academic standards are 
uncertain, and cooperative education — while having some notable 
successes— remains largely in a developmental stage. Nevertheless, 
while the ultimate in career education is not at hand, much 
that is now done is clearly wrong and major steps can and 
should be taken to alleviate existing deficiencies, 

A. Total funds provided by the Federal government for career 
education should be greatly expanded from their current paltry 
$450 million annually for vocational education to $2 billion (the 
current level of Federal manpower programs). But this assistance 
to states and communities should be based upu^ quality programs, 
involving flexibility of movement among curricula, employer 
involvement *n curriculum development, and skill relevant to 
training. These funds should not be reserved solely for programs 
designated as “vocational”. Rather, any curriculum should be 
assisted which builds in employment and career devek lent 
subjects. We commend as an example the Dayton, Ohio career 
education system which has served that community well. 

B. Federal and state governments should greatly expand their 
resources for school counseling and Federal aid should be contingent 
upon possession by school counsellors of knowledge and 
familiarity with the world of work, such as recently retired persons 
and those who have engaged in employment counseling outside 
the schools. At the same time, the school counseling program, 
administered by the U. S. Department of Labor, should be 
greatly strengthened. 

C. In order to assure adequate numbers of qualified counselors 
to carry out the above objectives, the Department of Health, 
Education and Welfare and the Depar + -~ it of Labor should initiate 
a joint program of training educational and employment counselors 
(to meet the needs of both schools and employment agencies 
outlined above). This training should emphasize the needs of both 
education and employment for all students. 



3.2 A serious impediment to the ability of students to avail 
themselves of the education and training most relevant to their 
individual needs, and especially for continuing education and 
training upon termination (either drop-out or graduate) from high 
school, is the existing mechanism of financing career relevant 
education. Public financing is provided almost solely through 
vocational education and recently developed manpower training 
programs for those out of school. But these systems typically fail 
to offer options to individuals for continuation of education and 
training over a period of years after leaving the formal 
school setting. 

3.2a This Bank would provide funds for higher, vocational and 
continued education. The Bank would borrow money at Government 
rates and then loan money to pos'. secondary students, regardless 
of the student's personal resources. The Bank would recover 
the loans by payments of a fixed percentage of the borrower's 
income tax, collected over the 30=40 years following the period of 
the loan. By such a placement of funds for payments to educational 
facilities in the hands of the consumer— the student— 



Educational Vouchers 



Adult Basic Education 



Student Employment and 
the Academic Year Cycle 



0 




schools would be forced to set their own priori, os and a variety of 
private educational institutions would be made more viable. More 
youths would finish high school if they. knew continuing 
education was available at no immediate cost. 

3.2b Under this plan, a publicly accountable agency would issue a 
voucher for a year's schooling for each eligible student. The 
voucher could be turned over to any school which had been 
designated as acceptable by an Educational Voucher Agency. Each 
school would then turn in its uchers for cash. Widespread 
use of performance contracting could provide a means of transition 
from the existing system to a voucher system — as eventually 
parents, using vouchers, would contract directly with educational 
centers. Such a voucher system would certainly promote the 
development of a more diversified secondary school system and 
one more related to existing career possibilities. The inclusion of 
private vocational schools into such a system would force 
ineffective public school vocational training to adjust and provide 
occupational training more closely rel; ed to the world of work. 

3.2c Basic remedial education should be available to all adults 
wishing to avail themselves of it, comparable to free public 
education for youths. While not restricted to youths, we anticipate 
a large number of individuals under 24 years of age who have 
dropped out of school would choose to return either on a full-time 
or part-time basis. 

Implementation: A. Establishment of the National Educational 
Opportunities Bank can be accomplished immediately. Congress 
should appropriate an initial $500 million for such loans and 
provide for sufficient continuing appropriations until this bank 
becomes self providing — in an estimated 10 years at an 
additional $20 million annually. 

B. Educational vouchers have a number of potential pitfalls 
including possible growth of poor, superficially attractive schools 
or excessive factionalism of file school systems. Accordingly, this 
proposal should be adopted Initially on a pilot experimental basis 
to determine how best it rright be run and what its likely 

impact is. We propose an annual appropriation of $50 million 
for this purpose. 

C. Annual appropriations for existing adult education programs 
should be administered by the U. S. Office of education should 
they greatly expand from the current $55 million to $100 million 
per year, 



3.3 Every high school and college student should have the full 
opportunity for meaningful employment during the periods when 
he is not in the classroom. The benefits of practical work 
experience as an integral part of the educational process are 
recognized and accepted. Academic subjects become more relevant. 
Career planning and the development of realistic vocational 
aspirations become easier. Dropout rates decrease. Student 
income is supplemented. The development of individual 
responsibility and self-discip'ine is enhartced. 

The principal obstacle to offering maximum student employment 
opportunities is the current academic year cycle resulting in 



j -i l 



53 



Academic Year 
Cycle Change 




the traditional “summer vacation »' piace^ v <rtual|y gll students 
on the job market during the sarne th \ P mon tfl Period. 

Employers, both public and private. a ^h er aNy <7 ^® r aS maHY 
student jobs as possible during sU h^ me r rd^ths; rnas^ VG 
organizational efforts are pursue^ in n f^ tr 0 p O l ,ta n areas apd most 
large employers have developed §j?eC^| stL jde rlt Employment 
programs. In other than the summer "% n ths, sro |irn*ted 

part-time and week-end employrr^nt Q bp or tur 1 ^ i ^s i 

3.3a The current academic year cV c ^ m u&t changed to spread 
out the job opportunities , This ch| a n0 g \§ 0 ba^ ie °ne Which WQ uld 
result in only one-fourth of the sbjd^V^ se^ oric la r y §ch c o!s 
and colleges being on extended v a caf % period of thr ee ninths 
at any given time. The change need uni VGr $al- Stud gn ^ 

in agricultural areas, as a practical j 0y ^°hld probably not 

benefit. But the vast majority of j n \h a United st^ tes Would 

benefit, as would educational instjtut*^ ^ nc j ^^ployers. 

The best way to illustrate the prop£>s£d ^pang^ ^ to take the 
example of a single high school; \p e ^ m ple ^ Applicable to a 
nationwide system, both in seconder/ po^” Se condary sCh Qols: 
(1) divide the calendar year into f#ur qp^^ers of l3 

weeks each; ( 2 ) design all academic °\ r$ es i° of 13 W ee ^s 
duration. Hence, for the traditional & of ^Uslish, j n ^tead of 4 

academic courses of 36—29 week s mr B S ^mesters)> the 

student would take 12 academic 0 f ^Eeks each^ 

Decisions would have to be mad§ for 3 \ngl e bourse 0 ff^ rin is of 
Vz year duration; they would be r^£ orl ^j tL jted t0 either on& 
course of 13 weeks or two cours^ of ^ vveeK 5 ^ach; (3) offer 
every academic subject each qu^ r te r ' ^r 0 ughdbt the calendar year; 
(4) the academic year for a stud^t p e three quarters, 

with vacation the remaining quar^r. * n Each g r ad a l^vei 

would be divided into four equal gfodh^ group 

scheduled to take vacations in differed ua rt^ r Special con- 
siderations such as members of fait 1 * sports ahd oth$ r 

organized extracurricular activity, QpporT^blties, etc** WQ ulq 
be given in scheduling; (5) faculty st^ff W Quld a -Eo teach 
three quarters and be off one qu^fte 1 " ^ g e P ar ^l practice 
on a staggered basis. 



The advantages to the change ar^ m$\ ^ \ 5 t^ J de n ts off,camp Us 
during a particular quarter woulq the full opportunity 
for employment. In addition: ( 1 ) U ^i|j Z 3 lioh °f the seh °°} Pl^nt 
would be increased one-third; ( 2 ) thO \ or] am9 ^ould ben^ !t w «th a 
more even load on transportation ^nd \ cf e aV° n facilities ancl 
further development of recreational f e \ urce $ related s8rv ices 
for tourists; (3) employers could p |a ^ ]- opP 0 r tunif ,es 

for students. Instead of extra job s dd r ‘h~ t pe ^ ur dmers, permanent 
student positions would be created* each ° n o occupied by 4 
students during the year; (4) on^ @ f arr, i|j eL , adJ Usl: ed to the ch ang ef 
better vacations could be planner; no long^ r 

prime vacation time; (5) there w^ld g re qd* r ement for 
additional faculty; the costs of w^jch ^ u |d °ffset by rnaxlrnurn 
utilization of administrative and s dpP Q ^ 5 taff^^ wel1 as ® ° ne -third 
increase in the use of existing sq^o 1 ^| an ts; i 6 * *f colleges ^do pted 
the new system, it would greatly en h ^^ e the desi r ah |e 
expansion of cooperative educati Q p P r ^g ra m Ar rangemeh ts 
between school authorities and ^ifiP*^V ^ r5 for" w °rk-study 
cooperative education agreement ar a h ov y ihhib^ 8 ^ 

by academic schedules. 

■ " SB 



C A 



Implementation: A. The President endorse. 



B. The Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare actively 
plan, promote and assist. 

C. The U. S. Office of Education, through Congressional action, 
provide financial assistance to states for cost in implementation, 

which would not be great. 

D. Governors of each state be encouraged to endorse. 

E. Organizations representing the presidents of colleges and 
universities, state superintendents of education, and other 
educators such as the National Education Association be 
encouraged to endorse. 

Increased Flexibility in 3.4 In order to utilize time, energy and talents of people more 

Work Scheduling effectively and satisfactorily, considerably greater attention must 

be directed to scheduling of work and leisure with significant 
emphasis on flexibility. For growing numbers of Americans the 
proportion of a lifetime available for leisure is increasing greatly. 
However, for a vast number of others this 20th century 
expansion of free time is still a dream. These include many of the 
poor, migrant workers, tenant and other low income farmers 
who must return to their own .arm chores after a day of 
employment elsewhere, self-employed small business people and 
the millions of women still expected to do double-duty in and out 
of the home. Obviously, those with little or no free time are less 
affected by time scheduling. As their economic plight improves, the 
recommendations of this section become more germane. 

Whatever the circumstance of the individual, ha or she will have 
fewer tensions and frustrations and opportunity for increased 
satisfactions as the scheduling of various activities is more flexibly 
and rationally arranged. This applies not only to the hours at 
which paid employment begins and ends, but also to the number 
and variation in days of the week devoted to work, leisure, 
community service, and self-enrichment, resulting in larger blocks 
of vacation time and extended periods of retirement. It also 
requires that these hours, days and weeks be planned in 
conjunction with life activities of people whose patterns fluctuate 
over the course of a lifetime. 



O 

ERLC 



In a family where both parents are employed or where there is only 
one parent — in a combination this is a majority of American 
families — work scheduling should take into account the timing 
of the school day, week and year of the children as well as 
the work day of the adults. Reassessments and redivision of labor 
in and out of the home to provide greater equity are imperative. 
Rather than require people to accommodate to the inconvenience 
and nearly insurmountable barriers imposed by rigidly traditional 
schedules, it is more sensible and humane to rearrange schedules 
in terms of total family needs. 

There is nothing sacred about the 40 hour, 5 day work week. 
Concepts of full-time and part-time work are people-made concepts. 
The very notions of “work”, “leisure” and “retirement” tend to 
be not only hard to define but also based on assumptions that need 
re-examination. Just as the goods and services of our society are 
maldistrihuted, as discussed elsewhere by this Task Force, so too 

o 57 



are the hours and years of employment unfairly distributed. 

Men and women alike will gain as the inequities and inflexibilities 
are removed. 



Recommendation to 
Government and Industry 



Federal Leadership: 

Office of Work Scheduling 



Work Sabbaticals 



Hiring Requirements 
and Practices 



ERJC 



3.4a Business, industry, unions and educators should make all 
possible efforts to explore the feasible work scheduling and 
increased free time options within their realm and to make these 
options available to their employees and those they represent, 
in accord with the preferences of individual employees. 

3.4b The Federal government should take steps to lead the way, both 
as an employer and a government, toward more flexible work 
scheduling opportunities. An Office of Work Scheduling should be 
developed within the U.S. Department of Labor. This Office should: 
(1) research existing and encourage experiments in work 
scheduling options: (2) provide information and consultation to 
employers and employees concerning the work scheduling options 
possible in their realm of employment and provide impetus for 
individualized scheduling techniques; (3) publicize and promote the 
general idea of increased work scheduling options to employer 
and employee groups and the public; (4) encourage the Federal 
government to develop feasible work scheduling options for 
its employees, thus setting an example for industry to follow; 

(5) develop links with other appropriate agencies, particularly the 
developing and computerized job bank system. 

3.4c Work sabbaticals should be encouraged by industry and 
government to provide a renewal for the individual through lengthy 
educational and retraining endeavors or extended vacations. 
Institutions should provide reasonable support during absence. 
Additional support could be provided through loans and grants 
similar to these proposed for college students. 

Implementation: The cost of work scheduling options within the 
entire economy is impossible to estimate. However, it should be 
noted that such efforts hold the potential of having no cost, or 
possibly resulting in increased production and performance. The 
cost and implementation pf a work sabbatical program is vague due 
to its newness. 



3.5 Employers, including government, have traditionally relied on 
years of schooling, psychological tests and reference checks of 
such items as police records for the selection of new employees. 
Such approaches and standards often serve to screen out potentially 
capable disadvantaged youth from ghetto areas. Usually the tests 
are based on a white middle class population and therefore do 
not accurately measure the abilities of other groups. Police records, 
commonplace among disadvantaged populations, do not necessarily 
reflect inherent dishonesty or criminality. Years of schooling are 
not always the best indicators of the knowledge and skill 
required for job performance. 

To expand the job opportunities available to disadvantaged youth, 
we recommend that employers re-examine their hiring requirements 
and testing practices. As a means of rejecting applicants for 
employment, the use of tests should be suspended, in the spirit 
of the recent Supreme Court decision, until they can be better 
geared to a minority population. Police records should not be used 
as an automatic disqualification, but instead each instance should 
be examined individually for its application to a specific job. 




Federal Leadership 
in Hiring Practices 



Available Jobs and 
Manpower Are Mismatched 



Career Counseling 
Inadequate 



Only Generalist 
Preparation Offered 



Media Failure 



Youth Not Served 
By Data 



In place of years of schooling, the skill 'and knowledge required 
for each job should be identified and ways of measuring the needed 
ski!! and knowledge be devised. 

3.5a We call upon the Federal government to take the leadership 
in this reexamination and thus serve as the model for private 
industry in devising more job-related selection methods. We ask 
the President to direct the Civil Service Commission to initiate this 
reexamination of policy in all Federal departments and agencies 
without delay. 



3.6 In a matter of weeks will begin one of the most traumatic 
periods that American youth has experienced. Hundreds of 
thousands of young men and women will enter a labor market 
which is incapable of absorbing them — either in terms of 
permanent or summer employment. The impact will be felt by 
| young men and women at all levels of education, from the secondary 
I school dropout to the college graduate with the Ph.D. degree. 

Current economic circumstances are a major factor in unemployment 
as youth will experience, and other recommendations from this 
Task Force offer means of providing emergency relief for the 
young people concerned. 

But factors other than economics contribute to this distress on 
both a long term and short term basis. With the bitter evidence 
immediately obvious, we would be derelict in not calling for remedial 
action. We believe the following circumstances recommend 
attention: 

3.6a The career counseling of youth (as distinguished from personal 
or clinical counseling) from secondary schools through higher 
education is being given short shift. (1) When there are career 
counselors in the secondary schools, they are under such pressure 
from society to assist youth in getting into higher education that 
there is scant time and little encouragement for them to acquaint 
these young men and women with the career opportunities 
before them. (2) It is particularly tragic that youth dropping out 
of high school or terminating with the twelfth grade are especially 
neglected with respect to job or career possibilities. (3) The rapid 
proliferation of new types of employment opportunities is too 
infrequently known to students or to counselors. Parents, normally 
a source of information, are especially incapable of keeping up 
with these developments and assisting their children in this respect. 

3.6b With the cry for relevance, a key word in youth's challenge to 
higher education, evidence suggests that young people at all 
levels of education are being offered only the traditional generalist 
preparation with little or no career consideration. 

3.6c In an era notable for a virtual explosion of knowledge, resulting 
in new horizons for personal commitment, media are notably 
lacking in helping young people find out “what it’s like” to spend 
eight hours a day in these pursuits. 

3.6d While the Department of Labor in general and the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics in particular should be commended for their 
forecasting of supply and demand in the labor market, youth is 
simply not being served in terms of the more sophisticated data 
which are now an imperative need. To have the labor market glutted 



Federal Funds Required 



Summer Job Programs 
for Disadvantaged Youth 



j 




at the present time with engineers, physicists — many with 
advanced degrees — who, two years ago were in short supply, 
can no longer be countenanced. Particularly tragic has been the 
recent experience of those being trained as teachers. 

A corollary is that higher education can no longer shirk the 
responsibility for admitting young people to any pursuits in any 
number with indifference to supply and demand. Unhappily it has 
been our tradition for labor and education and the Federal 
departments concerned with them to pursue essentially separate 
courses, dignified largely by professional courtesy. 

3.6e So rapidly have technological advances occurred that there are 
available today highly sophisticated linkings of computers and 
multi-media hardware adaptations offering remarkable career 
counseling programs for self-use by students at all levels of 
education. Their widespread adoption is being delayed by the lack of 
developmental monies which Federal funding could quickly 
resolve and with disproportionately valuable and remarkably 
prompt implementation. 

Implementation: As a consequence of the foregoing, we propose 
that either within the presently constituted framework of federally 
established responsibility or by the creation of a new authority, 
these interests be consolidated. We further propose that this 
authority uniquely represent youth interests as related to job and 
career, education, training and placement. 



3.7 Many cities and towns now have a system set up for the 
employment of youth in the summer. This usually means a 
combination of Federal, state and local jobs as well as jobs from 
the private sector for disadvantaged youth. 

The failing of many cities in this area has been three-fold: 

First, there hasn’t been, in many cases, a close scrutiny of many 
of the individuals placed in the program. Many times guidelines are 
not specified, are too general, or not followed. The end result 
has been the inclusion of many individuals who do not fit criteria 
for disadvantaged youth. 

Second, the problem of "follow-up” has generally been neglected 
in this area of employment. Follow-up is really essential to an 
individual’s success if he is truly disadvantaged and if he has the 
kinds of problems that would affect his performance and 
attitude on a job. 

Third, few cities have had any long range plans for the youth 
whom they employ in summer work. Few cities set up any long range 
goals such as the prevention of hard core unemployables because 
of their bad job habits, which could have been good habits if 
tended to in the earlier stages of employment; i.e., summer jobs. 

We recommend a plan which could take effect on a small trial 
stage in 1971 in many cities and could be expanded nationwide 
in 1972. We recqmmend a plan similar to the B.B.D. Plan (Boston 
Brighter Dciy Plah), which was instituted in Boston, Massachusetts, 
in the summer of 1970. This plan went far beyond the 
following proposal: 




First, a tightening up and enforcement of guidelines by every 
summer job program to allow only those youth who are truly dis- 
advantaged to enroll. The generally accepted economic poverty 
guidelines should act as a guide for the development of specific 
stipulations. 

Second, we recommend that those agencies directly working with 
youth and those agencies placing youth in summer jobs institute a 
follow-up system for the youth. Follow-up at minimum should 
take into account counseling and guidance for the youth. Agencies 
should be instructed to develop other means suitable to their 
situation that would help to insure the success of the youth on the 
job. Success could be measured in attendance, performance, 
motivation on and education of the job. 

Finally, we recommend that long range goals be formulated by 
those agencies directly involved and that the cities use summer job 
programs as a means to help in long range prevention of 
hard core unemployables. 

I mplementation: We recommend that the President, through the 
League of Cities, bring this to the attention of all mayors. We 
recommend that the President give his support to this proposal to 
bring some quality and purpose to the youth summer job progtams. 



National Job Information 
Service 



Knowledge of all available work opportunities would provide 
numerous advantages to both “employer” and employee . It 
would provide more appropriate job placement, improve both 
“employee’’ and “employer” satisfaction and, therefore, reduce 
training, turnovers and job hunting costs. 

A system to provide job information could be available to all 
interested persons and cover ail occupational and skill levels from 
a local, regional and national perspective. This voluntary system 
would be known as the National Job Information Service. 

Both job seeking groups and business can be motivated to play 
crucial roles in constructing a rational framework for urban and 
general employment by establishing a truly comprehensive and 
coordinated nationwide system to match individuals with job and 
training opportunities, utilizing a computer-based system. 

Such a system should accurately define and describe both the job 
market and the employment needs of communities and the Nation, 
provide technical assistance to facilitate the flow of vital 
information and develop a more effective means of communication 
among all involved interests. 

3.8a An independent body should be given the responsibility of 
assessing existing programs in the public and private sectors in 
order to take full advantage of all experience to date. After an 
analysis of existing programs, a pilot project should be 
implemented immediately, possibly on a state level. The Task 
Force urges the Department of Labor to continue and emphasize 
proven programs. 

. of- 62 



Assess Existing Programs; 
Pilot Project 



i o 
|ERJC 



59 



3.8 One of the most significant problems concerning employment is 
the lack of information which workers and potential workers 
have about the work opportunities available to them. This problem 
is particularly acute for youths as they enter and re-enter the 
“job market”. 



Job Placement Centers 3.8b Every community or district should have highly visable and 

easily accessible centers for the output and input of job placement 
information. Persons seeking employment should be able to 
register their abilities and interests at this center after counseling 
and necessary training. They would then receive existing 
information which is relevant to their employment goals. More 
money should be provided through the Federal and state 
governments so that an adequate number of staff and counselors 
can be provided for groups with specific employment problems. 

One function of the counselors would be the relief of the Veterans' 
Employment Representatives who are already overburdened at 
the state and local levels. Employers should be able to register 
openings and requirements and receive information about persons 
currently seeking jobs in areas related to their openings. This 
service would be available to all who need or want it without 
limitation as to skill levels or nature of employment. 



The design and installation of this service would be delegated t j a 
special agency under a performance contract with a timetable 
for the completion of the pilot project being three years. Until a 
National Job Information Service can be initiated, state agencies 
are encouraged to provide job information to youth. Adequate 
funding from the Federal government should be provided to carry 
out the mission. 

Free Transportation 3.8c Because of the inability of low income citizens to move easily 

as the job market fluctuates from city to city, it is proposed that 
free transportation be provided for low income citizens to the 
job markets of their choice. 



Free Emergency Housing 3.8d Finally, free emergency housing is to be provided for these low 

income citizens in the new cities for a maximum of 30 days 
per family or individual. 



Youth Opportunities 3.9 It is recommended that the President's Council on Youth 

Opportunity, disbanded f il 1, 1971, be immediately reinstated 
forthwith as the Presider Council on Youth Opportunity with 
adequate Federal funding ovided. It is recommended that Youth 
Opportunity Programs b .udied in depth in cooperation with 
/ state employment servic s so that their efforts may be maximized 

in planning jobs for you ■>. 



Youth Employment in 
Centers 



3.9a It is recommendec that youth be employed by Youth Opportunity 
Centers to obtain a better interpretation of the needs of youth 
in the employment market. If state merit service examinations are 
required for these youth to be employed they should be waived. 
Employment should be considered especially for minority groups. 



Presidential Support for 
Summer Jobs for Youth 




ERIC 



3.9b This Task Force calls upon the President, governors, mayors, 
;ounty officials, business and labor leaders to recognize the great 
need for youth to obtain jobs this summer. We are deeply 
noncerned over the unavailability of a substantial number of jobs 
or youth. Every effort must be made to create and fill jobs 
with young people. We urge the President to use all means of 
mass communication (including the Advertising Council) to express 
iis serious concern about the employment problem and we further 
jrge him to use his office to encourage employers to hire youth. 
i/Ve further recommend that this proposal be transmitted to the 
President immediately for implementation and action rather 
than be held up for the finalized conference report. 



60 



Review of State Laws 
Which Bar Employment 



Veterans Programs; 
Education 



Military Job Counseling 



Need for More Information 



Expanded Work and 
Training Opportunities 
Outside the School System 



Expanded Resources 



Automatic Expansion of 
Job Programs with Rising 
Unemployment 



3.9c We recommend that the states review existing laws and 
insurance requirements which bar young people (ages 16, 17) from 
employment. We further recommend that youth advisory councils 
to the different state governors take this on as their project within 
the next few months to see that it is implemented immediately. 



3.10 In reviewing the Advisory Task Force Report on the Work and 
Training of Veterans we feel that the present system of a specific 
monetary allowance for the education of veterans based on the 
number of dependents be retained as opposed to the proposal of a 
system modeled after that which prevailed after World War II. 

3,10a Means of communicating with servicemen and women about 
education, training and other benefits available should be 
established on a uniform basis with the military services carrying 
the major responsibility of individual counseling. 

3.10b More information than is currently available is urgently needed 
to determine what services veterans need, especially with such 
small groups as female veterans and various ethnic minorities. 
Such studies should also suggest specific programs which 
can be initiated. 



3.11 Education and the teaming process do not terminate upon 
completion of formal schooling. Moreover, large numbers of 
individuals find themselves, upon leaving school, ill prepared for 
employment (due in no small measure to the inadequacies of the 
school system outlined above), or they find their skills ultimately 
outmoded by emerging technological developments. Accordingly, 
the Task Force strongly endorses the thrust and direction of 
federally funded manpower training programs which emerged 
during the sixties, and offers the following proposals to enhance 
their relevance to current needs: 

3.11a Total resources for these programs are greatly deficient in 
relation to total needs. While the universe of persons who might 
profit from such programs has been variously estimated to range 
between 10 and 15 million, the total out-of-school persons served 
annually is scant in proportion — about 900,000. Accordingly, 
to the extent administrative capability exists, these programs in 
aggregate should be greatly expanded. At the same time, major 
efforts should be taken to identify and eliminate those programs 
operating poorly or which are failing to meet their stated objectives. 

3.11b Increases in aggregate unemployment, which we have recently 
experienced, impinge especially hard on groups with difficult 
employment problems at the outset. Manpower training programs 
have a particularly strong potential role in such instances since 
they are capable of targeting directly on those groups in society 
most severely affected. Accordingly, the potential contribution 
of these programs to aggregate economic policies should be 
explicitly recognized by the provision of automatic expansion with 
rising unemployment. 

Implementation: A. We are unprepared to advance a particular 
dollar magnitude for expansion of manpower programs, largely 
because of our concern over the feasibility of rapid expansion over 
existing levels. We do endorse such expansion as is feasible. 

We further support the Administration’s efforts to improve the 



overall administration of these programs by tracking down the wide 
range of separate categorical programs and decentralization of 
basic administrative decision-making to states and communities, 
though not in terms of the specific manpower revenue sharing 
proposal proposed in the current Congress. 

B. While endorsing the general principle of manpower program 
expansion with rising unemployment, we recognize the difficulties 
of carrying out such expansion on short notice. Accordingly, 
we endorse the modest proposal currently under consideration in 
Congress to increase Federal funds automatically by 10 percent 
with an increase in unemployment from 4.5 percent to 5.5 percent. 



3.12 This country faces a paradox. On the one hand, there are over 
five million unemployed individuals, including over one million 
16 through 19-year-olds. On the other hand, public services — 
such as schools, hospitals, housing and ecological concerns — are 
starved for funds and manpower. Creativity and leadership are 
needed to put together the unemployed's need for work and the 
public, or human services’ need for manpower to improve 
the quality of national life. 

It is clear from current economic conditions that the private 
sector of the economy can absorb only a relatively small fraction 
of the unemployed. The only source, therefore, capable of financing 
and sustaining the massive program required is the Federal 
government. 

A comprehensive national system of public service employment 
would have special meaning for youth. It would satisfy the needs of 
youth for employment and income, whether full, part, or 
summer-time. It would be organized to maximize opportunities for 
education and training, explore vocational interests, achieve 
personal and career development and — for those who want it 
an opportunity to perform a needed public service. This system 
would be especially appropriate and useful for youth who — -for 
whatever reason — do not find the present normal education 
and work programs satisfactory to their needs. 

Public Service Employment 3.12a It is recommended that the Congress of the United States 
for One Million enact legislation to provide a comprehensive national system of 

public service employment which will fund employment 
opportunities and related services for one million currently 
unemployed youths and adults and in the process improve the quality 
of human services offered in communities throughout the nation. 



Comprehensive National 
System of Public Service 
Employment 



O 

ERIC 



This legislation must embody the foiiowing provisions: 

(1) The quality of jobs developed in this program is paramount. 
They must not be menial, deadend, or dehumanized “make work’’ 
jobs. Instead they must be productive, dignified, satisfying, 
challenging and contributing to the betterment of a public or 
human service. 

(2) The jobs must be career development oriented. Built-in must 
be maximum opportunity for advancement. This can be achieved by 
restructuring jobs into an upwardly mobile sequence, providing 
education and training to develop entry level and advanced skills 
and offering effective supervision of work experience. 



(3) Participation should be open to all youths and adults with 
problems around school and work. Included could be the poor, 
minority group members, students or dropouts, the unemployed 
and the underemployed — anyone who is unable to work 
his/her way through the regular school or work program. 

(4) Compensation should be at the prevailing rate of pay for the 
job being performed. 

(5) The program should be operated with the utmost flexibility 
and individualization. Entry, exit and reentry should be voluntary 
and be accomplished without impediment. There should be the 
widest possible options with respect to the types cf jobs 

and work — study combinations. 

(6) Sponsorship of the job programs should be granted to any 
public or non-profit entity capable of handling the responsibility. 
This could include units of the Federal, state, or local governments, 
non-profit organizations, service institutions (such as hospitals 
and schools) and community groups. Community-operated 
programs are especially recommended for innercity and rural 
communities. 

Implementation: To develop this program will require careful 
fanning over a period of time. The urgency of the needs, 
therefore, requires immediate action by Congress. We feel such a 
program is long overdue and demands urgent attention. 



Humanization of the 
Work Situation 



l 

l 

l 




3.13 In America today the meaning of work is rapidly changing. 
We live in a country where increased free-time potential, changing 
social needs, growing participation of women in the work force, 
technological advancement, higher educational levels and 
diversification of individual preferences are causing changes in 
the understanding of the organization and the substance of work. 

Our society is emerging into a “post industrial" society with 
the ability to provide a decent means of iife for all citizens if we 
use our resources and technological ability to. their 
greatest advantage. 

Under the current conditions and emergent affluence, the upper 
and middle classes have the ability to focus their primary attention on 
social, ego and self-actualization needs. This implies a desire 
to have work deemed meaningful. Youth 17 to 23 years old, 
according to a recent study, want employer-employee relationships 
which are less impersonal. They want to have some decision- 
making power and want to be able to maintain individual style of 
dress without jeopardizing their chances for advancement. 

Essentially the humanization of work calls for a recognition of 
individuals involved in all paid and unpaid situations as “total 
persons." This means that both employees and employers must 
cease viewing and treating each other as objects designed to fulfill 
limited functions. Rather, attention must be directed to total needs 
and potentials of all involved. We recognize that for many blacks, 
tenant farmers, migrant workers, American Indians and 
Appalachians being treated as a total person includes having 
basic needs met. They are not operating from the same basis of 
security as middle and upper classes. 

There are three factors which are necessary in order to optimize 
a humanized work situation. First, the basic goods or need 



Motivation 



Communication 



0 




satisfying items motivating human efforts must be equally 
distributed. Second, there must be a mutually agreed upon common 
purpose among those involved to motivate cooperative and full 
human interaction. Third, constant communicative effort must be 
made to include all people in participation in the work effort. 

Some broad areas of application might include motivation 
communication patterns, authority and decision-making and 
individual rights. 

Work situations are highly diverse and must be developed within 
specific constraints of each organization. However, there are 
certain basic goals which both employers and employees should 
pursue in order to make the work experience more satisfying and 
productive for all persons involved. Experimentation is needed to 
develop successful programs for each specific situation. In order to 
improve the work experience, we suggest that the following 
recommendations be used as guidelines wherever possible. 

3.13a Minimal Monetary Compensation. Economic compensation 
should be equitable in relation to time, effort and skill exerted 
on a job. The employee should not be forced to sacrifice adequate 
income to gain fulfillment in employment and his pay should 
provide for nutrition, shelter, health care, clothing and education. 

In addition, a person should be employed in a safe, sanitary, 
work-conducive atmosphere. 

Group Incentive Plans. Group and plantwide incentive plans should 
be incorporated into economic compensation plans. Incentives 
offering bonuses will facilitate social interaction and cooperation 
and will reduce negative influence on individually competitive 
“rate-busters”. 

Job Enrichment. “Job enrichment” efforts should be made to 
create jobs which are interesting to employees; i.e., an attempt 
should be made to tailor jobs to fit the individual. In some areas, 
jobs could be enlarged for more challenge and diversity. 

Routine jobs could be improved by “job rotation” programs, more 
accessible “transfer” programs and a real possibility of promotion. 

Employee Initiated Assignments. Opportunities should be more 
widely provided via supervisors and counselors to allow employees 
to suggest and pursue individually initiated and designed 
projects which they think would be of value to the organization. 

3.13b Interpersonal and Intergroup Relations. Employing 
organizations should foster a climate designed to encourage ' 
members of the same and different levels of the organization to 
understand each other as total persons through sensitivity 
and encounter groups and person-to-person awareness. 

Understanding of Organizational and Job Context. Workers of 
all levels should understand the significance of their actions and 
job assignments to the total organization. Efforts should be 
made to give each employee an overall view of the organization 
and his role in it. 

Executive-Employee Interaction. Executives and staff should visit 
all areas of their organization and spend a period of time doing the 
work of employees in order to gain an effective understanding 
of their employee’s perspective. In turn, employees should be given 
the opportunity to experience or understand the 
responsibilities and perspectives of the executive level. 




Decision-Making and 
Policy Setting 



Individua. Rights 



3.13c There is a need to promote the greatest feeling of involvement 
and to make organizational decisions more effective. 

Participatory Decision-Making and Policy Setting. All possible 
efforts should be made to involve everyone affected in the 
decision-making process. This especially applies to “subordinates 
and when this is not feasible they should quickly and completely be 
informed of the decisions and reasons leading to it. Also, through 
open channels of communication and involvement all employees 
feelings should be taken into account in the policy 
setting procedure. 

Position Responsibilities. Organization patterns and roles should 
be as flexible as possible in order that they be responsive to the 
individual's interests and talents, and thereby maximize their 
potential. 

Youth Advocate. Business, labor, education and government 
institutions should set up a youth advocate position or office. The 
advocate position should be a responsible one that coordinates 
and transmits points of view between youth and the institution. 

To youth, the advocate should be advisor and champion. 

3.13d In considering humanization, certainly the acceptance by 
others otone’s individual nature is of utmost importance. The 
ingrained assumption that a job title and position necessitates a r 
prescribed social role should be eliminated. 

Discrimination. An employer should never be allowed to 
discriminate in hiring, employing and firing due to “life style'', 
sex, handicap, age, race, color, creed or national origin. Any 
such discrimination should be actively and vigorously prosecuted 
by Federal and state agencies empowered to do so. 

Individual Design and Scheduling. Employment organizations 
should make every effort to design the job around the person in 
order to utilize his utmost capabilities. More options for individual 
work schedule preferences should be provided. 

Life Style. Needless work policies and restrictions concerning 
clothes, expression and overall “life style" should be removed. 
Individual identity must be maintained. 

Implementation: These recommendations are generally addressed 
to the leaders of business, union, governmental, educational 
and other types of institutions. 



Dual Minimum Wage 
Opposed by Subcommittee 



3.14 The Subcommittee on Minimum Wage disagrees with the 
Advisory Task Force Report’s proposal for a dual minimum wage 
for the following reasons: 



(1) It encourages discrimination and exploitation of youth. 

(2) We do not believe that this will solve the problem of youth 
unemployment. 

The current Iqvel and coverage of the minimum wage is 
inadequate and, therefore, this subcommittee moves that the 
Task Force on Economy and Employment endorse a national 
minimum wage of $2.00 per hour and increased coverage 
to include all types of employment and employees. 



Elimination of Job 
Discrimination 



Expansion of Enforcement 
Powers for the EEOC 



Expansion of the OFCC 



Contract Compliance 
Guidelines at Local Level 



3.15 The members of the Subcommittee on the Elimination of Job 
Discrimination, awaro of the immediate and harmful effects of 
inadequate employment opportunities and discriminatory 
employment practices against youth and minorities, propose 
that the following recommendations become national policy. 

3.15a The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was 
established by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Its mandate was 
to oversee compliance with Title VII of the Act. We find, however, 
that EEOC in the 7 years of its operation has had very limited 
effect on the problem of discriminatory employment practices, its 
recourse against offenders of Title. VII has been confined to 
report gathering and attempts at voluntary conciliation. EEOC’s 
record of progress thus far has not been sufficient to warrant the 
complete confidence of all Americans. It is in this light that 
tiie following recommendations are made. 

The EEOC is prevented from protecting persons from discriminatory 
employment practices because it lacks sufficient enforcement 
machinery. We recomend legislation which will grant to the EEOC: 

(1) the power to subpoena; 

(2) the power to issue cease and desist orders; 

(3) direct jurisdiction over cases delayed in state FEPC machinery; 

(4) authority to initiate pattern of practice suits (transferred 
to EEOC from Department of Justice.); 

(5) extended jurisdiction over employers or unions with eight 
or more employees or members; 

(6) extended jurisdiction to cover all public employees, employers 
and public educational institutions; and 

(7) permission and requirement to make public minority 
hiring statistics. 

3.15b The Office of Federal Contract Compliance (OFCC) has the 
machinery to enforce compliance with affirmative action hiring 
plans and non-discriminatory hiring practices by employers 
or unions with government contracts. But OFCC has never 
terminated a contract for non-compliance because of the absence 
of executive leadership or lack of staff and adequate resources. 

We recommend: 

(1) that the Director of OFCC be elevated to status of Assistant 
Secretary in the Department of Labor; 

(2) that OFCC be provided with increased staff and resources 
for investigations and follow-up by OFCC field representatives; 

(3) that OFCC office and staff be established in the 10 
regional districts; 

(4) that OFCC ensure that affirmative action is complied with by 
terminating immediately any contractor who fails to comply 

with an affirmative action plan within 30 days of notice that the 
plan is unacceptable. 

These recommendations depend largely on executive leadership 
and commitment. 

3.15c We recommend that all political subdivisions establish their 
own contract compliance guidelines for equal employment 
opportunity similar to. those of the Federal government. 



Youth Employment 
Opportunities Lacking 



Relocation or inuustry 



Discrimination Against 
Women in Employment; 
6 Child Care Centers 







3.15d We youths believe that there are not enough short term jobs 

for those of us who seek temporary employment. There are 

some of us who need jobs year-round but even more of us who 

need jobs during summer months. We also believe that a 

job orientation program would serve as a meaningful and beneficial 

aid to those of us who are seeking jobs. In light of this, 

we offer the following recommendations. 

The high rate of youth unemployment and discriminatory 
practices against youth mandates that youth employment services 
be established on every governmental level: 

(1) states should create Youth Employment Services to operate 
year-round to find jdbs for young people. Funds should come 
primarily from the Federal government but the operation should 
be staffed largely by youth; 

(2) outdated restrictions on youth employment in state 
and Federal laws should be reviewed; 

(3) business should accelerate its efforts to employ youth. 

Useful work experience can be found in remedial jobs for young 
people seeking temporary employment; 

(4) pilot projects such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture s 
Youth Conservation Corps should become on-going permanent 
programs with the number of available job slots and the 
amount of available funds increasing yearly; 

(5) courses on job-seeking and job-orientation should be provided 
for students in job-hunting techniques and procedures. 

Teachers should direct more of their time to non-college youth; 

(6) business should actively recruit, for example, Spanish-speaking 
youth. Language should not be a barrier to jobs. Employers 
should provide bilingual staff personnel who can assist 
Spanish-speaking minorities on the job and also aid in directing 
those interested persons to community centers providing 
opportunities to learn English; 

(7) we object to the failure to authorize increased funds for 
Neighborhood Youth Corps (NYC) from 1970-1971 while the actual 
need has doubled. We also recommend reversal of the decision 

to cut transportation funds for NYC participants. 

3.15e Decentralization of American society and the relocation of 
industry. In light of the decentralization of American society, 
the relocation of industry to the suburbs, and the reconversion of 
‘ industry into non-defense production, we recommend: 

(1) that industries be held accountable for the consequences 
of relocation by facilitating the transfer of employees as well as 
facilities, and into areas with open housing supplied; 

(2) that industries not locate in areas which have exclusionary 
zoning laws which prohibit low income housing, 

(3) that industry relocation serve to further the cause of equal 
housing opportunities for its employees and city residents; 

(4) that industries not locate in areas that do not have 
adequate public transportation; 

(5) that industries locate in areas where employment 
needs are greatest. 



3.16 The Joint Subcommittee on Job Discrimination Against Women 
and Child Care Centers was formed to deal with a problem 
that the WHCY ignored when organizing. These twoTopics are 
interrelated in that child care is one solution by which women may 



67 



be freed for employment opportunities. This subcommittee 
feels that discrimination against women is an issue that is separate 
and unlike discrimination against minority groups. This 
subcommittee also feels that age and race discrimination 
multiply the hardships of women. 

Discrimination against women is a leg' ’, social, political and 
economic problem. This subcommittee recognizes that the 
educational institutions must be reorganized to make young 
women and men more aware of employment opportunities. We 
also urge legislative action to facilitate women in 
employment and strong executive action to enforce new laws. 

Government has been unresponsive to the needs of women. 

For example, the U.S. Congress has rejected the Equal Rights 
Amendment (ERA) for several sessions of Congress. This committee 
believes that the ERA is essential. The Supreme Court has also 
refused to rule on the issue of whether women are persons by not 
including coverage for women under the 14th Amendment. 

We believe there is a need for government and private action to 
discourage discrimination against women. The following facts 
obtained from the Women’s Bureau of the Department of Labor 
support our resolutions. 

(a) Women and girls of every age and race have higher 
unemployment and underemployment than men and boys. 

(b) Three-fourths of working women are still in low skill, 
low paying, lew promise jobs. 

(c) The unemployment rates of women between 16 and 22 
are the highest in the country. 

(d) The absence of child care centers severely limits 
women’s economic independence. 

(e) Women college graduates earn on an average the same 
earnings as black men with high school education and white men 
with only an 8th grade education. 

(f) Over 800 laws in this country actually discriminate 
against women. 

3.16a As the subcommittee, we strongly recommend the adoption of 
the following resolutions by the Economy and Employment 
Task Force and the WHCY: 

(1) the adoption of the Equal Rights Amendment; 

(2) the formation of a national clearinghouse for the collection 
and distribution of information pertinent to women in or seeking 
employment; 

(3) the reorganization of the educational guidance system so 
that individuals are not restricted to sex-determined roles; 

(4) the continuation of withholding of Federal funds from 
educational institutions which practice sexual discrimination; 

(5) legal steps to open trade unions to women; 

(6) that working hours be made more flexible for both 
men and women; 

(7) the legalization of abortion; 

(8) the expansion of birth control centers and programs; 



Child Day Care Centers 



More Funds Needed; 
Business Participation 



Endorses Children’s 
Conference Report 
on Child Care 



(9) a more truthful approach in the interpretation of women 
and women’s issues by the mass media; 

(10) the U.S. government should begin a trend of equality 

for women by hiring many qualified women for decision-making 
and policy-making positions. 

3.16b There is an increasing awareness throughout the country of 
the lack of adequate day care services. The growing trend 
toward the employment of women with young children is a major 
factor in this development. Many children would benefit 
greatly from day care. These children include those whose mothers 
work, or those whose home environment is not conducive 
to healthful mental or physical development. 

This subcommittee envisions child care as a quality child 
development program. We feel that it is of paramount importance 
that women have the option to become employed. Child care 
enables women to take advantage of employment opportunities. 
Abortion and birth control are legitimate solutions for career-minded 
women. However, child care gives an alternative to the families 
and single women who want to have children. 

3.16c To fulfill the unmet need for child care services, it is essential 
that Federal appropriations be greatly enlarged and that there 
be much more financial participation from the states and localities. 

In addition, this subcommittee recommends that private 
organizations and businesses become involved in providing child 
care services. Businesses which have a substantial female labor 
force should establish child care centers at the job site. 

Small businesses could join and establish a central child care 
program. Considering the tremendous attrition rate in large cities, 
women and children may be able to remain longer if child 
care services were provided. 

Also, this subcommittee is in favor of community-based centers. 

As well as caring for children, it would greatly enhance employment 
opportunities for young people and elderly people in addition to 
mothers and fathers who could serve as paraprofessionals in 
the centers. 

3.16d The White House Conn_it;nce on Children considered the 
problem of child care. This subcommittee endorses their recom- 
mendation for a system of supplementary child care services which 



(1) is available to children of all ages from 
conception through youth, to families from every 
kind of economic and social background and to every 
community, with priorities to those whose needs are 
greatest; 

(2) is available through a wide variety of different 
types of programs and during all hours of the day 
and time of the year that children, families and 
communities need it; 

(3) has the full range of components required to 
promote the intellectual, social, emotional and 
physical growth of the children it serves; 

(4) insures parents a decisive policy role in the 
planning, operation and evaluation of programs 
which determine the environment in which the 
children live; 




(5) places the major responsibility for planning and 
operating child care and development centers at the 
local level; 

(6) reflects and builds on the culture and language 
of children, families the communities being 
served. 

Implementation: A. Quality child care programs require 
substantial funding. Thus, this subcommittee endorses “The 
Comprehensive Community Child Development Act of 1971’' and 
“The Universal Child Development Act of 1971” now being 
considered in Congress. 

B. In order to provide child care which includes a total educational 
experience, this subcommittee calls for the training and retraining 
of both professionals and paraprofessionals on day care staffs and 
in research in child development. This could be referred to the. 
Office of Education under HEW. 

C. This subcommittee also endorses the WHCC’s proposal that “a 
Presidential task force be created to broaden public understanding 
of day care needs and to mobilize continuing support for their 
fulfillment.” Their actions should include an intensive publicity 
campaign aimed at public, private, and r.on-profit groups, business 
and labor, professional associations, community organizations and 
other groups to encourage their collaboration and cooperation. 

D. After our deliberation, this subcommittee has found itself 
concurrent with the WHCC recommendations concerning child care 
and calls for the adoption of Discussion Item K — Day Care Centers 
of the Advisory Task Force Report to the WHCY. 



Discrimination 
Against Pregnant 
High School Women 



Opportunity to 
Continue Education 



O 

ERJC 



3.17 There is definite discrimination against those young women 
who became pregnant while attending primary and secondary 
institutions of public education. In most cases their pregnancy 
results in the discontinuation or, at least, interruption of their 
education in public school. This discrimination is related to the 
economy and employment of the United States. Those who because 
of this discrimination have been unable to obtain a valid high school 
diploma have great difficulty in finding employment. At best, the 
General Education Diploma (GED) provides entrance to areas of 
higher education mainly in college ., or universities which have open 
enrollment. Thus, these women are unable to find employment as 
they have no high school diploma or are extremely limited in their 
choices to obtain a college degree which would further enable them 
to find jobs for which they are suited. 

3.17a The State, through its institutions of public education, 
primarily involving junior high school and high school students, 
should insure that those who do become pregnant are not 
discriminated against and are provided the opportunity to continue 
their education so that they might obtain their high school diploma 
and become eligible for employment if they so wish or be free to 
onter, unrestricted, into any other form of continuing education. 

Implementation: We propose that the Task Force on Economy and 
Employment demand as a solution to this problem, to the 
Department of Health, Education and Welfare that the Federal 
government, through agencies that regulate and fund public 
education, should insure that those who do become pregnant during 



junior high/or high school years have the opportunity to continue 
their education at the school they have been attending or a local 
school of comparable quality in which they could receive the same 
junior high and/or high school diploma. 



Consumer Protection; 3.18 The preliminary Task Force Report suggested the creation of 

New Agency Undesirable an independent agency, the Federal Consumer Advocacy Agency 

(CAA), with the authority and staff to advocate the consumer’s 
position in courts, Congress and the Executive Branch. Although 
the intent is good, the effectiveness of such an arrangement 
would be short-lived. 

In order to make our point, acknowledge the history of other 
independent agencies which are currently in existence. For example, 
the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was originaiiy created to 
protect the consumer; today it is a political vehicle and referee for 
disputes between competitive firms. The FDA staff is underpaid 
and is placed in the position of servant to the industry which it is 
supposed to monitor. Likewise, other independent agencies, such 
as the FTC, ICC and FAA, originated as crusaders in the public 
interest, and then aged into organizations with illusory concerns 
for the public. 

Unfortunately, the creation of the CAA will become ineffectual 
because of the political processes which will remove any effective 
consumer advocate. In addition, lobbies of industries will smother 
the potential of adequate appropriations for such agency. Flence, 
the consumer, like the drug and food purchaser, will become 
victimized by an illusory protection agency of false security. 



Tax Exemption for 
Consumer Organizations 

». 

1 It is proposed that tax exempt privileges, which are presently 

I reserved for educational institutions, be extended by the 

i Internal Revenue Service to cover independent activist consumer 

X organizations. This would allow groups that do not presently have 

| this benefit to enjoy increased funding, and thus take a more 

r activist role. 

t, 

[ While this possibility also carries the possibility of abuse by 

I industry, the multiplicity of groups that would inevitably spring up 

will make an effective cross-check on each other. In addition, the 
I control by a firm or private individual would be diminished because 

| of a five percent maximum from any contributor which would be 

required in order to have a tax exemption. 

Sources of revenue would be made public by the exempt consumer 
organization so as to provide the public with a credibility review. 

This tax exemption arrangement is suggested in lieu of the CAA. 
There would be more possibility of effective consumer advocacy 
as reflected by the public interest, rather than confining consumer 
protection surveillance to one federally-funded and politically- 
controlled organization — the CAA. 




As an alternative to the CAA, the following recommendations 
are suggested: 

3.18a Today, there are relatively few groups which can be considered 
consumer advocates, and these groups suffer from low funding. 



Consumer Research Fund 



“Quality of Life’' 
Needs More Emphasis 



ERIC 



3.18b Federal interest m consumer p-otection should be reflected 
in research appropriation... ’ e revenue for purely technical studies 
would be dispersed among tax exempt educational and consumer 
institutions or organizations. Each institution or organization grant 
will be limited to five percent of the body’s total budget so as to 
preclude the entity’s dependence on the Federal government. 

In order to avoid the dangers of headhunting on a particular firm, 
or the undue influence by a single company which is under 
investigation, all research projects would be cross-industry 
comparative studies. 

The annual distribution of grants would be handled by the 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare under the advisorship 
of a Consumer Research Committee made up of five U.S. 
Representatives. 

To eliminate the possibility that a critical report wouid be filed away, 
CRC would be required to make any such reports available to 
consumer activist groups and to the press. This would also allow 
such groups to have a slight check on these studies by allowing 
them to comment on them. 



3.19 During the last decade, the economic production of the United 
States has grown at annual rates approaching $50 billion. Late 
in 1970 our Gross National Product (GNP) passed the $1 trillion 
mark. Despite considerations of inflation, we have clearly reached 
unprecedented levels of basic economic and industrial wealth. 

Although there are wide differences of opinion concerning the 
distribution of wealth, it can be generally stated that our economic 
growth has been passed on, in varying degrees, to most sectors 
of our population. Despite this apparent and unprecedented 
affluence, the social and political trends of the nation indicate 
a deep and widespread discontentment, particularly among the youth 
population. Although the nature of this discontent is vague and 
multivariant, it might generally be described as a basic 
dissatisfaction with the overall conditions of life. These problems 
are increasingly referred to as a concern for the “quality of Hfe.” 
This concern considers economic wealf important but also plac,^ 
heavy emphasis on conditions beyond tnu immediate realm of 
economics, such as the natural environment, pollution, health, 
over-crowding, cultural opportunities and political influence. 
Basically, concern over the “quality of life” suggests a growing 
disenchantment with the primacy which economics and “materialism” 
have had in our society and calls for increased individual and social 
concern for matters not directly within the sphere of economics. 

The apparent widespread dissatisfaction and available statistics 
imply substantial validity to three interrelated theories: First, despite 
apparent economic progress, the overall “quality of life” within the 
United States may actually be declining. Second, there is a possibility 
that the “quality of life” may not be declining but that it is meeting 
neither its fullest potential, nor the expectations of vast portions of 
the population. Third, is the possibility that the primacy of economic 
concerns to our informational, organizational and decision-making 
processes may be causing imbalahce and suboptimization of the 
“quality of life” within our society. These three prospects suggest 
a need for vigorous reevaluation of our decision-making criteria and 
national priorities. Such reevaluation and possible social adjustments 



Measurement of the 
“Quality of Life” 




will require vnformation and analytical tools which are either not 
available or inadequate at this time, but it must be understood that 
GNP is not the sole indicator of the quality of life. 

Ultimately, effective decisions and actions cannot be made 
concerning social objectives unless means can be developed to 
measure initial conditions and changes in conditions. There are 
four major problems which must be pursued by efforts to provide 
information for today’s social problems. First, vastly expanded, 
efforts must be made to provide information concerning 
non-economic and semi-economic matters such as pollution, 
health, and human skills and potentials. Second, ways must be 
developed to provide visibility and a just balance of attention to 
unnoticed yet critical social problems. Third, methods must be 
developed which provide information about the actual success of 
public programs ir* attaining the objectives for which they were 
created. Fourth, there is a need for a balanced system view of social 
concerns to facilitate optimal and efficient enough provision of 
relevant information to generate political pressures through 
awareness. 

The prospect of creating broad economic and non-economic 
measurements to provide balanced indicators of the conditions of 
life within our society is feasible and partially researched. Work to 
this date suggests that while it is unreasonable to expect a single 
variable such as the GNP to be an indicator of the “quality of 
life,” it is reasonable to envision the development of a series of 
consolidated social measures which will provide a general view of 
the social welfare. However, the sophisticated and interrelated social 
statistics that are becoming increasingly critical to future decision- 
making have not yet materialized. 

3.19a Criteria should be developed for the measurement of the 
“quality of life” for both individuals and the general society and 
mechanisms should be developed for the collection, interpretation 
and presentation of information pertaining to this criteria. The 
criteria should include the following arens c* ?<• r;ial and individual 
concern: 

(1) Natural Environment. Preservation of natural beauty and 
wildlife and opportunity to regularly experience unspoiled wilderness 
and water. Tabulation on the use of reserves of natural resources. 

(2) Living Environment. Overall maintenance of urban, suburban 
and rural living and working areas. Maintenance o* minimal 
conditions for clean air and water, available space, general sanitation 
and health, housing and structural safety and buildiifg and sftreet 
aesthetics. 

(3) General Health. Basic sanitation and safety maintenance, ample 
available health care and intensive medical services Tor the young 
and elderly. 

(4) Income and Basic Economic Security. Minimization of individual 
economic deprivation, minimum guaranteed living standard, 
equitable distribution of wealth and continual opportunity to pursue 
improved economic conditions. 

(5) Employment and Productivity. General provision for productive 
opportunity which provides equitable personal rewards, socially 



Informing the Public 
on “Quality of Life” 



Tax Deductions for 
Environmental Pollution 
Cooperative Costs 



0 




beneficial effects and optimization of an individual’s ability and 
willingness to contribute. 

(6) Productive Employment Areas. Study of the variations from 
the mean which exist within minority groups regarding educational 
attainment in relation to earning power. 

(7) Aggregate Economic Advancement. Overall economic production 
of society which takes into consideration negative and preventive 
production (such as smog control devices) and environmental 
deterioration costs. 

(8) Training, Education and Culture. Opportunity to learn usable 
skills, problem solving abilities and the value of the world. 

(9) Justice and Freedom Concerning Threat and Coercion. Minimum 
threat of harm or loss of security. Extent of positive as opposed 

to negative sanctions used in societal and individual interaction. 

(10) Individualism. Opportunity for free expression and selection 
of “life style”, and levels of social tolerance and alienation. 

3.19b Performance indices should be developed and reports should 
be released in a way which provides a highly visible and simple 
indication of how our society is functioning in each of the above 
categories. Social index reports should be publicly released on a 
regular basis in much the same way as current unemployment and 
price figures. Information concerning the means of calculating 
these indices and background data should also be publicly available. 

Implementation: There is no clear cost data concerning the 
development and maintenance of an expanded social report 
system. The 1971 Federal government allotment for statistical 
programs is approximately $161 million. It does not seem unlikely 
that a vastly expanded statistical program would cost twice as 
much as existing mechanisms. 

Although raw data concerning the various categories for an overall 
“quality of life” report might be collected by agencies and 
organizations concerned with the subject of measurement, it is 
undesirable that the nature of the overall report be unduly influenced 
by a particular interest or perspective. It is therefore suggested 
that the final accumulation, interpretation and presentation of 
“quality of life” data be undertaken by an expanded version of 
the Council of Economic Advisors. The title of the existing Council 
should be changed to the Council of Economic and Social Advisors. 
The existing staff and resources of this body should be broadened 
and plans should be made and implemented which will allow a 
fully balanced regular report on the overall “quality of life” by 
the latter half of the 1970’s. Ultimately, the Council should assume 
balanced stature and the title of Council of Aggregate Social Welfare. 



3.20 Any cost incurred above and beyond the expenditures required 
to meet present statutory regulations in the correction of the 
industrial pollution of any company or business should be allowed 
to be written off on the tax return of that said company. This 
deduction must meet Environmental Control Commission criteria 
of stopping or reducing the industrial pollution by a substantial 
amount within the taxable year. Should the IRS find any evidence that 
unjust price increases are passed onto the consumer due to the 



Limit Defense Budget; 
Cut Vietnam Funds 



Guaranteed Annual Income 



Replace Welfare System 



0 




purchases of environmental correction equipment and manpower 
cost, this tax deduction should be denied to the particular company. 
This deduction shall be subject to present IRS regulations on 
deductions; i.e., purchase vouchers as corrections systems. 



3.21 Be H resolved: That the defense budget for the fiscal year 
1972 be limited to 50 billion dollars. Experts and groups such as 
the Brookings Institution, the Urban Coalition and Mr. Seymour 
Melman have estimated that this would not endanger national 
security. 

Further resolved. That such cuts shall come from the areas of 
counterinsurgency and nuclear weapons systems. 



Be it further resolved: That no further military funds be allocated 
for Vietnam except for the purpose of withdrawing troops. 



3.22 Every citizen of the United States has the right to a decent 
ard adequate standard of living. Today, over 24 million U.S. citizens, 
or 7.4 million U.S. families (10 percent of all U.S. families), are 
considered to be living in poverty. This incidence of poveity and 
the factors causing it have made it necessary to develop same 
form of income maintenance program to meet the subsistence needs 
of those incapable of supporting themselves. 

Of the current Federai funds administered under the welfare 
program as it stands today, approximately 70 percent of the money 
goes to aid for dependent children, 20 percent goes to the aged 
and the handicapped, and of the 10 percent remaining, less than 
half goes to those who are employable or trainable. 

3.22a The current welfare system of payments, services and 
commodities should be replaced with an income program which 
guarantees every person in the United States sufficient cash income 
for decent and adequate standards of food, shelter and clothing. 

We further recommend that the program be designed to include 
the following essential characteristics: 

(1) Eligibility based on need. The only requirement for eligibility 
should be a simple declaration of need. 

(2) Determination of Eligibility. An individual or family could 
become eligible through two processes; a) the potential recipient 
may request cash allowance upon submission of standardized proof 
of earning ievei; or b) the administrating agency will inform persons 
of their eligibility, and noneligibility as a result of IR3 records. 

(3) Benefit levels. Cash benefits must be sufficient to provide for 
a decent and adequate standard of living. The benefit level should 
be no less than the low standard of adequate income established 
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, including regional variations. 

(4) Subsidized public services. The cost of essential services such 
as child care, vocational counseling, family planning, legal and 
health services, should,- if necessary, be directly subsidized by 
the Federal government. Participants in the program should be 
free to purchase the services they need or want. These services 
should be integrated with those used by more affluent citizens and 



be available to all on a graduated tee scale based on ability to 
pay. Food stamps, commodities arid all other such alternatives 
to cash should be eliminated. 

(5) Work requirements and benefits. While no one should be 
required to work or enroll in training as a requirement for initial or 
continued eligibility, work benefits such as those which work on the 
same principle (but no monetary values) as Family Assistance Plan 
or National Welfare Rights Organization should be built into the 
program so that participants are encouraged to work and 
encouragedJta find higher paying jobs if possible. 

(6) Privacy. All precautions should be taken to insure that privacy 
and other rights of participants are protected, including the legal 
right of appeal. 

Implementation: This income program should be federally financed 
and administered under Federal standards. Administrative 
procedures should be as simple as possible. A good model for 
the administration of the income program is the Social Security 
system, whose costs of administration are far lower than the cosiS 
of administration of any private insurance company performing 
the same kind of function. 

Participants in the program should be included in program 
development, decision-making and implementation. 

This recommendation is to be sent to the House Appropriations 
Committee for adoption by the Congress of the United States, and 
is to be administered under the existing HEW Department. 

[Recommendation 3.22 was a joint proposal submitted by the Task 
Force on Economy and Employment and the Task Force on Poverty ] 










76 



Overall Concerns; 

Reorder Spending Priorities 



Experimental and 
Innovative Systems 



All recommendations were voted on by the entire Task Force after 
they were reported out of their respective workshops. The entire 
body also voted to include the minority resolutions in the report. 



4.1 The United States of America, the nation with, the largest 
Gross National Product in the world, should offer an educational 
system which equips her people to live meaningfully in a rapidly 
changing society, However, this nation has not met this goal. 
Misplaced priorities have diverted both human and financial 
resources. 

Federal, state, and local governments must support the recom- 
mendations outlined by the 1971 White House Conference on 
Youth Task Force on Education. The Federal government must 
reorder national spending priorities so that the Federal contribution 
to primary, secondary, and higher education will total 25% of the 
national budget (the current Federal contribution to education is 
3.67%). In addition, state and local governments must also 
reexam'ne their spending priorities and determine ways in which 
more funds can be channeled into education. 

Implementation: (1) Defense spending must be reduced. The 
Federal government currently spends 46.45% of the Federal tax 
dollar on defense. These funds must be redirected so that a larger 
percentage will be spent on education — to establish new, more 
effective educational systems, including programs to serve 
individuals from low income backgrounds and persons with 
nonacademic interests. 

(2) The United States must set a specific date to withdraw all troops 
from the Indochina conflict. American tax dollars must be redirected 
from this expenditure to efforts to solve problems, including those 
involving education, housing, environment, poverty, drugs, etc. 

The Federal Government must not divert American tax dollars 
from these efforts to military research and development. 

(3) Special priority for the distribution of these new funds must 
include funding black colleges and small private institutions, as well 
as other institutions which serve a significant number of minority 
students. 

(4) With the reallocation of Federal tax dollars, methods should 
be developed that do not rely solely on personal property taxes as 
the means of financing education at the local level. 

(5) A system of accountability must be developed for cities and 
states using this increased share of Federal monies for education. 

4.1a As we begin to understand the intricate process of learning, 
we are discovering that needs exist which can only be met by new 
methods. However, during the past decade, educators as well as 
the public, young as well as old, have recognized the tremendous 
difficulty in creating changes in, and alternatives to, the present 
educational system. Many attempts to create innovative systems 




79 



such as drop-out centers, street academies, free schools, etc, have 
been thwarted by a lack of funding. Assistance from all levels of 
government and from the community must be forthcoming. 

The government at all levels should place great emphasis on 
funding experimental and innovative systems because the need 
for changes in and alternatives to the present educational institutions 
are so great and the obstacles to change are so formidable. 

Implementation: A. Local communities should provide support 
from both the private and public sector; those endeavors should 
include newspaper coverage, public relations, etc. 

B. Local communities should develop systems to assure that the 
dollar amount provided for the education of each American child 
will be equitable. 

C. The Federal Government should (a) provide for grants which 
would be made through Federal agencies, such as the Office of 
Education and the Office of Economic Opportunity, to individuals 
and groups attempting to meet the educational needs in their 
community which are not being met by the public school system; 
(b) provide all levels of government and private agencies with 
funding incentives to schools which agree to try such innovative 
programs and procedures as upgraded classes and "free" or 
informal classrooms; (c) design applications for funds which 
are sufficiently simple for those individuals not skilled in filling out 
bureaucratic forms to have a chance to receive financial assistance; 
(d) base the evaluation of programs on the decision as to whether 
or not the goals of that particular program are being met, rather 
than on arbitrarily imposed criteria, such as improvement of the 
reading level, etc. 



Student Participation; 
Educational Governance 




4.2 America’s democratic system is rooted in the belief that 
all citizens who are affected by the system should have a voice in 
deciding how the system is to be set up. This concept of a 
representative democracy has not been universally accepted in our 
Nation’s educational institutions. As students on all levels become 
increasingly socially and politically aware, the time has come 
to give students a voice in the policy and governance of their 
educational system. 

To facilitate education, students must be thought of as participants, 
not merely recipients of the educational process. 

Beginning with the secondary level, students should participate 
in educational decisions and student governance. They should also 
participate in broad-based policy decisions by having representatives 
on educational and governing boards at all levels and in 
governmental agencies. Special efforts must be made to include 
racial and ethnic minorities, students in vocational and non-academic 
concentrations, and other students who,, for various reasons, 
traditionally tend not to be involved in educational governance. 

As members of the community, they should be indispensable 
participants in sound decision-making. In those instances where 
students are not voting members, steps should be taken to move 
toward giving them voting representation. 

Implementation: Government at all levels should support student 
participation and should include^tadents on all of its educational 

w 



Participation; 
Higher Education 



i 

l 

l 

i 



\ 

i 

£■ 



!. Participation; 

f Secondary Schools 

|: 



;■ 

fr 

■5 

l 



\ 






O 

ERIC 

•.II’LTmITLJ 



boards. State, county, and local governmental agencies should have 
student representation. High school students should be represente 
on boards of education. The legal regulations and guidelines for 
all Federal, state, and local programs that have impact on students 
and youth should reflect the above principle of participation. 

4.2a Policy making bodies in institutions of higher education should 
include students as voting members. Every institution should have 
clearly defined procedures, voted on by the total academic 
community* for selecting members of bodies which make and 
implement policy. 

The procedures for selection of these students should reflect 
all aspects of the student community. Also, for truly effective 
participation, provisions should be made for terms of more than 
one year. Where financial need might prevent a student from 
participating, procedures should be established to provide the 
needed assistance. 

Opportunities to earn course credit for involvement in university 
governance should be provided for student members. 

Students should take seriously their obligation to participate when 
there are opportunities for real influence on policy. Some examples 
of areas in which students are seeking such a voice are 
recommendations on tenure and promotion, curriculum, grading 
reform, and course and faculty evaluation. 

4.2b Secondary schools are for students and students should 
be involved in their school’s policy decisions, particularly those 
concerned with developing curricula and determining rules 
governing student conduct. Students should also have a voice in 
determining the criteria for evaluating teachers. 

Students must be free to establish and should be encouraged to 
participate in student government which should be an integral part 
of the educational day. Student participation should reflect the 
entire student community; that is, ethnic, racial, academic, and age 
groups. All registered students should be eligible to hold office. 
Drop-outs should be allowed to have representation on all student 
governing boards. 

Students should have active membership in parent-teachers 
associations. 

A course in political principles using the school and community 
as a lab should be developed and students should receive some form 
of course credit for their work in governance. 

Schools reflect the educational philosophy of the community served. 
Parents, school staff, and students are in pursuit of a common 
goal; a program which will prepare the participants for full, active, 
lifelong, and responsible participation in their community. 
Therefore, local, town, city, and county governments should 
establish vouth councils which represent the total youth community. 
Opportunities should also be made available within the existing 
structural government for more individual student participation. 

It is essential that parents be involved in the total education of 
their children. Therefore, schools must promote parental involvement. 
The schools must educate the community as well as the students. 



81 



Students and parents must be actively and meaningfully involved 
in decision-making processes in schools. 



Participatory Experience 



Code of Student Rights 
and Responsibilities 







| 82 



Secondary school students should be represented on all boards 
of education. These students should be elected by their peers. 
Where necessary state legislatures should alter existing laws or 
create new ones to permit widespread student participation on 
educational boards at all levels. 

A study should be undertaken to determine what motivates 
students to participate in school and community affairs. 

4.2c Student participation and full membership is needed not 
only on top level policy making and governing boards, but also on 
commissions, councils, and working committees throughout the 
educational system. 

Schools, churches, and parents have primarily prepared youth 
for participation in society through an academic approach. A more 
meaningful approach would be to provide youth with learning 
experiences through actual involvement in civic affairs. Schools and 
colleges should stimulate realistic education beyond the classroom 
by providing opportunities to earn credit for learning experiences 
in bt. ness and government and/or service in community and 
world affairs. 

Implementation: The possible benefits to be derived from each 
implementation are dependent on the receptivity of the faculty, 
administrators, and governing bodies involved. There is a need far 
a greater awareness on the part of faculty, administrators, and 
governing boards concerning the positive role which students 
can play in educational decision making. Discussions concerning 
how students can be most effective in decision making processes 
should be on the agenda of the other related organizations. 

4.2d Ignorance and misunderstanding have traditionally been the 
root of many of society's most divisive problems. Recently, it has 
become increasingly apparent that many of the difficulties that 
have arisen in our educational institutions are due to a clear lack 
of understanding about the legal and social responsibilities of 
the institution to the student and the student to the institution. 



We urge all educational institutions, both junior and senior high 
schools as well as all institutions of higher education to adopt a 
code of student rights, responsibilities, arid conduct which will 
clearly define the legal and social relationships of the institution to 
the student and the student to the institution in such areas as 
speech, demonstrations, dress code, housing, class attendance, etc. 

Implementation: A. The Federal government, through the 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, should commission 
a task force to develop a “model code" of student rights, 
responsibilities, and conduct which can then be disseminated to 
American educational institutions. A basis for this study may be 
the “model code" developed by the Student Rights Division of the 
American Bar Association, the Carnegie Commission on Higher 
Education, and other "model codes" currently in use at educational 
institutions throughout the country. 



B. State and local school districts should also explore methods of 
providing such a code for their state's educational institutions. 






Equal Education 
Opportunity; Ensuring 
Equal Access 



Outmoded Curricula 







4.3 Since the Second World War, the United States has been 
actively pursuing the goals of equality of educational opportunity 
regardless of one’s age, socio-economic and cultural background, 
color, race, religion, sex, or physical differences. 

Racial or ethnic isolation, whatever their cause, still deprives too 
many Americans of an equal educational opportunity. Patterns of 
discrimination usually mean inadequate teaching and run-down 
facilities resulting in the inability of millions of students to achieve 
their potential. 



Equality of educational opportunity is aiso frustrated by other aspects 
of the American educational system which affect non-minority 
students as well: excessive fragmentation of the curriculum; often 
unrealistic prerequisites; still too many insensitive administrators, 
counselors, and instructor id an overemphasis on the academically 
inclined with less attention jeuig paid to those with other valid 
career goals. American education is also too often involved in the 
absorption of unrelated facts rather than the carefiul correlation 
of theory with practice. 

Frequently erbitrary class periods, rather than interest and the 
nature of the subject matter, determine the ume devoted to a subject. 
Within the classroom, the learning process seems to be more of a 
custodial than of an educational nature. 

For the last century the public scho system. has been the foundation 
of American democracy. It has Icrtg provided a melting pot to 
acclimate new groups to the nation s value system. Today, however, 
Americans of different colors and races challenge this goal and 
the process by which it has been achieved. They rightfully seek 
the incorporation of their own cultural values and heritages into 
the educational process — an addition which should enrich all 
students equally. 

4.3a The organization and content of secondary school curricula 
have been overly standardized to help those students who plan to 
enter college meet admission requirements. However, students 
entering junior and senior high school differ not only in competence, 
interests, and learning styles, but also in their prospects for future 
education and work. Secondary schools cannot serve the diverse 
needs of these students merely by adding curriculum tracks to 
the standard college preparatory sequence. (The Carnegie Unit 
system is an anachronism and should be dissolved.) Secondary 
school students must be offered opportunities to design 
individualized educational programs suited to their particular 
competencies and interests. with the help of sensitive, informed 
advisers and counselors. 

Neither do high school students require the same post-secondary 
hjohnr education. With changing values and greater diversity 
among those pursuing higher education, further alternatives and 
options are needed. Those who have the capacity and potential 
to pursue one of these alternatives should not be denied an 
opportunity to do so because of age, cultural, financial, class, 
color, ethnic, racial, religious, physical, or sexual discrimination. 
We should also remember that the seeds which enable one to 
undertake an education beyond ihe high school are planted in the 
pre-school years. Our commitment for change must begin 
there if we are to benefit from the Mlest development of each 
individual's potential. 




0*5 



Secondary schools and the various institutions of higher education 
must provide equal access to educational opportunities for all 
students who have the capacity, desire, or potential to benefit 
from a particular type of educational experience regardless of age, 
cultural, socio economic background, color, ethnic, racial, religious, 
sexual or physical differences. 

These institutions must also provide for and respect those individual 
differences by acknowledging that students have varying rates and 
patterns of learning and that they have a need to have their 
individual goals met. 

Implementation: To further equality of edu^^ional opportunity 
and the equality of educational result, all levels of government 
must accept the responsibility for ensuring equal access to — and 
the accommodation of diverse interests in — the secondary and 
higher educational institutions of our nat : 

A. The Federal government must (a) vigorously enforce existing 
laws and administrative regulations against discrimination and 
work positively to further integration, (b) provide greater support 
for school construction assistance to correct existing deficiencies 
resulting from de jure and de facto segregation, (c) secure 
adequate funding for special programs to assist administrators, 
counselors, and instructors involved in desegregation and integration 
efforts as well as for bilingual-bicultural programs to be offered in 
schools where there is a substantial minority population. 

B. The state governments must (a) require and fund bilingual- 
bicultural programs in schools where there is a substantial number 
of minority students and provide that all educators granted 
certification for the public schools within their states complete a 
special program on cultural diversity dealing with the problems 
confronting the disadvantaged and bilingual student, (b) maintain 
alternative systems of education beyond the high school, each 
worthy of respect, (c) recognize the instructional^ oriented 
institutions of higher education designed to educate the professional 
as being of equal merit with the more research-oriented state 
institutions, (d) mandate equalization of per capita public 
expenditures to remove the financial barriers which now prevent 
largely minority areas from having adequate educational facilities, 
programs, and personnel and in the transition period, provide 
additional support to rectify past inadequacies, (e) aid in the 
consolidation of small schools where appropriate to offer more 
adequate educational opportunity in rural areas, (f) exercise 
authority to establish school district boundaries that will provide 

a better balanced and more financially sound public school 
constituency than now exists in many urban-suburban communities, 
(g) increase state support for education through additional and 
more equitable sources of revenue — -such as the income tax — in 
addition to the local property tax which largely finances American 
public schools. 

C. Educators bear a particular responsibility for implementation 
of these recommendations. Simply adding more money- — as 
necessary and as justified as that might be in many cases — to 
much of the existing educational system will not solve many of 
our current educational problems. What is also required is a firm, 
commitment and the will to accomplish what is right. 

Educators at all levels must (a) encourage students to re-enter the 



educational system after they have dropped out for employment, 
national service, or personal reasons (b) utilize as part of the 
curricula the student’s total potential educational environment and 
not restrict the learning experience to the classroom, 'c) establish 
programs to reeducate professional personnel in the use of the 
community as an instructional laboratory and to renew and improve 
their effectiveness as practitioners, (d) stress in the design of 
curricula critical thinking and problem-solving, (e) introduce 
bilingual-bicultural courses where the dominant culture arid a 
significant minority of students can benefit from such a program, 

(f) individualize instruction and develop integrated core curricula 
in many fields to overcome course fragmentation and proliferation, 

(g) eliminate unreaspnable course prerequisites related to level 
of education in order that students of diverse ages can mix and 
learn together, (h) experiment with alternative systems of evaluation 
— such as regular written faculty evaluations which analyze the 
student's potential in relation to a given level of mastery and/or 
which permit a student to repeat a course without failure until 

he has achieved that level of mastery — to overcome the negative 
effects which the present system has had on the learning process 
and in particular as it related to minority students, (i) reduce social 
class barriers within an educational institution through programs 
by which student, non-student, and parent alike, can gain a better 
understanding of each others’ values and improve interpersonal 
relationships, (j) make school counselors more readily available 
to all students. The roles of these counselors should be determined 
at the local level by the students to be served, the employers, and 
the counselors. Assignments should be clear in recognizing the 
primary professional concern of counselors to be the worth and the 
well-being of students. A counselor’s work may be complemented by 
trained student peer counselors, (k) improve the career advisement 
function by encouraging department heads to make information 
available on their respective fields, especially for minority students, 

(I) urge the faculty, who represent various disciplines in the sciences 
and professions, to work with their colleagues at the next lower 
level of education to identify and to encourage minority students 
to enter those fields. 

D. Industry and the professions must (a) seek more from the 
educational process than simply performance of in-service training. 
The need is for individuals who are broadly educated, yet who 
possess the expertise and confidence in their chosen field. To 
deny the student of science and technology adequate understanding 
of the humanities and the social sciences — and, specifically, the 
capacity to read, to write, and to speak with precision — -is not 
meeting the long-run interests of profession, industry, student, or 
society. Similarly, the student of the humanities and the social 
sciences must have some comprehension of the professional, 
industrial, and technical world in which he lives, (b) provide more 
internship, work-study opportunities so that students will work 
with successful professionals and firms who ws!! sn turn make 
available personnel and facilities in a joint effort with educational 
institutions, (c) continue efforts with government cooperation to 
assimilate and provide suitable employment for youth, since the 
attitudes of students toward education and their willingness to 
engage in serious academic study are influenced profoundly by their 
conviction as to whether or not their school performance will 
eventuate in worthwhile employment. 

E. The media must more adequately meet the responsibilities 
which their use of the public air waves and the second class postal 



■privilege imposes on them by (a) developing programs for 
sell-learning and continuing education for young and old, 
advantaged and disadvantaged alike, (b) participating more 
ictively in noting the accomplishments of ethnic minorities and 
the role they have played and the contributions they have made and 
are making, (c) reviewing existing programs and artic. >s and 
creating new ones which will dignify all work which is done within 
our society, whether it is work done with the mind, the f nds, 
or both. 



Financial Aid 
Is Inadequate 



?: 

1. 



I 







I 

i 



i 



0 

ERIC 

1 86 



4.3b The financial barriers to equal access to educate dl 
opportunity should be eliminated through the full funding of -listing 
Federal programs. 

Institutions of higher education postulate a goal of equal access to 
educational opportunity at a point in history when exnsting J -irograhis 
of great promise are grossly underfunded. At present eacrl? of the 
programs administered by the Division of Student Financial Aid 
and of the Office of Education is unable to meet the demand 
for dollars represented by approved requests for funding ferom 
institutions. The programs so underfunded are Educational 
Opportunity Grants (Initial Starts), Educational Opportunity 
Grants (Renewals), College Work Study, and the National Defense 
Savings Loan. 



Of the three branches of special services, none can fund the 
institutional programs presently planned and approved. These 
programs are Upward Bound, Educational Talent Searcl and 
Special Services. 



The Civil Rights Commission has documented the gross 
underfunding of the predominately Negro land grant colleges 



from both Federal and stats sources and attributed it to racism- 



The Administration has failed in its budgetary request to fund 
the Bureau of Student Financial Aid programs even up to the level 
of the Congressionally approved appropriations. The level of funding 
requested by the Administration for Student Financial Aid in its 
proposals for the Higher Education Act of 1971 is insufficient to 
meet student need. 

We desire to accomplish the goal stated forthrightly by the President 
that “no student shall be denied access to post secondary 
educational opportunity because of lack of money.” 

One measure of this attainment would be equalization, that is, 
matriculation rates equivalent for students from the two low income 
quarters of the population to those of the two upper income quartiles. 

We recommend immediate full funding of existing programs in order 
that the goals of these programs may be accomplished. Recognizing 
the need for experimentation to achieve requisite efficiency, we 
argue less for form than for level of funding. 



Implementation: Should the demand for educational opportunity 
become so great and grant funding remain inadequate, thus, 
denying our higher education to many millions of Americans, 
we suggest that Congress carefully study the establishment of a 
Federal loan program whereby any individual with the capacity, 
desire, or potential for higher education may borrow up to $2,000 
a year, not to exceed four academic years of higher education. 
The interest and principal would not need to be repaid until four 




! 

! 

V 

l. 

: 

L 

V 

i 



j 



Relevant Education; 
Alternative Systems 
of Education 



$■ 

l 



l 

\ 

l 



i\ 

I 




years after the completion of the educational period and then 
repaid through a surcharge on the individual's Federal income tax. 



4.4 During the past few years students have protested the present 
curriculum in schools and colleges and have cried out for a 
‘relevant' education. For these students a ‘relevant’ education 
means one which will suit their specific needs. Thus, instruction 
must become individualized and a large variety of alternative 
systems of education and forms of presentation, materials, etc., 
within these systems must be made available. 



Educational systems and programs must be made relevant to 
student's life situations and the probable futures that their world 
will offer. Students must be permitted to explore various areas of 
interest, which include the social, emotional, spiritual, intellectual 
and physical development of the individual. Students need to be 
allowed to learn outside the formal classroom and to receive 
academic credit for these experiences. They also need to move 
freely between vocational and academic programs. Educational 
systems must perceive and build their curriculum (which 
encompasses the total learning experiences of the student) on the 
basis that the total community is the context in which education 
occurs. Counselors should specifically be concerned with assisting 
students in identifying what options are available to them, in 
developing new options where none exist and in assisting students 
to exercise their right of choice. 



Implementation: A. Local, state, and Federal governments should 
significantly increase and continue to fund research and development 
programs, as well as alternative systems, materials, and such 
techniques as performance contracting, the voucher system, 
deferred tuition programs, independent study programs, the Parkway 
Progress Program and work-study programs, etc. Increased funding 
should be provided for vocationally oriented programs which are 
integrated into the regular educational system. Other funds should 
continue to be specifically earmarked for specific vocational 
programs. 

B Institutions of higher education must continuously evaluate 
their objectives and design curricula to promote the growth of the 
individual. Students should be allowed to develop approved 
individualized programs of study. Courses should be developed 
offering learning opportunities concerned with interpersonal 
relationships and present day problems. Additional systems of 
secondary education are needed to provide for both the social 
and technical needs of today’s students. Grading and college 
entrance and graduation requirements need to be thoroughly 
reevaluated and, in many instances, revised. Cooperative efforts 
between the university and the local community in the form of 
social and service learning and work-study programs must 
be strengthened. 



C. Secondary educational systems, which include the students as 
well as members of their educational communities, need to 
periodically define and publicize their objectives and design curricula 
to achieve these objectives. Educational experiences should be 
provided which offer opportunities for students to relate jwith 
peer groups, other generations, and persons of diverse ethnic, 
economic and cultural circumstances. A counseling staff compeient 
in academic, personal and vocational fields, should be available m 






Couseling Services 



Opportunities for Dropouts 




as 



the ratio 1:50 students. Schools should assume responsibility for 
job placement of all students, including drop-outs. Course 
requirements and the grading system should be thoroughly 
reevaluated and revised in many instances. 

Cooperative efforts between the community and the school in the 
form of social and service learning and work-study programs must 
be strengthened. The school should draw from the talents and skills 
of the community men and women who should be recognized as 
vital educational partners. 

D. Media must accept the responsibility of being a most important 
educational force. The FCC must establish regulations which 
protect media freedom while at the same time ensuring maximum 
educational benefits for the Nations' students and other citizens. 



4.4a The relevant school of today and tomorrow will be pluralistic 
in structure and function. It will provide a large variety of in and 
out of school, short and long term, and planned and spontaneous 
learning experiences. To insure that the student can profit from 
opportunities provided him, he must be presented with more 
than a choice of opportunities. For the student to receive 
an education which is personally meaningful, personal and 
environmental exploration, career and life style planning and 
decision-making must be given major emphasis throughout a 
student’s elementary and secondary schooling. 



Counselors should (a) devote a major share of their time and effort 
to facilitating the student's personal, cultural, and environmental 
exploration, career and life style planning and decision-making and 
building multiple choices within the curriculum, (b) be available 
in sufficient numbers to work with all students throughout 
elementary and secondary schools (one counselor to 50 students), 
(c) be made more readily available to all students. The roles cf 
these counselors should be defined at the local level with 
participation from the students to be served, the employers, and 
the counselors. The primary concern of counselors should be the 
worth and the well-being of the students. Therefore, counselors 
should be free of clerical and administrative duties and should 
direct their major attention to working directly with and for students. 

Implementation: A. The Government should provide support only 
for those school counseling programs in which counselors are 
solely involved in counseling and guidance activities. 

B. Institutions of Higher Education must prepare counselors to work 
in areas defined by students to meet their various interests 

and needs. 

C. Secondary and elementary schools must continually re-assess 
and evaluate their guidance programs to insure that counselors are 
available in sufficient numbers and responsive to the needs of 
the students. 



D. Business and the community must regularly consult with students 
and counselors to insure that their educational programs are 
functioning within agreed upon guidelines. 



4.4b The dropout has been told constantly by educators that his 
or her only solution to achieving success is by obtaining a high 
school diploma. However, the ability to think and perform various 



v-V-f,' 



skills is not determined by the mere possession of a diploma. Many 
students are presently recognizing that schools are not meeting 
their needs and that learning occurs in places other than a 
formal classroom. 

School systems must recognize dropouts as part of the normal 
student body population. They require alternative educational 
procedures which include such features as a flexible, curriculum 
and extended counseling services. They also require that the schools 
recognize their different cultural and ethnic contributions. 

Implementation: A. Dropouts should participate fully in all 
educational gqvernance. Schools must recruit dropouts for all 
governing bodies. 

B. The educational establishment must recognize the dropout as a 
member of the total educational system. Teachers and administrators, 
who expect students to achieve poorly, usually create an atmosphere 
that makes this self-fulfilling; consequently, if an atmosphere of 
high achievement is developed, students will usually do very well. 



C. High schools and colleges must develop alternative criteria other 
than a diploma or a degree for admission to further education. 





E 

V 



o 

ERJC 



D. Employment requirements must be changed. Industry must not 
rely solely upon a diploma or credentials for determining 
employability. A dropout should have as equal an opportunity of 
access to all jobs as graduates. Hiring should be based solely on 
the individual's ability to perform the job. 



Grades: Alternate Methods 
of Evaluating Students 



4 4c The cry for a relevant education has echoed through every 
office and classroom. An important aspect of the issue is that 
learning may not be meaningful if grades become the focus of a 
learning experience. Too often students play grade games and 
do not learn; too often students develop failure identities and 
simply give up; too often youth do not discover learning — instead 
they learn a system. 



Alternative methods of evaluating students must be explored. 
Relevancy in school curriculum as a whole must extend to the 
individual class. The student can follow his interests freely only when 
not dependent on the favor of a class leader. Performance criteria 
must be set and judged by both the student and the teacher. 



Implementation: A. Every level of education should adopt a pass-fail 
or credit-no credit system for all courses except those in the 
student's major. 



B. If local schools desire, a student should be able to earn honors 
recognition for extremely exceptional effort. 



C. Written evaluations should be given to the student and his parents 
so that they may understand and assist him. 



D The teacher and student should cc .fer periodically in mutual 
evaluations. This could be the most important and most productive 
factor in improved evaluation, and part of a system which stimulates 
increased learning. 



Environmental 
Education Programs 



4.4d The basic determinants of the quality of man’s life are his 
total physical environment and his relationships to his fellow r,. . 




A concerted effort should be made to enable man to develop a real 
and basic understanding of how he exists within his environment, 
and to become aware of the tremendous impact he has upon his 
world. Any educational system which is to be truly relevant to the 
people it serves must provide for integrated programs in the 
above areas. 

In order to provide people with the understanding necessary to 
make intelligent decisions about their environment, educational 
institutions should implement an integrated program of environmental 
education. Such a program should include studies of man's physical 
environment, and of his effect upon the environment, both as a 
consumer of resources and as an agent with power to alter his 
environment, for better or for worse. Realizing that man is an 
integral part of his environment, curriculum designers should 
emphasize population studies, and the impact of over-population 
upon man and his earth. 

Implementation: A. Government should recognize that quality of 
environment and quality of life are synonymous. It should continue 
to support, through Federal and state grants, programs to develop 
relevant systems of environmental education. Emphasis should be 
placed on funding teacher training programs as well as student 
oriented curricula. 

B. Institutions of Higher Education should stress teacher training 
programs which develop qualified teachers in these areas. 

C. Primary and Secondary Schools should realize the importance 
of environmental education and should integrate the concept of 
environment into the entire curriculum. Schools should be 
concerned with all aspects of the human environment and should 
recognize the effect of human sexuality . upon peoples lives. 

D. Media should cooperate in the development of environmental 
education programs. They should evaluate their current 
programming according to the guidelines outlined in the above 
recommendation. 

4.4e Traditional school surroundings tend to dehumanize students 
and hinder their ability to learn. Architectural surroundings of 
the schools should be safe and conducive to learning. 

Implementation: Light, paint and carpeting should be provided to 
make the architectural surroundings of the schools more conducive 
to learning. The physical set up should be flexible and adaptable 
to various modes of learning and teaching. 

4.4f The future of education lies in the expanded use of 
instructional technology. This would allow for individualization of 
instruction and free the teacher to interact with each student. 

We recommend that Congress adopt legislation that would 
authorize the development and implementation of instructional 
technology as a means of education. We further recommend that 
adequate funds be appropriated to insure the implementation of 
these programs on a nationwide basis. 

With better distribution processes, more schools could have 
access to instructional technology materials and make their use 
more economical. 



We urge the establishment of distribution centers for instructional 
technology software. 

Implementation: Storage libraries should be established housing 
movies, video and audio tapes, multi-media exhibits, slides, etc. 
These must be easily accessible to all sections of the country. 



Interfacing School and 
Community; Expand Use 
of Facilities 



415 presently college and high school resources are used on a limited 
8-3, Monday-Friday, September-June basis. This limited utilization 
hinders individual as well as community achievement of educational 
goals. The increased use of these facilities would provide for the 
following: (a) needed adult education and retraining in academic 
and vocational areas so necessary in America's rapidly advancing 
technological society; (b) a community center where positive 
interaction would be possible for all community members, i.e., each 
school could become a community college, child care center, sport 
and civic center, etc., during hours not utilized by members of 
the conventional educational community; (c) interaction between 
diverse peoples to greatly enhance the entire experience of learning. 
Businessmen, housewives, laborers, and all other members of the 
community could facilitate the education of their young people. 

The limited use of high school and college faculty and facilities must 
be expanded. Since education is a lifelong process, communities 
canutilize these resources for the total education of people in all 
walks of life. Therefore, it must be recognized that the school is 
an extension of the surrounding community and should involve 
all members of its society. These members are partially responsible 
and should participate in the education of their young people using 
the community school concept. 



Schoo 1 as a 
Community Laboratory 



Implementation: A. Decentralization of administrative power 
concerning policy, curriculum, and administrative decisions must be 
transferred from the state level to the local level. Thus, the special 
needs of individual communities' environments could be met by 
increased community involvement; decisions would be made by 
parents, teachers, students, as well as school board members. 

A year-round schedule should be developed for schools in which 
educational activities for interested persons are made available. 
Students should also be permitted to choose the terms in which 
they wish to study. 



C. The community school concept must be seriously considered 
by all state and local school boards. 

4.5a Students can obtain more relevant education when the school 
is viewed as a laboratory within the community. Since 18-year olds 
now have a vote, it is important that schools and colleges offer 
training in how communities are organized and how political 
processes operate. Through this training, students will become 
knowledgeable about how institutions, including schools, are 
organized and function. Students will become better citizens 
of the community after graduation if they understand how 
institutions operate. 



ich school and college should establish a course, the content of 
iich would be the study of that school or college and its 
immunity. The school will act as a social laboratory for students 
discover the dynamics and political processes at work. 



Implementation: A. Local school districts should develop model 
courses along the lines of these recommendations. The courses 
should be organized in an independent study and seminar structure 
in which a student selects a community institution to study, 
becomes actively involved in it, and then returns to share 
experiences and observations in a seminar. 

B. Local educational districts should provide in-service training for 
teachers who want to lead such seminars. 

C. Business and industry should provide special teacher preparation 
courses for community-school laboratories. 

D. Federal and state funds should be made available for model 
courses in each community. 

4.5b The American elementary and secondary education systems 
have traditionally favored students intent on pursuing higher 
education rather than providing for the true needs of the individual. 
This traditional system was fuctional at one time because societal 
and economic needs required a large labor force and a small 
educated class. Also, in pre-technological times the labor force 
served as an alternative to formal education, allowing people to 
learn on the job and grow into positions of greater responsibility. 

Today, education is a requirement for entry into the labor force, 
yet our educational institutions have largely failed to recognize and 
adjust to this change. However, there are examples of our nation 
mobilizing its human resources to meet new needs. In the past 
these mobilizations have occurred in the face of external threat, 
real or imagined. The crisis today resides within, yet demands the 
same total response. Our defense establishment has been able to 
train every individual to his maximum capacity and need. We have 
supplied soldiers with literacy training, therapeutic and preventive 
health care, and job skills. We must do the same with all of our 
citizenry. If we undertake to meet these specific needs, not only 
will American society benefit, but it will also permit the individual 
to grow in stature and to strengthen his self-image. These individual 
human concerns are of utmost importance to us. 

We recommend the establishment of a new type of community 
learning center, a center that would marshal the services and make 
available the cultural (including those of the barrio and ghetto), 
educational, and business and industry resources of the total 
community. The community learning centers would help any learner 
obtain the kind of relevant education that is required by that learner 
at that time. We conceive of these community learning centers 
providing education for the world of work, continuing academic 
studies or for personal development and fulfillment. 

Implementation: A. Equality of education for all people does not mean 
that everyone should receive the same education. 

B. Each student’s educational program, at any time in his life, should 
be created to meet his individual needs. This necessitates creating 
more options than the present system provides, including utilization 
of non-schooi community resources. 

C. Within a learning center credit should be granted for work 
experience, jobs and volunteer activities that contribute to career 
choices. Work experience provides a chance to become oriented 



toward several kinds of work, to gain employability and socialization 
skills, to assume responsibilities and specific job skills. In addition, 
it allows everyone of every age to make a contribution to society. 

D. Work experience also enables students to take advantage of 
facilities and equipment already existing within a community, thus 
reducing, in many instances, the cost of education. 



E. These work experiences can be an important component in 
community involvement. Employers have a stake in assuring that 
their workers are receiving a relevant education. Additionally, 
community involvement is assured because there is no terminal 
point in public education — everyone can go to school to get whatever 
he needs at any time in his life. 

F. Such a learning center should take advantage of the innovative, 
operational and administrative efficiencies and advantages which 
the comprehensive application of technological systems can make 
possible. The future of education lies in the expanded use of 
instructional technology which not only allows for individualization 
of instruction, but frees the teacher to interact with each student. 



G. Thus, educational media centers should be established which 
have community-wide responsibility for the planning, design, 
production and acquisition of teaching materials. These materials 
should be disseminated by a variety of delivery systems (radio and 
TV broadcasting films, cable TV, audio, video and film cassettes) 
and made available to learners. To achieve such a delivery system, 
the administration and Congress must provide additional funds. 



H. Such a communications system, built as an integral part of these 
learning centers, could make the cultural and educational resources 
of the community available to support and strengthen existing 
educational institutions and training centers. These systems would 
also make teaching materials available to individuals or groups in 
the home, also the neighborhood. 

I Because the system is open to everyone at any time in his life, 
the learning centers should make a valuable extensive counseling 
service by trained professionals to help all community residents 
determine their life choices. 



The success of the learning centers must be measured by their 
ability to prepare the student for the next step in his life, be it the 
next grade, another center, college, vocational school, or job. 
Accountability within the learning center requires that at each level ^ 
of education someone must be personally responsible for others 
success, the success of students is the responsibility of the teacher 
and the success of the teacher is the responsibility of the 
administrator. For everyone in the system, from the entering 
student to the highest administrative official, failure shows their 
performance must be reassessed and their possible forced exit from 
the system considered. 



All those associated with the learning center would assume the 
dual roles of both teacher and student. Educational professionals 
would be expected to take regular leaves of absence for inservice 
training to observe innovations in learning occurring in other places. 



The dignity of vocational skills would be enhanced by the learning 
center because all teachers would no longer need to be college 






educated. Plumbers, electricians and farmers could also teach, 
making their trades and crafts focal points of the formal 
educational system. 

Learning centers would be financed in part through education 
monies, collected from whatever level and source and distributed to 
areas of the greatest need. The responsibility for meeting specific 
program needs of education would remain at the level closest to 
the people. 

The learning centers would be in business to please their clients. 

It would be the responsibility of all those associated with the centers 
to be sure that the customers, the students, were pleased with the 
centers' product. The customers’ dissatisfaction would indicate 
that the centers were unsuccessful and changes would need to 
be made. 



Schools Must Be Humane 4.6 The schools as they now exist are stifling, unyielding institutions 

with little flexibility or humaneness. 

The focus must always be on the student as a person rather than 
on the content of a subject. Thus, the concerns of each individual 
student, which arise out of his life within the community, must be 
the substance of education. A humane school offers students and 
teachers options which ailow for alternatives styles of teaching 
and learning. 

The school which the task force envisions is a total learning 
community in which students, parents, faculty, administrators, 
interns, paraprofessionals and the outside community are involved 
in the real decision-making process. For participation to have any 
meaning, decisions about the curriculum and the educational 
process must be decentralized to the local school. 

Teacher Education 4.6a Teachers need to be prepared to teach in this kind of school. 

(1) Training of all school staff must be centered on student learning. 
Therefore, teacher training must be removed from the teacher 
training institution to the actual school location. The real life 
situation of the school is the best site for training prospective 
teachers. 

(2) School and university personnel must unite in a collaborative 
effort to prepare teachers. The goal should be to. better integrate 
practice and theory in the training of teachers.* 

(3) Effective teaching requires self-understanding and sensitivity 
to desires and feelings of students. The implications of dealing 
humanly with students point to a need for the teacher to have 
knowledge and understanding of minority and youth cultures. The 
teacher must, be involved continuously in a sensitivity training 
process designed to increase his understanding of himself and 
others in their school relationships. The goal of this suggestion is 
to open up effective and honest communication among all those 
within the school community, thus, increasing mutual trust. 

(4) In recognition of individual differences and needs, teacher 
preparation must offer alternative sites and activities for learning, 
thus, allowing for self-selection among prospective teachers. 

* See end of Section 4.6a for proposed model to accomplish 
this idea. - - 




(5) Certification should be based on competencies demonstrated 
with children. These competencies should be jointly defined by the 
schools and the teacher training faculty. 

(6) Teachers must become facilitators of learning. They should be 
prepared to assume roles as resource managers and leaders of 
paraprofessionals and community volunteers who assist in programs 
of individualized instruction. Their professional training should 
include experiences in learning similar to those they are expecte 
to provide for pupils; thus, they should be taught as they are 
expected to teach. 

(7) The teacher needs to be educated to be the kind of person that 
society expects. Throughout the teacher’s professional career, he 
should have a broad, liberal education, exposing him to many areas 
of interrelated knowledge, including economics, political science, 
psychology, sociology and philosophy. This knowledge should be 
integrated to promote self understanding of the teacher in the society 
in which he exists. 

(8) We must recognize that certain competencies in effective 
classroom teaching are not guaranteed by a college degre. There is 
a need to open up the entry way by «fiich people are certified to 
teach. In the school teacher-training site, envisioned by the Task 
Force, means other thssrtfee college classroom will be Offered for 

a person to acquire the competencies to teach. 

(9) A component of tarcher education must include an understanding 
of educational decisicm-making and politics so that teachers, 
concerned with change in their schools, will have the knowledge 
and skills to effect change. 

(10) Special training components must provide for competencies 
needed in cross-cultural and minority teaching/learning situations. 
Sensitivity to and knowledge of minority students and their culture 
must be translated through training into effective teaching skills 
which enable the student to learn. 

(11) Teacher training institutions should move rapidly to employ 
in the full range of positions, faculty and administrators from 
racial minorities. 

(12) There are many areas of edueational concem for which we 
are lacking objective information to make final judgments, fet, we 
need to move forward toward innovation if schools are to fulfil this 
mandate We need action research in the area of student output 
and highly refined devices of evaluation of that output. Therefore, 

we need increased research in the measurement of student output 
and the reasons for that output. 

(13) Guidance in the schools must be humanized and m ° der ^; 
The guidance counselor must organize his service around the student 
as a person in such a way as to provide assistance appropriate to 
the needs of each student. In order to provide the guidance 
counselor with time, we recommend the use of modern information 
Xval systems available directly to the student to provide facts 
on career options and training. 

We recommend the same model of training for counselore; centered 
on student need/preference, on site in the school, and including 
a sensitivity conaoooent. 



(14) School administrators must have and use power to effect 
change in their individual schools. We recommend cooperative on 
site school/university training which is also performance-based 
for middle level administrators. 

Implementation. Implementation of these recommendations should 
follow the plans outlined below: 

A. State departments of education should substitute approval of 
college/school programs for the present approach of central 
state requirements. 

B. State departments of education must join the reciprocity 
agreement of the National Council for Accreditation in Teacher 
Education. 

C. Federal funding of programs within the Bureau of Education 
Personnel Development, such as Teacher Corps, Urban/Rurat, etc., 
which embody the principles in these resolutions, should be 
increased. These relevant programs, which hold great promise for 
effecting change in schools, are constantly underfunded. It is time 
to change national priorities in the direction of education. 

D-. institutions of higher education — universities, colleges and junior 
colleges — should establish learning-teaching effectiveness 
centers to provide for the renewal and up-grading of professional 
instructional faculty. 

Specifically, the Task Force envisions a series of schools in which a 
team of people from college and high school improve learning and 
train in-service and prospective teachers. The team would include 
school administrators, master teachers, in-service teachers, education 
faculty members based in the building, teacher aides, both from 
the college and the community, and teacher trainees who have 
completed their general studies at the college. 

The aim of this model is to markedly improve the performance of 
a school in a short period of time and at the same time to provide 
pre-service training for teacher trainees as well as in-service training 
for veteran teachers. 

Basic to the model is the position of “master teacher". 

This position should be filled by men and women of proven 
competence in the classroom who have a desire to work closely 
and sympathetically with neophyte teachers. Each trainee would 
receive progressively greater responsibility for managing a class 
as his ability increases. 

4.6b A sensitive area of decision-making is that of promoting 
teachers and administrators to tenure on both the secondary and 
college level. The present system protects poor teachers and 
administrators and provides little stimulus for updating of skills and 
knowledge. The present system puts the burden of success solely 
on students and not on the ability of the teacher or administrator. 

The teacher and administrator tenure system should be revamped. 
Since good teaching should be the criterion for tenure, teaching 
quality should be assessed on the basis of evaluations by students, 
colleagues who have observed the teacher, administrators, and the 
teacher himself. Teachers entering a system should be given the 







option of a one year contract or a limited tenure period. Renewal 
of contract should be based on cumulative evaluations. 

Implementation: A. Students should be provided the opportunity to 
evaluate the effectiveness of their teachers and administrators a 
least once a year. Evaluation from students along with evaluations 
from colleagues, administrators, community members and the 
teacher, himself, should be the basis for renewal of contract. 

B. Each school should establish a personnel committee composed 
of representatives from the student body, administration, raculty, 
and community to review the evaluations of each teacher and 
administrator and to make decisions concerning renewing or 
discontinuing a contract. 



C Teachers and administrators should be hired for a maximum 
neriod of three years with renewal based on cumulative evaluations. 
The personnel committee of each school should make the decision 
to renew or withdraw a contract. 



D Teachers and administrators entering a school district shou d 
have two basic options: (a) one year contract. If the local school 
personnel committee, based on positive evaluations renews a 
contract, a substantial pay increase should be provided, *b) three 
year contract. Nominal pay increases should be provided for th 
three-year periods Renewal of contract after three years s> u 
based on favorable cumulative evaluations. At time of renewal a 
«?i'hstantial pay increase should be provided. 



The Exceptional Student 



Early Development 
of Interests 



Integrate into 
Regular School Life 



.7 The primary goal of education should be self-actualization of 
ie individuals served, not preparation of individuals to fit existing 
ocial slots which are determined mainly by economic considera- 
ons. Exceptional students are those who differ from the norm, 
his group includes the physically, emotionally and mentally hand - 
apped, the learning disabled, as well as the gifted. Exceptions 
tudents have remained on the periphery of the educational system, 
‘his is not acceptable. It must be recognized that exceptional 
itudents need to learn how best to develop their individual interests 

ind aptitudes. 

k7a Early detection of exceptional children may eliminate the 
sossibility of further compounding the problem. Moreover, gifted 
'hildren must be recognized so that their abilities may be culti- 
/ated before they are buried beneath years of boredom. 

Exceptional children must be given the earliest opportunity to 
develop their individual interests and aptitudes. 

ImDhmentation: Multidisciplinary teams trained in the area of 
handicapped and gifted children should be used to identify excep- 
tional students. 

4 7b Integration of exceptional students benefits the . . 

as well as normal students. It is through integration that the special 
student can be educated intellectually and socially. 

Schools should reduce as much as possible the programs ‘^teLte 
isolate exceptional students and make a maximum effort to integrate 
them into the regular life of schools, colleges and conrimunities. 

A corollary to integration is the individualization of education 
programs. 



•v 



' y 



i ■ ■ 



& 



1 

■•V 




Implementation: A. In the case of the physically handicapped, 
architectural barriers must be removed and ramps and other facili- 
ties built in the proper proportions for those in wheelchairs. 



Public Understanding 



Research 



Fund and Implement 
Programs 



0 




AO 



B. In the case of the gifted, special programs should be designed 
to stimulate interest and develop talents. 

C. In the case of the mentally retarded, the emotionally disturbed 
and the learning disabled, individual programs must be develop- 
mental in nature. The programs should affirm what the student 

is already capable of and build from there. It is importaratlhat these 
students be given a feeling of self-worth. Most are alreadyrpain- 
fully aware that they cannot perform in normal ways. 

4.7c Ignorance stops learning. That is, the ignorance of the 
problems and needs of students stops their learning and tse most 
neglected of students are exceptional students. 

The total community needs to be trained and educated so that they 
can work with the exceptional student easily and naturally. They 
should learn how to help these students graciously and without 
mutual embarrassment. 

Implementation: A. A television program, dedicated to promoting 
and understanding the exceptional students must be produced on a 
major network during prime time. Such a program need note: be 
a "lesson one, step one” procedure. Rather, methods in stealing 
with and relative to exceptional students can be incorporated 
in a family, story- type program. 

B. Brochures which are easy to understand and easy to apply 
to daily life must be distributed. 

C. Classes taught by the exceptional or in which the exceptional 
work closely with the regular teacher should be offered. 

D. The news media must cover stories on nev/ programs designed 
for exceptional students. Groups organizing these programs 
must make an effort to alert the media to these programs. 

4.7d It is believed that research, a basic principle by which complex 
problems can be brought to light and solved, must be fully funded 
on a national scale. 

Research centers should be continued and studies to delve deeper 
into more specific areas concerning not only the pathological, but 
the social problems facing exceptional students, should be initiated. 

Implementation: Research of causes, treatment and prevention of 
handicapping conditions must be expanded through Federal funding. 

4.7e Many states have realized their obligation to educate all of 
the communities' students, and have passed legislation requiring 
school districts to create special classes for the mentally retarded, 
emotionally disturbed, learning disabled and gifted. Unfortunately, 
systems have either established makeshift programs saddling 
one teacher to handle ali the exceptional students in a self-contained 
class, or else they have failed to create any program due to lack 
of funds. 




Establish Advocacy 
Programs 



s 



I 

f 



Special Education 
Neglected 




The legislation that now exists requiring school systems to estab- 
lish programs for exceptional students should in fact be carried out 
and funded. Community programs should be reviewed by state 
and local officials, and the school system should be provided with 
guidelines for setting up special programs. 



Implementation: State and local officials in charge of special edu- 
cation should be responsible for coordinating and advising school 
systems in the establishment and continuance of special education 
programs. Coordination should include interagency matters. 

4.7f The rights of children and youth have long been overlooked, 
especially in the case of the exceptional student. Services and 
help may never be delivered, or delivered only in part or inefficiently. 

Each state must have a mechanism to act ar an advocate for the 
needs of all students, especially the exceptional student. This office 
would locate and coordinate all the various institutions and ser- 
vices that may help the student and insure that his needs and 
rights are respected. It would also direct citizen concerns about 
service inadequacy to appropriate channels of correction and 
develop suitable channels if none exist. This office should not be 
responsible to any single agency. It might be supported by any 
state or Federal fund. 



Implementation: Such an office should have as its advisory board 
a legislator, a state official on education, persons representing 
service agencies and a student representative. It would be the 
responsibility of this office to inform the public about available 
services and to promote understanding about the problems and i 

needs of children and youth. j 

■ ; I 

i 

4.7g The funding of special education programs has been j 

inadequate. An entire segment of society has been neglected. Money | 

is needed for research and for the programs proposed by this 
task force so that the exceptional student can become a contributing j 
member of society. j 

innovative programs created to meet the full range of the special j 

needs of exceptional students must be funded. Exceptional students | 
include the physically, emotionally and mentally handicapped, j 

and the learning disabled, as well as the gifted. j 



Implementation: A. Financial aid to schools for the purpose of 
providing for the architectural needs of special students or for 
removing architectural barriers which impede the special students 
is deemed necessary. 



B Aid must be made available for the purchase of special equip- 
ment such as braille typewriters, tape recorders and supplementary 
materials for the learning disabled and the gifted. Additionally, 
aid should be provided to students for the purchase of cosmetics 
and prosthetic devices. 



C. Continued support is needed for vocational education programs 
which must also be age-appropriate. 



D Further, funds must be made available to research and develop 
programs which can be modified to meet the individual needs 
of the special students. 




Education in 
American Samoa 



Minority Reports; 
Abolasb Grades 



2. counseling and advising j 

In California for example foreign student fees have jumped 200 
percent in one year. Counseling and advising has not improved. 

At the present rates of exchange, it is difficult enough for the 
international student to pay the existing fees but when fees jump | 
as in California, $8.00 per unit the first semester, $20.00 per unit f 
the next semester, and $37.00 per unit the semester after, it i 

becomes impossible for some students to continue to attend. 

The international student becomes disillusioned with the sincerity j 
of this nation. He may abandon his studies, he will often find ways to 
remain in this country as he has too much pride to return as a 
failure to his country. j 

| 

As the international student is, (a) a youth, (b) within this society, 

(c) within the educational system, (d) has problems, we propose 
that: \ 

(1) the Federal Government look into methods of aiding interna- 
tional students perhaps through international aid, (2) private ; 

foundations and international companies consider aiding interna- j 

tional students, (3) a system of international student advisors to be : 
composed of persons who are knowledgeable in specific needs j 

of the foreign student be set up. 

The international student has almost no representation in this f 

country except for accidental incidents such as this conference. | 

Therefore, we urge you not to take this lightly. j 

4.8a We resolve that the American government review the education j 

program in American Samoa with a view to making it more relevant I 

to the native American Samoans. 1 

4.9 Working under pressure or fear of grades is not conducive for j 

the learning process. Grades are a comparison between one child ; 

and another. This process interferes with a child’s individual dignity. jj 

A II grades should be abolished, A,B,C,D, or pass/fail. In its place j 

student, teacher and parent should be involved in in-depth per- j 

sonal evaluation of a student’s progress. j 

Implementation: With v/ritten evaluations, teachers will come to \ 

recognize the student’s potential as an individual. Parents should 
be informed of the positions taken by schools concerning the 
evaluation process and should take an active part in the evalua- 
tion of their child’s progress. 



Nations Policy on 
Education 



4.10 Historically, America has placed blind faith in education. Our j 
educational system has partially at least served us well. \ 

There is mounting evidence, however, that public confidence in ] 

education is eroding and that the whole system should undergo a ... S 
thorough review. j 

I 

The greatest deficiency in American education is the absence of 
a clear cut organizing principle, a conceptually simple reason for | 
being. The time has come to correct this debilitating deficiency. ! | 




The Task Force on Education for the White House Conference 
on Youth, therefore, proposes the following which should serve as 
philosophic guidelines for educational leadership in the 1970's and 
beyond. Educational leadership and educators should be held 
accountable for implementing this policy. 

(1) Our ultimate concern is with the human spirit and human minds 
and not schools. In short we should concern ourselves with human 
fulfillment. Schools are not ends within themselves but rather 
vehicles through which “the young and old unite in the imagina- 
tive consideration of learning.’’ 

(2) Within the realm of potential of every human being there is a 
level of awareness and achievement which can make life rewarding. 
Most people want desperately to find that level. 

(3) It is the responsibility of educational leadership to devise 
programs which reach out to the student and engage him in a 
process which is both interesting and fair and will, thus, lead to a 
level of awareness and achievement which gives him a positive 
perception of himself and his relationship to others. 

(4) Any subject can be taught in an intellectually honest and 
interesting way by the competent, imaginative teacher who cares, 
given the necessary resources. 

Within this broad policy framework, we further propose that educa- 
tional institutions at all levels in America involve the studen in 
an experience which will: 

(1) Free his intellect from ignorance and make of it a critical 

but constructive instrument. This can be done by developing in him 
an understanding of “what has been,” a grasp of “what is,” 
and then asking him to rely on his own resources to state "what 
ought to be.” 

(2) Confront him with moral, ethical and spiritual conflicts of 

his culture and force him to devise a system of values which is both 
personal and internalized. 

(3) Introduce him to the many and varied opportunities for 
rewarding work and help him develop a marketable skill growing 
out of a vocational competence. 

(4) Develop in him the capacity to express himself creatively 
through arts, sports or some other recreational or avocational 
interest. 

The mutual interaction of these four qualities would result in what 
Woodrow Wilson called “the wholly awakened man.” This individual 
would be a genuinely free, responsible and responsive human 
being capable of creating and maintaining a just, enlightened and 
humane society — and that, after all, is the issue at stake. 
Thinking people who care, with a social conscience and a market- 
able skill — a powerful combination. 



4.11 In order to construct the educational background for 21st 
century societies, it is necessary to undergo an analysis of the 
fundamental principles and assumptions that lie behind and 
support the content of the educational structures and relate them 



to changes, new scopes and directions of the nation and the world | 
as a whole from both the sociological point of view and the indi- 
vidualistic point of view. This report deals with the former point • 
f'f view. 

i 

i' 

The world, as it is today, claims desperately for a global conven- 
tion, an international agreement of what such basic principles and 
assumptions are. And, it claims to relate them intimately with j 

the preconditions for world development, coexistence and even 
survival within a society that offers the possibility of fulfillment of j 
individual life and social stability based upon justice, freedom, j 

peace and a harmonic relationship with nature. - 

A new perspective governing international affairs is needed. I 

It is clear that the present multinational model, as it tends to per- :j 

petuate the intrinsic conflicts of interests between nations, without .]■ 

a strong international regulatory body, in the long run will fail to j 

solve problems such as wars, nuclear devastation, poverty, etc. 

All this reflects on the educational system which works on the ] 

assumptions of national interest and national sovereignty. The next j 

generation needs a new set of principles. It needs to be aware 
of humanity as a whole much more than our actual conception of j 
humanity, i.e., as a set of nations in constant chaotic conflict. 

It needs sociological concepts to help cope with growing problems. j 

Traditional concepts such as nationalism won’t work. To prepare i 

the next generation to meet the future is to develop in the direction i 
of a world awareness, of a uniqueness of the “world village”. j 

If the world is to continue to misfunction under its present inter- 
national structure with the inertia of a tradition of nationalism as 
main motor, then the costs will go beyond the possibility of control. 

And all this will relate very closely to education. 

It is not enough, by any means, to center our attention on the 
internal educational system of this nation. It is not enough to 
implement these systems by using a closed set of ideas that are 
contained by the limits of national systems of educations. 

Assumptions which are implicit in the content of an education that 
was conceived before our modern scientific and technological 
advances began not only strongly conditioning the directions of 
society but demanding absolute disassociation with the past, need 
no longer be valid. As a matter of fact, these assumptions can 
bury civilization, humanity or life itself, because, in our times we 
have the constant threat of nuclear war, a disproportionate arms 
race, overpopulation, etc. The only way to abolish permanently 
the threat of nuclear war is to create an international structure that 
will constitutionalize an international law for nations which will 
prevent by whatever means is needed nations from having nuclear 
weapons, starting wars, etc. This means some amount of national 
sovereignty must be sacrificed. But it also means that the prin- 
ciple that the interests of humanity are more important than 
the interests of a particular nation must be accepted. It also means 
international justice and not the arbitrary imposition of a stronger 
nation upon a weaker nation. It implies world government, no 
more arms races or globalpacification. But it also implies the 
possibility of the cementation of totalitarianism. 

Now, the point is, are the people prepared to deal with such ideas 
and ’attitudes, which are simply the final generalization of a legal 
structure of rights and objyg^tions within the same process that 



began in making states out of cities and nations out of states? 

Will the principles involved in international affairs give the future 
generations the tools to work out a society that will keep up the 
problems, innovations in science and technology and at the same 
time be a healthy society? The answer is no. And if those principles 
are not changed for modern ones, there is no sense of discussing 
education as a structure or the individualist approach to education. 

What sense does it make to educate the young to love freedom 
and respect different ideas and ways of life, to work hard for social 
justice, if suddenly they will be involved in a war or a crisis 
provoked either by a quest for power or for economic hegemony 
or, tragically enough, because of a very distorted view of the world 
and the role of their nation in it? 

What sense does it make to learn science, if it is going to be 
applied in the systematic killing and repression of the people of 
the world? 

What sense does it make to develop a skill that will fulfill one’s 
life, if one day a nuclear war gets started and we all end losers, 
but no one left to state it? 

What sense does it make to educate paranoid people? 

It is necessary to move forward and move fast. The intensity of 
political paranoia on both sides of the superpowers, with its 
consequent black and white pictures of nations, peoples and 
philosophies of life, paranoia that breeds militarism no matter how 
democratic or socialistic a country can be; the tremendous strain 
and tension that the danger of total destruction generates, and 
the practically impossible problems the world we will be confronting 
by the end of this century require our rapid action. All this should 
make evident that if we do not educate the next generation of 
this nation and the world to learn to live together and cooperate 
together in the solution of the great problems, overcoming the 
prejudices that have made this, and the past generations fail so 
badly, breaking the barriers of selfish interests, stupidity, fanati- 
cism, ignorance and hate, then, the probability of any future at 
all will be very low. And if by chance we don't annihilate each other 
in the next decades, the perspective of such a future will be gray. 

It. is then, under this spirit, that the following recommendations 
are made: 

(1) People should be educated to be free, to live harmoniously 

in a society where they can fulfill their potentialities, to respect the 
rights of others on a basis of justice, peace and love. 

(2) The next generation needs to be educated with an intense, 
realistic awareness of the situation of the world, and to where this 
world is heading. It should be prepared in the educational process 
to accept a more broad and functional definition of humanity 
other than a conglomerate of nations in a permanent display 

of conflict of interests, wars and chaos. It should be made aware 
and be prepared to solve the problems of the world as a whole, 
with a sense of commitment and c willingness in cooperating, 
in establishing as the highest priority the interests of humanity 
and in abolishing as highest priority the interests of any particular 
nation or sector. Conceptions of a society based in world terms 



ERIC 



103 



should be fomented by the educational process. People should 
be educated to coexist in a diverse wc Id; to respect the different 
cultures and peoples and, at the same time, identify with them as 
forming part of the same humanity; to see clearly that to help 
primarily the world develop is to help themselves, regardless of 
their local interests. 

(3) Governments and media should stop the systematic propagan- 
dists education, information and entertainment, dealing with 
nations and peoples with different ways of life. These distort reality, 
create fanaticism and fantasies, undermine the mentality and 
values of a free country, and induce totalitarianism. 

( 4 ) The education of the people should be in consonance with 
the main stream of principles and assumptions, upon which the 
actions of the different branches of government are based and 
justified. In the long run, it is not possible to educate people 

to believe in the things which are opposite to those their govern- 
ments believe, to behave contrary to their conscience on behalf of 
the demands of their social system. Governments should stop 
killing in the name of anything, to exploit in the name of develop- 
ment, to be corrupt and impose themselves in the name of national 
security. People should be educated to detest wars, not to glorify 
them; and to detest exploitation, not to perpetuate it by accepting it. 

Nothing is so urgent as to create in the minds of the common 
citizens of nations the awareness of their citizenship of the world. 
Otherwise, Vietnams will continue, wars will pass and go, world 
problems will increase in frequency, variety and intensity, and 
national pride will become a gross tragic joke. 

Implementation: A. All school systems in the U.S.A. should take 
steps to delete any part of their educational material which 
propagates the attitude that this nation has a moral superiority 
to other peoples of the world. This would mean revising textbooks 
which imply a manifest destiny for the people of the U.S., which 
imply an inferiority of the history and culture of American minor- 
ities, and the people of the world. State and national governments 
should provide funds for the revision of these textbooks. Funding 
incentives from all levels of government should be implemented for 
schools willing to begin using revised training programs. 

B. Universities should immediately begin to train teachers to 
approach education from a world understanding point of view. 
Funding incentives should be provided for universities willing to 
undertake such programs. 

C. A screening process should be implemented at the teacher 
training level which would screen out potential teachers who cannot 
accept educating from such a prospective. 

D. Foreign exchange programs should be expanded at all levels 
of education. 

E. The U.S. government is instructed by this task force, after a 
sufficient level of awareness is reached by the U.S. population, to 
present to the United Nations General Assembly a concept of 
world government in which national sovereignties forego the power 
to make war arid cooperate in economic and cultural terms under 
the authority of a representative world government. That level 

of awareness should be' feajched through a public relations program 



supported by the U,S. government. It will be sufficient awareness 
when the Harris and Gallup polls indicate that at least fifty per* 
cent of the U.S. population supports such a move. 



Joint Resolution 
for Conference 
Every Four Years 

Whereas a conference held each decade does not en ounter the 
many generation and attitudinal changes of American society 
within that ten year period; and 

Whereas the nation's educational institutions also produce several 
generations of different composition and attitudes within a decade, 
whose needs are not met or considered by a conference held 
every ten years; and 

Whereas the governmental administrations of that ten year period 
need a continuous flow of relevant and futuristic ideas, which a 
conference held every four years would provide, to be effective 
in meeting the needs of the people, especially those of youth: 

Be it resolved , By the 1971 White House Conference on Youth that 
the White House administrations , both the present and those of 
the future , establish , finance , and administer a national conference 
on youth in the middle of each pres/dent/a/ term. 

[Joint resolution by Task Forces on Education, and Legal Rights 
and Justice.] 



4.12 Whereas the express purpose of the White House Conference 
on Youth is to offer a platform for the presentation of youth's 
viewpoints on problems confronting America and their possible 
solutions to those in power; and 






10 ? 




The following recommendations were initiated in workshop groups 
and passed formally in open session by the full Task Force plenum. 



Preamble “Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is within the minds of 

men that the defenses of peace must be constructed.” 

— UNESCO Charter. 

We, the youth of America, have known before and have learned 
again at this conference, that an issue-oriented approach to 
the problems of this nation and of the world is not only ineffective, 
but also concedes the basis of the problems to their effects 
instead of their causes. 

These problems all emerge from a mentality that continues today 
— a mentality and culture which not only condone war but also 
support the mechanisms of destruction; which not only fail to 
protect the natural environment but also create an urban environ- 
ment that traps the poor of all colors, enforces the arrogance of our 
racism, and is nothing less than total insult to the spirit of man. 

The ideas expressed in the resolutions that follow — both from 
the Environment Task Force and ail others — too often confront 
merely the manifestations of this outdated mentality. 



Population and 5.1 Inasmuch as the available resources of tine earth are limited, 

Consumption the basic problem is the survival of life, including man, in a world 

in which life is worth living. The demand for resources is pro- 
portional both to population and per capita consumption. Therefore, 
we recommend the following: 

(1) That world population be stabilized substantially below the 
current /eve/. 

(2) That regarding consumption: 

(A) The use of the world’s resources should be shared 
equally among all people. 

(B) A steady-state economy in which the production of 
durable goods is constant should be achieved. 

(C) As many of our cycles of production and consumption 
as possible should be closed through recycling and reuse. 



5.2 Although environmental degradation has become recognized in 
recent years as a major social crisis, the public focus on this 
issue has usually been directed towards problems that are important 
to middle-class Americans. The issues of urban transportation, 
slum housing, inadequate health care, recreation and education, 
and unemployment are vital to urban poor people, but have not 
been properly understood in an environmental context or dealt with 
from an ecological perspective, in the inner city areas of urban 
America, the environment has become increasingly unliveable, it is 
an undisputed fact that this environment is genetically the most 
hazardous to human health and survival and presents few 
opportunities for improvement to those who must live in it. The 
quality of life in the inner city is degraded by disproportionate 
concentrations of pollutants, overcongestion, dilapidated housing, 
and insufficient recreation facilities. Social services are totally 

IDS 



inner City Environment 



O 

ERLC 



109 



inadequate, and public attention has not been focused on the 
needs of the people. 

The Environment Task Force hereby proposes that national priority 
be given to the actions necessary to improve the quality of the 
environment of the people of America's inner cities. 

We propose the following specifics for developing this priority: 

(1) Citizen participation. All levels of government should include 
grass roots participation (allowing for increasing involvement 

by citizens) by adopting new guidelines and/or enforcing existing 
ones, which require community participation in both planning 
and implementation. 

(2) Citizens’ right of action. It is a fact that many of our problems 
are associated with a failure on the part of government institu- 
tions and the public in general to enforce existing Saws and 
regulations. All existing laws and regulations must be enforced, 
and citizens must be guaranteed the right to pursue this enforce- 
ment in a court of law. 

(3) Pollution. All governmental and private activities must include 
consideration of the impact of pollutants and other environmental 
degradants in urban areas on man's health and well-being. 

(4) Alternatives to the automobile-based transportation system. 
Support must be given for urban mass transit systems in the 
inner city. We urge the abolition of the Highway Trust Fund and its 
replacement by a Transportation Trust Fund. 

(5) Open spaces and recreation. Urban open spaces and park 
areas must be expanded to meet the greatly increased recreation 
and community needs of the inner city. 

(6) Housing. We urge that immediate action be taken by Federal, 
state and local government to provide decent housing for all 
persons living in the urban core areas of the nation’s cities. 



Legal Rights and 
Responsibilities; 
Citizen Suits 




Environmental 
Impact Statement 



5 3 We believe that every citizen of the United States has not only 
the fundamental right to a decent and healthful environment, 
but also the duty to contribute to its protection. In furtherance of 
this belief, each citizen should have equal access to the judicial 
tribunals to secure and enforce these rights. 

Therefore, we recommend the passage of S. 1032 as submitted 
by Senators Philip Hart and George McGovern in the Senate and by 
Representatives Morris Udall and John Dingell in the House. 

We urge the passage of this legislation as amended by the incor- 
poration of the following provisions: 

(A) Where the term “unreasonable” pollution is used, “unrea- 
sonable” should be stricken (Sec. 2. (a), (Sec. 2.(b), (Sec. 3. (a), 
and (Sec. 4.(a). 

(E) Filing of complaints in more locations and public notice 
of suits initiated should be required. 

5.3a We endorse the concept of expanding the requirements of 
Section 102 (2)c of the National Environmental Policy Act to be 




110 



Economic Incentives 
to Peduce Pollution 



Ability of Tax-exempt 
Organizations to Influence 
Legislation 

National Environmental 
Corps: A Bill 



administered by an appropriate Federal agency with the discre- 
tionary power to require an environmental impact statement, 
supported by scientific study and facts, from any member of the 
public or private sector, if in the appropriate agencies’ opinion, the 
process, product or project is major and will significantly affect 
the quality of the human environment. Appropriate penalties 
will be imposed for a legal finding that the environmental statement 
was made knowingly false. 

5.3b We endorse in principle, the use of economic incentives, 
including effluent taxes, in conjunction with regulatory standards, 
to reduce the level of pollution, and as a means of allocating the 
assimilation capacity of tho nation’s air and water. We further 
urge that the Council on Environmental Quality and the Environ- 
mental Protection Agency prepare and submit appropriate 
legislation consistent with this recommendation and including 
application of Federal money and taxes to find cures for the causes 
of effluents. 

5.3c We recommend that the Internal Revenue Code be amended, 
as it affects groups classified as 501 (c)(3) tax-exempt organiza- 
tions, to remove all present restraints with respect to influencing 
legislation. 

5.3d We recommend establishment of a National Environmental 
Corps and support the introduction into Congress of the attached 
draft legislation, but with the unanimous proviso that the Corps 
should be administered only by the Environmental Protection 
Agency. If the National Environmental Corps is to be made a com- 
ponent of the proposed Voluntary Service Organization, then it 
should be rejected. 

National Environmental Corps — a Bill 

To establish a National Environmental Corps, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, 

Section 1. Short Title. This act may be cited as the “National 
Environmental Corps Act.’’ 

Section 2. Policy and Purposes. 

(A) The Congress finds that there is an urgent need for: 

1. Skilled and professional manpower for constructive 
environmental action programs, monitoring and data collec- 
tion, and research throughout the nation; 

2. Opportunities for the young people of this nation inter- 
ested in helping to solve environmental and sociological 
problems in the United States; 

3. Provision of relatively uniform direction of information 
resources for environmental programs in local communities 
and coordination of those programs at the Federal, state 
and local levels; 

4. An educational grant, an aid assistance program of 
fellowships and loans to support environmental education and 
specialized technical training in environmental skills. 



(B) It is declared to be a part of the public policy of the United 
States: 

1. To allow young people to participate in the decisions 
which determine what kind of future they are to have; 

2. To allow them to contribute their talents and energies 
to both practical and theoretical environmental action. 

(C) Accordingly, it is the purpose of this Act to further the devel- 
opment and maintenance of the natural resources and of the 
quality of the environment of the United States by the youth upon 
whom will fall the grim consequences of a failure to act. 

Section 3. National Environmental Service Corps 

(A) To carry out the purposes of this Act, there is hereby estab- 
lished a National Environmental Corps (hereinafter referred to 
as the “Corps”). 

(B) The Corps shall consist of men and women who are permanent 
residents of the United States, its territories, or possessions, and 
who have attained age eighteen and such professional staff as 
may be appointed as herein after provided. 

(C) Corpsmen shall be selected for their potential contribution 

to environmental service, regardless of previous technical training 
or attained educational level; provided however, that preference 
shall be given to disadvantaged youth. 

(D) Corpsmen shall serve for two years after completion of training. 

(E) The Corps, in order to achieve the greatest national good 
with respect to environmental action programs, shall be a com- 
ponent of and administered by the Environmental Protection Agency. 

(F) The Youth Conservation Corps pilot program established 
pursuant to P.L. 91-378 shall be transferred to the Corps and 
youth appointed under that program shall be “Summer Corpsmen”. 

(G) The President, with the advice and consent of the Congress 

is authorized to appoint a Director of the National Environmental 
Corps (hereinafter the “Director”) and such staff as may be 
necessary to implement the purposes of this act. 

Section 4. Training 

(A) The training of Corpsmen in the National Environmental 
Corps shall consist of at least a two month residential program 
for all participants. 

(B) Corpsmen shall receive training according to their prior 
training and skills, personal preferences, and local needs. 

(C) Training shall be planned by an advisory committee of whose 
members thirty percent shall be youth aged eighteen to twenty-four. 

(D) Employment preference for training personnel shall be given 
to secondary and university teachers and administrators and per- 
sons pursuing studies in environmental education, natural 
resources and environmental or ecological science. 

- , 112 



Section 5. Employment Conditions and Compensation 

(A) The rates and hours and other conditions of employment in 
the corps shall be as determined by the Administrator of the 
Environmental Protection Agency; provided however, that volun- 
teers in the Corps shall receive a subsistence income and allowances 
for dependents. 

(B) Corpsmen willing to contract for additional service beyond 
the usual placement term may qualify for Federal educational 
assistance for advanced education. 

Section 6. Definitions — As used in this Act: 

“Corps" means the National Environmental Corps. 

“Corpsmen" means a volunteer serving in the National Environ- 
mental Corps. 

“Summer Corpsmen” means a young person serving in the pilot 
program established pursuant to the Youth Conservation Corps 
(P.L. 91-378). 

“Director” means the Director of the National Environmental Corps. 
Section 7. Responsibilities and Activities of Corpsmen 

(A) Community Action . . 

1. To provide manpower, other resources and opportunities 
for constructive involvement of the young people in local 
communities; 

2. To work with residents to organize educational programs 
and media coverage relating to the environment; 

3. To initiate coordination of planning, operation and eval- 
uation of all programs by social services and private agencies 
in the community relating to environment; 

4. To help groups of community residents to organize 
themselves and to share experiences across neighborhoods; 



5 To organize community debates on major legislative or 
executive programs that affect the environment of the 
community; 

(B) Technical and Skilled Manpower 

1. To provide staff assistance for research and to maintain 

accurate current data; 

2. To provide technical input which would facilitate com- 
munity action; 

3. To establish metropolitan and state Youth Advisory Com- 
mittees on the Environment to serve as consultants on 
policy alternatives and implementation for these governments; 

(C) Professional and Scientific Capability 

1 To provide a professional assistance program that would 
be involved in full time laboratory environmental monitoring 
investigation, research with the Environmental Protection 



Agency, other scientifically oriented agencies, and any agency 
that is involved in environmental policy; 

Section 8. Youth Advisory Councils and Committees 

(A) The President is authorized, without regard to the civil service 
laws, from time to time, to appoint such advisory councils and 
committees of youth and adults as may be necessary to advise and 
consult with the Director. 

(B) Members of such advisory councils or committees who are 
not regular fulltime employees of the United States shall, while 
attending meetings or conferences of such council or committee or 
otherwise engaged on business of such council or committee, be 
entitled to receive compensation at a rate fixed by the Director, 
but not exceeding $100 per diem, including travel time, and while 
so serving away from their home or regular place of business, 
they may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of 
subsistence, as authorized by section 5 of the Administrative 
Expenses Act of 1946 (5 U.S.C. 73 b-2) for persons in the 
government services employed intermittently. 

Section 9. Appropriations Authorized 

(A) For the purpose of this Act, there is hereby authorized to be 
appropriated the sum of $25,000,000 for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1972, and for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1973, 
and the three succeeding fiscal years and annual appropriation. 



Population 

Stabilization 



Family Planning 



Abortion 



Sex Education 




5.4 Since the developed nations of the world with one-fifth of the 
world’s population consume more than three-fourths of the world's 
resources, and since the United States is by far the leading 
consumer among these nations, the Task Force urges that the 
United States take an exemplary leadership role in effecting 
measurable steps towards population stabilization and eventual 
reduction. 

5.4a The Task F~rce recommends that family planning techniques 
be provided on an ability to pay basis to all persons on demand 
regardless of age or marital status, and that restrictive state 
legislation be removed. Further, the Task Force recommends that 
further research to develop improved methods of contraception be 
funded through the National Institutes of Health. 

5.4b It is acknowle -ged that the decision to terminate pregnancy 
rests solely between a woman and her doctor. It is therefore 
recommended that restrictive state abortion laws be repealed and 
that abortion services be available to all women on demand and 
on an ability to pay basis. 

5.4c It is recognized, however, that abortion is only a stopgap 
measure. To fill this gap, a major nationwide sex education pro- 
gram is urged. To this end we recommend the removal of current 
restrictive sex education laws on a state level. The educational 
thrust should not be solely confined to reproductive physiology, 
but should revolve around family life and the inculcation of moral 
responsibility as it relates to the future consequences of popula- 
tion growth and control, and family planning. 

The following-statement is taken from the Task Force Advisory 



114 



Report as an endorsement of the recommendation on population 
education. 

Every nine seconds a new American is born. More than 150 years 
after Thomas Malthus’ predictions, these babies are born into 
a world which is approaching his forecast that the geometric 
growth of the earth's population will someday surpass the capacity 
of the planet to support its population. The population of un- 
developed and modernized countries of the world continues to 
expand at increasingly rapid rates. Many nations wili quadruple in 
population during the lifetimes of children born today, it is clear 
that it will be impossible to increase food production enough to 
cope with continued population growth. Malthus' warning is 
reflected in Rachel Carson’s writings and extended by Garrett 
Hardin: 

The world can no longer ignore what has been called the 
‘ecological ethic.' The ethical system under which we operated 
in the past was possibly adequate for an uncrowded world, 
though even this is debatable. But it is inadequate for a 
world that is already overcrowded. 



Of course arguments ensue about how much ‘blame’ for the abuse 
of the environment can be assigned to an overload of people and 
how much to failure of technology and of social engineering. 

It is a fact that there are more and more people using the finite 
resources of the earth. Furthermore, 

The casual chain of [environmental] deterioration is easily 
followed to its source. Too many cars, too many factories, 
too much detergent, too much pesticide, multiplying contrails, 
inadequate sewage treatment plants, too little water, too 
much carbon dioxide — all can be traced easily to too many 
people. 

It has been estimated that each American baby will consume in 
its 70 year life span, directly or indirectly at least the following 
resources: 

26 million gallons of water 

21.000 gallons of gasoline 

10.000 pounds of meat 

28.000 pounds of milk and cream 
$5,000-$8,000 in school building materials 
$6,300 worth of clothing 

$7,000 worth of furniture 

The impact of the population explosion is far-reaching. Too many 
people using too many resources means that planning for the 
wise use of our environment cannot occur without confrontation of 
the need for population control. A definition from biologist 
Southwood may be helpful in conceptualizing the issues of popu- 
lation control: 

The optimum population of man is the maximum that can 
be maintained indefinitely without detriment to the health of 
the individuals from pollution or from social or nutritional 
success. 

In more specific terms, it is estimated that it would take a drop 
to an average of 2.1 children per woman in the United States 
to bring population growth to a halt. It was 3.7 per womanjn the 
late 1950’s, with a projected 2. 5-2.8 per woman in the 1970’s. 

If sustained over thirty years the higher figure would mean 25 
million more Americans by the year 2000. 



The world population reached 3.5 billion in mid-1968, with an 
annual increment of approximately 70 million people. At least 
one-half billion of these are under-nourished (deficient in calories) 
and approximately an additional billion are malnourished (deficicr* 
in protein). The 200 million mark was passed in the United States 
in 1969. 350 million is projected for the United States in the 
year 2000. An average of fifty-five people occupy each square mile 
(sixty-five excluding Alaska) in the United States. Although that 
figure is ten times as high in Europe, the overall density figure 
for the United States is misleading because two-thirds of the 
population live in metropolitan areas; in central cities the density 
averages around 7,000 people per square mile. 

There ore several obvious causes of this huge increase in popu- 
lation which seem to be more salient than a rising birth rate. The 
death rate in this country has been substantially reduced. The 
average length of life has been increased. There is a “youth bulge” 
where more than half the population is under twenty-five. As a 
result, there has been a huge increase in the percentage of females 
surviving to (and presently approaching) the child-bearing age. 

In Latin America, as an extreme example, ". . . the increasing 
percentage of children in the population means that by 1975 there 
will be 60 percent more marriages formed than in 1960." 

Of course, there are huge psychological consequences resulting 
from the increase in population. Kingsley Davis, head of the Inter- 
national Population and Urban Research Center at Berkeley, 
calculates that by 1990 more than half of the world’s population 
will be living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. Studies of 
wild life and of rats under controlled conditions have demonstrated 
the results of extreme overcrowding. This research suggests that 
once animal numbers in an area increase beyond a certain level, 
“neuroses” and social disorders are prevalent. Dr. John Calhoun, of 
the National Institutes of Mental Health, has conducted some 
experiments on the overcrowding of mice. He has observed a 
pecking order, withdrawal syndromes, excessive violence, abnormal 
mothering and adrenal changes in overcrowded mice. One could 
hypothesize connections between his findings and human be- 
havior in overcrowded conditions. Leyhausen of the Max Planck 
Institute has stated that the danger of overpopulation “. . . lies in 
whether the population will exceed the limits of human tolerance 
towards the presence of other humans. These limits have been set 
by evolutionary processes over millions of years.” 

Other related hypotheses have been extended, too. For example: 

The fact remains that this generation of young, unlike their 
elders, will live to see Dr. Calhoun's ‘upper threshold’ 
reached. Is it possible that when the threshold is reached, 
population growth will be ended, not by birth control or the 
bomb, but by the mysterious and terrible process that ended 
all reproduction in Dr. Calhoun’s mousery? Is it possible 
that the young have some sort of subconscious prescience 
of what lies in store? 

Whether or not that author’s questions are realistic, young people 
have indicated a growing concern for population growth. They have 
; been the “. . . vanguard in its anxiety and action to preserve a 

habitable environment. This generation, it has been said, is the 
first to carry strontium in their bones and DDT in their tissues. 

They are indeed justified in their very deep concern over the 
quality of life on earth in the years to come.” 

fcKJL 

■I 116 




Of course, many others have been concerned with the population 
explosion. Planned Parenthood-World Population is attempting 
to control population growth in more than 100 countries, including 
the United States, with 181 affiliates and 620 clinics in 40 states 
and the International Planned Parenthood Federation overseas. 
However, there are 350 million women in developing countries who 
aren't getting family planning assistance. In the United States, 
only fifteen percent of the more than five million women who “need 
and want birth control help” are receiving it. However, Planned 
Parenthood methods, extensive and successful as they are in 
many ways, have their critics who see them as the only major 
efforts now being made to limit population growth: 

The things that make family planning methods acceptable 
are the very things that make it ineffective for population 
control. By stressing the right of parents ^ have the number 
of children they want, it evades the basic question of popula- 
tion policy which is how to give societies the number of 
children they need. By offering only the means of couples to 
control fertility, it neglects the need for societies to do so. 

In addition to examining the casual role of population overload, 
we should also question the effectiveness of social technology. The 
United States government has taken some steps toward popula- 
tion control. Some people contend that it should take a leadership 
role since, with less than 1/15 of the world’s population, it uses 
i/ 2 of the world’s raw materials consumed each year. In fact, j 
America has had a somewhat minimal record in promoting 
population control: 

The 1950's were a decade of official neglect and public apathy 
toward the population crisis, despite the intense educational 
efforts of many private groups and individuals. During the 
1960’s, however, the population message was finally taken 
from the hands of experts and brought to the public ... in 
1961, President Kennedy stated that population growth was 
threatening standards of life throughout the developing world 
. . AID grudgingly included family planning assistance in its 
program in 1965 . . . AID budgets for this purpose remained 
miniscule until 1968, when Congress specifically earmarked 
$34.7 million to be used only for population activities. For 
fiscal 1971 the family planning figure has risen to 
$86.0 million. 

In addition to AID, five other Federal agencies are involved in some 
way with family planning: Department of Health, Education and 
Welfare; Office of Economic Opportunity; National Science Foun- 
dation; Department of State; and Department of Interior. Paui 
Ehrlich has criticized these expenditures as 

less than a drop in the bucket, not even a micro-drop, 
since much of it is frittered away in family planning. 

Little is done on population control . . the population 
budget of all the agencies would not buy more than a dozen 
sophisticated military jets. [In 1968] it is roughly the same 
amount as the government appropriation for rat control. 



At any rate, it seems clear from the documentation given here and 
in numerous other sources that the population explosion is 
uncontrolled and is critical to our survival on the planet. It is in 
our interest, young people, private groups and government alike, 
to control the rate of growth of the population so that the country 
can live within the capabilities of its social systems and the limits 



of its resources. The following statement summarizes well the 
urgency of national steps: 

It seems feasible, in theory at least, to mitigate problems 
arising from the distribution of population, environmental 
pollution, and scarcity of resources by altering government 
regulations, taxes, and subsidies; re-allocating costs, and 
adopting different technologies and life styles. But such 
measures, even if soc iety is willing to accept the costs, will 
not enable the United States to postpone indefinitely facing 
questions about population growth. Eventually growth will have 
to come to a halt ... If society waits until limitation becomes 
a matter of desperate urgency, it may be too late for humane, 
noncoercive policies, and in any event the quality of life will 
have been severely and perhaps irreparably impaired. 



Population control cannot be formulated or implemented effectively 
without participation by all American citizens. Ignorance and apathy 
about population control are widespread. We tend to believe 
erroneously that only the undereducated in our affluent society are 
contributing to the population explosion. In 1969, two-thirds of the 
3.6 million babies born in the United States were children of middle 
and upper class parents. In addition, some experts claim that 
Americans want too many children, that births beyond the two 
children per mother necessary for zero population growth are 
frequently ‘planned’ by parents desiring large families. 

Therefore, if we have (1) general ignorance about population 
control, (2) high birth rates to affluent parents, and (3) adults 
who want families larger than two children, steps taken thus far 
toward family planning may not be sufficient. Evidently, the United 
States needs a major educational program that will have an impact 
on all children and will fill the information gap now present. While 
other col ^tries have taken steps toward this goal, America has been 
negligent in not moving forward on a substantial population 
education program. Children must be instructed, not only in the 
“birds-and-the-bees” format of hygiene classes, but also about the 
long-run consequences of continued population growth and 
population control and family planning measures. 

One of the most hopeful and essential means of bringing birth 
rates down to the replacement level is to introduce this entire 
subject into the curricula of schools and colleges. If students 
are to cope with the complex world which they will soon govern 
as leaders and voters, no more important subjects can be 
set before them than the growth of human populations, the 
deterioration of our environment, the decline of many social 
services, the erosion of personal and political freedom, and 
the relationships among all these trends. 

Contracts for population education would be awarded to state and 
local agencies, institutions of higher education, and other public 
and private educational institutions which have expressed their 
concern with informing the public about the consequences of 
population expansion. Research and demonstration projects would 
be authorized, but it is anticipated that the majority of funding 
would support operational programs throughout the country which 
would continue for at least three to five years. 



Proposal 




ERIC 




118 



A. Curriculum. One of the most important and hopeful ways of 
lowering birth rates to the replacement level is to introduce 
population education into the curricula of elementary and secondary 
schools and institutions of higher education. 

Ecology, more as a mode of analyzing and viewing our physical 
and biological world than as a precise experimental science, 
could, in the 1970’s, become a fulcrum of school curriculum 
around which many other disciplines would pivot. Biology, 
geography (greatly enhanced by infusions of economics), 
demography, geology, agronomy, anthropology (with a much 
greater emphasis on natural history and the changing 
relationships of man to his environment, how he has treated it, 
and how it has treated him) and other disciplines can all 
contribute to a deeper understanding of our world ecosystem. 
Ecology is the highest form of systems analysis. 

Provisions should be made for careful evaluation of available 
textbook and teaching materials. From these judgments materials 
which fill existing deficiencies should be prepared on population 
education. Planning for integration of these materials into school 
curricula would include the development of model course work and 
supportive programs on population education for at least the 
following levels: elementary school; secondary school; technical 
school; adult education; colleges and universities. Curriculum 
development for population education would have a strong 
interdisciplinary direction as well. In addition, special planning for 
geographic region and cultural and racial issues related to population 
control (including genocide concepts) will be an integral part of 
curriculum development to insurs wide applicability of materials. 
Attention to the use of a range of unusual and challenging 
audio-visual supportive techniques as well as planning for the use 
of materials and information by paraprofessional teacher aides will 
also be included in curriculum development. 

... it is essential to stress the relationship of human population 
trends to the physical and biological world. Approaches to 
balancing population and resources and otherwise assuring the 
bases for human survival must also be studied. Underlying 
all these lines of inquiry should be a clear recognition of 
education’s highest calling: to reinforce and, where necessary, 
to help change public mores. 

It is anticipated that such curriculum development would be 
sufficiently comprehensive to encompass existing sex education 
programs in secondary schools. Instruction about anatomy, sexuality 
and personal and collective responsibility for population control 
would be combined in one approach. 



An emphasis would be placed on the wide dissemination Of 
curriculum materials so that educational institutions and 
organizations can utilize the materials as soon as they are available. 
Dissemination of information about successful ongoing programs 
would also be included. 



B. Community Education. Many teenagers and adults would not 
have the opportunity to profit from curriculum development for 
educational institutions. Therefore, materials prepared should be 
developed iri new ways to meet at least the following needs: 

(1) outreach into communities with high high school dropout rates; 

(2) information dissemination among the entire adult population; 
and (3) extension of Planned Parenthood activities into community 
education about population control. In addition to the development 



* V- 



11B 



of informative and attention-getting materials, a skilful team of 
residents, young people, educators and population control experts 
will be required to develop strategies for effective methods of 
informing communities about population control. 

Activities in community education would include wide use of local 
resources — parks, libraries, museums and schools. Potentially this 
stage of population education could unite public officials (e.g., from 
the Park Service, EPA, and Mayors' commissions on environmental 
problems), university and elementary and secondary teachers, 
students, and other concerned citizens to provide a comprehensive 
information service. In this regard, materials and audio-visual aids 
for a variety of audiences will need to be developed. A particular 
emphasis on community education during summer months when 
most children are not in school and college student manpower 
would be available seems reasonable. 

C. Training. Training individuals to implement effectively new 

curriculum materials and community education projects would 
include provision of at least the following skills: (1) understanding 
concepts to be taught; (2) familiarity with use of new curricular 
materials and community education methods; (3) capability to 
develop new learning situations for maximum use *' • materials; 

and (4) effective personal functioning in new situation,* with new 
materials. Training would be provided to educational personnel 

as well as community residents and young people and government, 
business a.nd industrial employees interested in teaching in 
population education programs. Financial assistance would be made 
available to insure participation in the training programs. 

Training would be based on the national provision of new curricular 
and resource materials. It would develop some uniform skills among 
individual interests in in-school and community population 
education. In addition, efforts should be made to make training 
relevant to local concerns and uniqueness of communities. 

D. Research and Development. Institutes for ecological study are 
emerging in universities and give a greater emphasis to issues of 
population expansion and its relationship to other ecological 
concerns: “Ecologists now realize that they must study, and study 
fast, the diverse relationships between man and his total 
environment.” Grants for research in population control and 
population education would be authorized for institutions of higher 
education. Teams of researchers and local residents could develop 
research and demonstrations of the results and proposals of that 
research for substantial funding. Feedback from research and 
demonstration should be helpful in subsequent .years for developing 
revised and additional resources for population education. 

In addition to the local orientation of the population education 
proposal, the central office will have other major responsibilities, 
including evaluation and technical assistance. Evaluation of ongoing 
programs, use and effectiveness of newly developed materials, 
training programs, and research and demonstration is an integral 
part of this proposal. Population education is an area which needs 
rapid but excellent advancement in scientific, social and political 
terms: “Comparatively little educational information hr > emanated 
from leadership sources or from mass media »:o cc-m; act the 
massive infect of pronatalist influences.” Developing materials and 
training evaluation which reflect as objectively as possible the 
inadequacies of the program are essential to advancing population 
education and keeping it updated. 



Presidential Leadership 



ERIC 



Technical assistance from experts in education and on population 
will be provided to local communities as they implement the various 
aspects of the program. In addition, structured provision of technical 
assistance to public agencies and universities in their population 
education activities would strengthen the local effort. Technical 
assistance would include providing resources specifically needed 
by a locality, modification of existing resources with a locality, 
consultation on specific population education problems, identification 
of publication of model programs, and facilitation of communication 
between educational institutions and Federal agencies. 

Implementation. Consistent with the Environmental Quality 
Education Act, the population education activities described in this 
proposal would be included in the programs of the Office of 
Environmental Education in the Office of Education in the 
Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Under the supervision 
of the Commissioner, this office '*> d be responsible for the 
administration of population educv< . activities and would 
coordinate activities in the Office o. Education related to 
population education. 

It is anticipated that the administration of the Office of Environmental 
Education would contain a director and staff for population 
education. In addition, a review council composed of: the Director 
of Environmental Activities, EPA; the Special Assistant to the 
Secretary of the Interior, Department for Youth and the Environment; 
the Special Assistant to the Secretary of HEW for Environmental 
Affairs; and representatives from the National Science Foundation, 
AID OEO the Council on Environmental Quality, and the Office of 
Student and Youth Affairs in the Office of the Secretary of HEW. 

The review council would have advisory responsibilities for the 
staff of the population education program in their development 
of curriculum materials, as well as in provision of technical 
assistance, research and demonstration and strategies for 
community education. The Advisory Council on Environmental 
fuality Education which advises the Commissioner, recommends 
allocation of funds and evaluates programs, shall be augmented 
or revised to include representatives explicitly concerned with 
population education. 

The budget for population education should eventually be subsumed 
under that for the Office of Environmental Education. Basically 
it should include the following elements; 

Administration 
Curriculum evaluation 
Curriculum development 
Community education materials 
Training programs 
Research and demonstration 
Evaluation 

Technical as .stance. 

5.4d We are very much aware of the objections of many minority 
groups to any discussion of population planning. We realize that 
such discussions are often perceived as attempts at ethnic genocide. 

It is perceived to be another extension of a very real racial 
oppression. We would hope that population planning would be 
perceived as the preservation of the optimum health and welfare 
of all peoples. Therefore, we ask that the President of the United 
States immediately issue a population statement uniting the 
nation behind a policy of population stabilization. 



World Resource 
Distribution 



International Implications 



! World Environmental 
Organization Should 
Be Created 



0 




5.4e Given the available resources of the earth the basic problem 
is survival. The demand on these resources is proportional both 
to the size of the population and the per capita consumption. 

In addressing the use part of the equation, we recommend three 
long-range goals. 

(1) All individuals should have an equal share of world resources. 

(2) We must go to a steady-state economy in which the production 
of durable goods is constant. 

(3) We must try to close as many of our cycles of production and 
consumption as possible through recycling and reuse. 

The Task Force recommends the foiiowing as some of the initial 
steps which must be taken to achieve these goals: 

(1) Conversion to consumption of renewable resources instead of 
non-renewable resources wherever possible. 

(2) Internationalization and control of all ocean resources including 
the outer continental shelves. 

(3) Fhasing out exploitation of the resources of poor countries 
by rich countries. 



5.5 The following proposals are directed to the government of the 
United States, but it is expected that other concerned nations, 
recognizing the needs, will take similar steps. 

Since the people of all nations of the world share the same 
planet; and 

Since the resources of the planet Earth are limited and relatively 
abused; and 

Because the ecological networks comprising the biosphere have 
little or no relation to the arbitrary political boundaries of 
nation-states: 

It. is proposed that steps be taken to reduce national sovereignty 
by increasing focus on the world and on people , eliminating 
unnatural nation-states. 

5.5a Purpose: 

The “environment” is whatever affects the ability of an organism 
to survive or reproduce. New knowledge often holds the potential for 
impairing the ability of organisms, especially human beings, 
to survive or reproduce. So, it seems appropriate to constitute a 
World EnvironmentarOrganization, to protect environmental health 
and its necessary extension, human health. 



The World Environmental Organization should organize itself to 
give attention to a number of issue areas. Among these are: 

1. The atmosphere 

2. The oceans 

3. Outer space 

4. Conservation of resources 

5. Discoveries in biological science 

6. The ecology of urbanization 

7. Population an^ resource distribution 



7. 



United Nations 
Volunteer Corps 



Oceans 



O 




We describe suggested goals in these issue areas below. We 
further note that a suggested structure for such a World 
Environmental Organization has been mentioned by the Environment 
Commission of the United Nations World Youth Assembly of 1970, 
and perhaps it might be investigated further. (See UN document 
52/WYA/P/6, of July 16, 1970 para. 12; and unofficial background 
documents in White House Conference files.) 

Functions: 

1. To anticipate future environmental problems and the 
directions of current ones; 

2. To conduct research to accurately determine the effects 
of such problems on various parts of the biosphere, including 
human beings, and how they may be avoided or reversed; 

3. Tq disseminate information about discover :3S, data 
resulting from research, predictions about future biospheric 
integrity, and successful attempts to improve an undesirable 
environmental situation, from any place in the world to any 
other place; 

4. To coordinate the environmental activities of as many of the 
world's institutions as possible; and 

5. To search for and activate as many mechanisms as possible 
for implementation of programs and bringing about needed 
changes. 

Implementation of the World Environmental Organization will be 
facilitated best in the absence of politically motivated nation-states 
and will also be simply a token institution unless strong and 
intimate ties are made. 

5. ,5b It is recommended that the resources, including financial, of 
the Peace Corps, be transferred to the United Nations Volunteer 
Corps and the International Youth Center Project, distributed in 
equal amounts to both and in an amount not less than the Peace 
Corps budget at its highest annua! level. 

It is further recommended that the United Nations Volunteers be 
composed of at least one-halv youth on the staffs, decision-making 
bodies and other branches of the organization. 

5.5c The world’s oceans are an in ternational resource where 
deterioration through oil spillage and dumping of waste material 
affects all nations. Be it recommended that an international ef. jrt 
be undertaken to control and prevent this senseless destruction 
through the following specific proposals: 

(A) That oil firms be required to pay the full cost of cleanup of 
any oil spillage from tankers or wells belonging to them, to 
the satisfaction of the above mentioned World Environmental 
Organization. 

(B) That the indiscriminate flushing of oil tankers at sea be 
entirely prohibited. 

(C) The world’s oceans today provide man with considerable 
resources in the form of fish and other aquatic animal^. The demand 
on ocean food. supplies is expected to increase in the future. It is 



Alternatives to Biocides 



nevertheless quite obvious that human demand for ocean resources 
will outstrip nature's ability to renew species of ocean fauna. Be 
it recommended that an international effort be undertaken to 
control indiscriminate over-exploitation of the ocean's bio-mass 
with particular urgency expressed for the preservation of whales. 

In addition to the above, it is projected that the ocean bottom will 
become another valuable resource providing both food and minerals 
for future generations. Yet, there exist only a few nations with the 
wealth and technology to exploit the oceans with the greatest 
need for the products of this resource. 

Be it recommended that an international effort be undertaken to 
see to it that this resource's wealth be equitably divided among 
the world’s nations through the international control of the 
oceans and is resources. 

The preceding recommendations are to be implemented through 
the World Environmental Organization and the cooperation of the 
world’s nation-states. 

5.5d We express concern over t chemical assault on the 
environment and recognize the impact of these contaminants on 
the ecological systems and the life forms of the planet. Chemicals, 
such as pesticides, heavy metals, industrial solvents and food 
additives recognize no political boundary. Hence, we recommend 
that government and industry seek alternatives to biocides and 
evaluate the implications to human health and welfare of 
these chemicals. 



There are many products produced by countries which are 
environmentally harmful ■ Such products as DDT and cyc/amates 
which have been banned from use in the United States should 
not be sold to other countries. 



American Corporations 5.5e Recommendations on the environmental responsibilities of 

with Branches Abroad American corporations with branches abroad: 

At the present time, there is considerable interest in control and 
restriction of industrial pollution within the United States. Yet, many 
of the firms located in the United States have numerous operations 
in other nations. In order to provide an effective environmental 
control program, it is necessary to restrict environmental 
degradation throughout the world. 

Be it recommended, therefore, 1 that the White House Conference 
on Youth propose that the environmental responsibilities imposed 
upon American corporations in the U.S. be identical to the 
responsibilities of branches ab. oad, taking into account the regional, 
ecological, and geographic differences or that the responsibilities 
be those declared by the nations within whose boundaries the 
branches are located, whichever is more restrictive. 




Alternate Power Sources 



Be it recommended also that this be the first step in urging the 
World Environmental Organization to adopt standardized 
environmental controls for all industry. 

5.5f We recommend that intensive research be conducted on the 
development of alternate power sources to those organic sources 
utilized extensively.-, today. 

- ' ..-" ii 



Cooperation in 

Extra-Terrestrial 

Exploration 



Ban All Supersonic Aircraft 



1971 International 
Youth Conference on 
thQ Human Environment 



The world is presently utilizing power at a phenomenal rate, a rate 
which is dramatically increasing. It is apparent, in addition, that 
the fuel re.sources of the world are limited, especially so in 
connection with the non-renewable organic fuels such as coal and 
petroleum. The human species will be faced with critical situations 
in the near future unless something is done rapidly. This is not 
simply a problem facing isolated nations, but the entire assembly 
of nations. 

Be it recommended, therefore, that intensive research be conducted 
by the government of the U.S., the Worid Environmental 
Organization, and other nations into alternate power sources for 
the future, particularly tidal, geothermal, solar, nuclear fusion, 
and nuclear fission through the further development of breeder 
reactors. 

5.5g Large amounts of resources are used in launching manned and 
unmanned space vehicles into the upper levels of the atmosphere 
and into outer space. Competition among technologically advanced 
nations often focuses upon achievements in aerospace technologies. 
Many pressing social problems appear to be deprived of funds 
by the nearly identical and expensive space programs of 
competing nations. 

We recommend that world cooperation in the unmanned, non-military 
exploration of earth from outer space be intensified and increased, 
and that manned exploration of outer space be ended until people 
on earth all have the opportunity to appreciate the beauty of 
discovery and the full potential of the human mind for creativity. 

In this way, wasteful and unneeded duplicate efforts toward uncertain 
goals will be minimized or eliminated. 

5.5h Be it recommended that environmentally safe sound ! vels 
for all forms of life and properties be established and instituted 
so as to ban all supersonic aircraft, both domestic and foreign 
from American airports. 

5.5i The White House Conference on Youth endorses and supports 
the 1971 International Youth Conference on the Human v onment 
which has as its theme, ‘.‘youth and Environmental Acuoii , as a 
follow up to the White House Conference on Youth and as a youth 
precursor conference to the 1972 U.N. Conference on “The Human 
Environment”, which will be held in Stockholm. We further 
recommend that the White House Conference on Youth provide 
sufficient funds for sponsoring two or more delegates to the 1971 
International Youth Conference on the Human Environment. 

The Task Force on Environment has a direct interest in promoting 
and facilitating youth involvement and representation in both the 

1971 International Youth Conference on Environment and the 

1972 U.N. Conference on Environment. Therefore, this Task Force 
shall designate its three members of the White House Conference 
on Youth followup committee, as well as four other elected delegates 
as responsible for: 

1. Ensuring that the environmental resolutions of this 
Conference are represented in the 1971 International Youth 
Conference on the Human Environment. 

2. Providing a variety of advisory and information resources 
for the 1971 International Youth Conference on the 
Human Environment. 



3. Insisting upon formal youth representation and input in 
the 1972 U.N. Conference from the U.N. and the U.S. 
delegations, thereby imparting the concerns, values, and 
attitudes as reflected in the nation, the White House 
Conference on Youth, and the 1971 International Youth 
Conference on the Human Environment. 

5 . 5 ] To follow up the 1971 White House Youth Conference with 
comprehensive strategy for joint youth action, The White 
House Conference: 

Having stressed the importance of increasing youth involvement 
and participation in the issues confronting the national and 
world community;- 

Recognizing that the World Youth Assembly held at the United 
National headquarters in July 1970 was the first global attempt 
to carry out this philosophy by developing new lines of 
communication between an increased cross-section of world youth 

rural, trade-labor, liberation and student groups — in conjunction 

with the U.N.; 

Emphasizing that the majority of the youth from the 120-member 
states of the U.N. and 13 non-member states and territories and 
36 international youth organizations attending the World Youth 
Assembly overwhelmin Jy declared themselves in Commission III 
(Education) in favor of creating an International Youth Center; 

Noting that the International Student Movement for the U.N. having 
student affiliates in nations all over the world, representing youth of 
diverse ideological, political and cultural positions have agreed 
to assist in the development of pilot projects for I.Y.C. with the 
International Student Club in Vienna, Austria, the International 
House in New York, N.Y., and other international centers throughout 

the world: 

Welcomes the initiative for the foundation of International Youth 
Centers whose purposes are (1) to encourage a global perspective 
among youth throughout the world; (2) to relate the values and 
activist orientation of an increased cross-section of world youth, 
including young workers, rural youth and students to the ideals 
and realities of the U.N.; (3) to broaden the base and legitimize 
world youth participation in all phases of U.N. - concern; (4) to 
coordinate information on youth policies and programs on a global 
scale providing a shared pool of data and resources related to 
youth; (5) to utilize -his assemblage of information on youth 
policies and programs to stimulate and develop new strategies for 
joint-youth action; (6) to form permanent international nation- 
governmental organization youth projects and to provide means 
for implementing and following up proposals for world youth: (7) to 
introduce into the U.N. new techniques of meditation and conflict 
resolution for young people throughout the world. 

Also recognizing that the problems of this nation, the United States, 
are integrally related to the problems of the world and therefore 
require integrated international solutions, recommends: 

1. That the implementation of the proposals of this 1971 
White House Conference on Youth would be greatly facilitated 
by cooperation and participation on the Project for International 
Youth Centers. __ 

2 That the operation and the results of the activity of the 

- is© ' 



Task Forces can continue past the time of the White House 
Conference by participation in the pilot project of I.Y.C. to 
coordinate and distribute information on youth participation 
and resources available to youth working on the areas of 
Development, Education, Environment, Human Rights and 
Peace. 

3. That U.S. youth join in the effort to make available to 
youth throughout the world, information on where and how 
they can take active roles in working towards the solutions of 
the problems discussed in this White House Conference 

on Youth. 

4. That institutions represented at the White House Conference 
on Youth make every effort to provide resources including 
funds, printed materials and other relevant materials to the 
five issues addressed by I.Y.C. to its pilot project. 



Urban Environment; 
Human Ecology 



t 

" 

f 



Citizen Participation 




5.6 Although environmental pollution has become recognized in 
recent years as a major crisis of society, the focus of this issue 
has overwhelmingly been addressed to problems that are important 
to middle class Americans. Problems of polluted lakes and rivers, 
national parks and wilderness, and population growth have been 
associated with the terms environment and ecology. The problems 
of urban transportation, slum housing conditions, inadequate health 
care, recreation and education, and unemployment or unsatisfactory 
employ ment are vital to urban poor people, but have not been 
properly understood and dealt with as part of the environmental 
crisis. 

In inner areas of most of the nation s cities, the environment has 
become nearly unliveable, and is most hazardous to human health 
and survival, presenting few opportunities for improvement of living 
conditions. The quality of life in the inner city is affected by 
concentrations of air, water, garbage and noise pollutants, over- 
congestion, run-down housing and inadequate recreation facilities, 
characteristics which are absent or minimal in non-urban settings. 

Thus many of the solutions to the environmental crisis must begin 
with an emphasis on correcting inner city conditions. 

The degraded urban environment has come about because people 
who live in the inner city areas and the services they require have 
been largely ignored, inadequately provided for, or given low 
priorities by America’s institutions and the public as a whole. 

The White House Conference on Youth hereby proposes that nat'onal 
priority be given for the necessary actions to improve the quality 
of the environment of the people of America’s inner cities. 

-~ a All governmentally supported programs must include full 
citizen participation in planning and implementation. 

Millions of Americans from all socio-economic strata have 
developed an environmental awareness. But if the environmental 
movement is to have more relative cohesiveness and impact than 
other social movements, policies and programs must be effected 
which attract a broader citizenry to positive action. Only by involving j 
increasingly more people in graduated programs of commitment 
will the movement gain the breadth and momentum it lacks at 
the present. 






■227 



127 



Citizens Right of 
Legal Action 



Pollution Impact on 
Urban Areas 



Urban Transportation; 
Fewer Highways 

O 

ERIC 



Urban human ecology must be a people-oriented movement, 
stressing community involvement. Community involvement means 
‘'grass roots" participation in planning and implementation of e l \ 
programs involving the social and physical well-being of people. 

It is recommended strongly that all governmental units involve 
“grass roots'" participation, by adopting new guidelines and/or the 
enforcement of existing ones, which makes full community 
participation in planning and implementation a compulsory 
requirement for all federally assisted programs. Examples include: 
Model Cities, Community Action Programs, antipoverty, and 
health education. 

In addition, more emphasis must be placed on manpower training 
and the provision of community jobs for the employable unemployed 
in housing maintenance, sanitation, community social workers and 
homemakers, health aids, youth job corps, and home-school 
coordinators. 

5.6b All existing laws and regulations should be enforced and 
citizens should have a right to guarantee this enforcement in a 
court of law. It is a fact that many of our problems are associated 
with a failure on the part of the government institutions and the 
public in general to require the enforcement of existing laws 
and regulations. 

Youth of this conference must go back to their communities , 
evaluate the laws now in existence , determine what laws are not 
being enforced, why they are not , who is opposing their enforcement, 
and direct organized efforts through community action to bring 
about their application . 

Youth must attempt to involve in this community action government 
and public lawyers who can utilize both their knowledge and 
leverage to require that all levels of government enforce laws and 
regulations where Federal funds are being used to supplement 
programs for improving the quality of life in the urban environment. 

The Conference advocates the legal principle that the citizen has 
the right to bring suits against any person, institution or government 
agency which acts in violation of existing laws pertaining to all 
areas of the environment . 

5.6c All governmental and private pollution control activities must 
include consideration of the impact of pollutants on the imminent 
hazards to man's health and well-being in the urban areas. We 
insist that all the environmental protection organizations at all 
levels of government give special emphasis to the environmental 
health impact of concentrations of air, water, solid waste and 
aesthetic pollutants on the people of the inner city; that the 
governmental budget be expanded to finance monitoring systems 
for identifying this impact; and that within this system an 
early-warning procedure be established; and that if a trend is 
demonstrated providing a dangerous influence (current or imminent) 
on the quality of life for the people of the inner city, that action 
be taken immediately to end the danger. We also support the 
concept that the Federal government guarantees to every citizen 
adequate health care. 

5.6d Support should be given for non-highway modes of 
transportation in the inner city , and to implement this we urge the 
abolition of the Highway Trust Fund and its replacement by a 
Transportation Trust Fund . It is the people who live in the inner 

-V— • 128 



ERIC 



\ 



cities who have suffered the tragic consequences of our inflexible 
marriage to the highway system. It isithey who must live with the 
traffic which has paralyzed movements in our urban areas. It is they 
who must choke on the exhaust fumes from the thousands of 
commuter automobiles. 

Yet, it is these people who have had to pay the costs for these 
highways: it is they who have lost their homes, their parklands, 
and their community identity. Therefore, we propose the following. 

1. It is recommended that Congress abolish the Federal 
Highway Trust Fund and institute in its place a Transportation 
Fund, from which monies would be appropriated for all 
mode’s of transportation, including, but not limited to 
mass transportation. 

2. All citizens are urged to contact their Congressmen and 
future candidates for Congress to demonstrate tneir support for 
more aid to non-highway modes of transportation. 

3. We believe that the $400 million appropriated in fiscal 1971 
for mass transportation is totally inadequate and that increased 
Federal funding is mandatory if our urban areas are to maintain 
and develop viable systems of urban mass transportation. 

4. We urge youth to petition Congress to institute a Federal 
fund of categorical grants related to the problems unique to 
those who are poor and those who are relatively immobile. 
We believe that such a fund would be a first step in changing 
planning priorities for transportation. Among those modes of 
transportation that might be considered are bike-ways and 
dial-a-bus systems. 



More Open Space Needed 



5.6e Urban open space and park areas must be expanded to meet 
the greatly increased recreation and community needs. 

Whereas the bulk of the population growth has occurred in our 
urban cities; and 

Whereas the density of people has outstripped the total land area 
in our urban centers; and 

Whereas many of the nation’s pollution problems have been 
indigenous to our urban centers; and 

Whereas the total land for recreation and leisure relative to the 
density of people in our urban areas is inversely proportional; and 

Whereas recreation and leisure are an integral part of our social, 
physical, mental, and spiritual well being; and 

Whe eas there has been gross neglect for those living in ghetto and 
low income housing projects in terms of education, recreation, 
and health; and 



Whereas open spaces, parks, playgrounds, and recreation areas, 
are an essentia! part of every community's needs; and j 

Whereas the urban area has been infamous for gross neglect in 
long range urban planning and development; and 

Whereas a higher percentage of our nation's youth reside in 
urban areas; and 



Whereas the President has asked Congress to appropriate an even 
larger sum for urban areas from 715 million to 200 million dollars 
for urban park facilities; and 






— .4 



129 



Housing Construction 
Is Inadequate 



'o 

ERIC 



Whereas there has been a lack of citizen participation in the 
decision making process in urban planning agencies in regards to 
urban growth patterns and development: 

We, therefore, strongly support the following recommendations 
and comments: 

(1) All available space such as neighborhood parks in the inner 
city of any city should be utilized for all seasons. Activities including 
cultural and entertainment programs must be instigated. 

(2) Because the use of leisure time is a valuable experience, 
especially for young people, utilization of all available space to 
facilitate activities for community youth is essential. 

(3) Because of shorter work time, opportunities must be provided 
for adults to allow them more creativity and involvement in 
leisure activities. 

(4) School facilities must be utilized in such a manner that the 
schools will become more involved in satisfying community needs. 

(5) In areas that provide limited open space we urge creative and 
innovative uses of space such as roof tops of buildings. Such 
activities as day care centers, parks, skating rinks, tennis courts, 
tracks, etc., can be designed to occupy this space. Community 
involvement will support this action. 

(6) Study must be made of comprehensive recreation requirements 
for the inner city since there is no research focusing on inner 
city recreation. 

(7) More funds should be provided for urban recreation activities, 
facilities and personnel for inner city communities. 

(8> The report of the President’s Commission on Violence indicates 
that recreation and park facilities within an urban setting help to 
cut down on riots. 

( 9 ) Development must be instigated that makes fuller use of street 
areas, water fronts and other potential recreation sites. 

(10) All levels of government — Federal, state and local — must 
incorporate an urban planning citizen’s bureau with sufficient power 
to veto any short or long-range urban plans initiated by the 
government that are not in the best interest of the welfare of 
the people. 

5.6f We recommend that immediate action be taken by Federal, state, 
and local governments to provide decent housing for all persons 
living in the urban areas of our country. 

This country needs 26 million housing units to meet the need. 

New units are, being built at a rate of 1.5 million per year. This is 
totally unsatisfactory to meet today’s need. 

We recommend the following as specific methods to be used in 
achieving the goal of sufficient urban housing: 

(1) Increased construction of new housing units. 




(2) The recycling of existing housing in the campaign to provide 
decent housing for millions of Americans. 

(3) The renovation of housing must be coordinated with the effort 
to revitalize the total urban community through programs such as 
Model Cities, Urban Renewal, Low Income Housing, and other 
governmental and public efforts. 

(4) All multiple dwelling housing units, including those provided 
by modernization and upgrading, must have built-in programs for 
assuring operation and maintenance of the facilities in accordance 
with applicable housing codes. This offers an opportunity to 
provide jobs for members of the community. 

(5) Elimination of racial discrimination in all housing programs. 
Public housing should be racially and econom/ca. ! /y integrated. 

(6) Housing projects should provide adequate modes of 
transportation to places of work, shopping, education, and so forth. 



We strongly question our society which allows some people to go 
without adequate housing while others own two or more homes. 



Land and Resource 
Policies 



131 




5.7 The youth of America, in recognition of the fact that land and 
water uses have critical impacts on human life and the quality of 
our environment, do urge that the United States develop and adopt 
as a matter of national action a comprehensive land policy. Such a 
policy must recognize that men and nations and their governments 
are trustees of earth's land and water resources and that all people 
and all generations, as beneficiaries of this trust, have a right to 
be secure in the protection and wise use of these resources. 

To further this policy, the following recommendations are made: 

(1) An immediate attempt must be made both to identify the 
total reserves of non-renewable resources on the planet and to 
undertake major, accurate projections for their future consumption. 

A regulatory international community is necessary to maintain 
control over environmentally damaging actions committed by 
individual members which are harmful to all. 

(2) The North American nations should jointly develop a natural 
systems inventory to provide the basis for ecologically oriented land 
and water classification. We take note of work in progress in this area 
by the Canadian government through the ARDA program. 

(3) The Federal government must assume the lead role in developing 
a comprehensive land use classification and planning system 
through all appropriate means, to include financial and technical 
assistance to regional bodies, states, and local governments. 

(4) All public and private development programs and activity must 
be subject to full review and analysis. This would require public 
hearings and involvement by the public, student groups, and 
environmental groups. 

(5) Immediate steps must be taken to insure that short-term 
decisions on land use in urban areas favor more amenities and a 
better environment. Public land acquisitions , especially in the 
eastern United States, must be accelerated. 




Islands Require 
Special Treatment 




(6) Special programs must be developed to address the coastal 
zones, but it is essential that these areas be considered as part of 
a larger ecological system. This special coastal zone protection 
must include: 

(a) that all beaches be public property with public access 
guaranteed across all private lands; 

(b) estuary protection from pollution, fill and dredging; 

(c) complete coastal management zoning on regional and 
statewide lands; 

(d) protection of the seabed and offshore coastal resources; 

(e) activities uniquely appropriate to the coastal zone would 
take priority. 

(7) Certain specific government programs merit our support: 

(a) Wilderness Act of 1964; 

(b) Natural National Landmark Program; 

(c) National Trail Program; 

(d) Wild and Scenic Rivers Program. 

(8) The land policy must include provision for a network of public 
and private lands for diverse recreation activities, such a network 
to include Federal wilderness, youth hostels, parklands, 
forests, and refuges; and similar areas at the state and local 
government levels. v 

(9) Concurrent with a national land policy, programs to enlighten 
and improve professional and technical competence of land use 
planners, managers, and others involved in land use decisions 
must be initiated. 

5.7a As areas very distinct from the continental United States, the 
islands of, or possessed by, or held in trusteeship by the government 
of the United States must be treated in ways different from the 
policies applied to the continental states. 

Islands are pre-eminent examples of the m t basic of ecological 
principles — a whole, alone, spaceship ea . They are the natural 
settings for experimenting and understar. g the essence of closed 
environmental systems. 

Presently, United States 7 island lands, rr st notably the Hawaiian 
Islands, are in a state of severe cultural £ J biological disequilibrium. 
The result of the rendering of the cultu al fabric by tourism, 
commercialism, assimilative education policies and insensitive 
administrative policies coupled with massive ecological disruption 
from in-migration, poor land use, and hundreds of imported species 
of plants and animals, is an eminent human environmental crisis 
facing these islands. 

Recognizing the uniqueness of islands and the right of communities 
and peoples to have the greatest voice in the decisions which affect 
them most, a new policy must be embarked upon by the Federal 
and island governments. 

(1) !n land use and related policy areas, the goal must be maximum 
self-sufficiency of food supply. Vegetables and meat must come 
before pineapples and sugar cane. 

(2) The Dole Company owns an entire major Hawaiian island 
called Lanai. This land must be returned to the State and people 
of Hawaii. A military target island similarly must be returned. 




Environmental Protection 
Must Take Priority 



Nationalization of 
Appalachian Coal Industry 



Creation of 
Community Ecology 
Center 



(3) Adequate housing, public open space and amenities itrust be 
prior to military bases and “national security”, presently a burden 
born disproportionately by United States island areas. 

(4) Luxury imports must be heavily taxed to provide for the solution 
of solid waste problems. 

(5) The tourist industry must pay the costs of the services it 
requires and the degradation it causes. Cheap inter-isiand water 
transit and intra-island mass transit must be developed. 

(6) Other policies which may be island-isolationist in their nature 
and contrary to the idea of nationalism must be experimented with 
to allow for the health and integrity and preservation of the people 
and their lands. 

5.7b There are a number of areas — including agriculture, and urban 
growth and transportation — on which we lack the time and 
mechanisms at this Conference to comment. We therefore 
recommend that in specific decision-making, environmental 
protection take priority over commercial or political gain. Further, 
there are current examples of major environmental degradation 

including strip mining, Black Mesa Navajo Power Plant, 

trans-Alaska pipeline, the nation's wetlands, timberc^tting on 
public and private lands, Appalachia and highway planning — which 
must be curtailed. 

5.7c The Task Force believes that the evidence on the Appalachian 
coal industry can lead to only one conclusion: the industry must be 
nationalized or preferably Appalachianized so that the people will 
have the power to halt the needless death and human suffering 
and be able to reclaim the wealth generated from the mining 
industry which is rightfully theirs. We propose that there be created 
an Appalachian Mountain Authority, which would own and operate 
for the people of Appalachia the mining industry and invest the 
wealth accrued from this ownership to needed public investments 
for the uplift of the Appalachian Region. 



5.8 Community action in environmental matters is vital. To this end, 
the Task Force endorses the concept of the community ecology 
center as a base for recycling, information, etc. 

t 

The 1960’s were marked by the turmoil of two great social 
movements — black liberation and peace. Although these movements 
resulted in many positive changes in American life, few would 
contest that there were some serious shortcomings in terms of 
eliciting broad-based citizen support, particularly at the beginning 
of the movement. One of the principal reasons for the shortcomings 
of these movements was the lack of movement-oriented institutions 
through which individuals and groups could not only express their 
concern, but also follow through into actual social change. The 
present decade has seen the spawning of an environmental 
movement which supplements the ongoing liberation and peace 
movements. Given that thousands of Americans from all 
socio-economic strata have developed an environmental awareness, 
there are several needs which must be met if the environmental 
movement is to have more relative cohesiveness and impact than 
the other movements. 

The first, most basic, need is to establish channels to transform 
this new-found awareness and concern into actions leading to the 



Ecology Center: 
a Blueprint 



O 

ERIC 

134 



revolutionary changes which must occur in order to avoid a cultural 
and ecological catastrophe. 

A second need is to develop methods for increasing the momentum 
of the movement. Thus, any mechanisms for generating initial 
action must continually reinforce the deepening of an ecological 
perspective among both individuals and groups. At the same time, 
programs must be effected which attract citizens into positive 
action. Only by involving increasingly more people in graduated 
programs of commitment will the movement gain the momentum 
it lacks at the present. 

Additionally, since interest in the environment is shared by such 
a diversity of Americans, centers for environmental action must 
present a wide variety of programs. These programs should be 
explicitly designed to top the common denominator of ecological 
concern and use it as a basis for uniting diversified perspective into 
an ecological ethic. 

If these considerations are not met, then the environmental 
movement will not have a lasting impact on American life, and the 
power of the decision-making process will never rest in the hands 
of people who possess an ecological consciousness. If a grass-roots 
environmental movement fails to effect a profound reordering 
of the American culture , then the consequences will indeed be dire. 

5.8a In some twenty-five communities across the nation, citizens, 
under the leadership of young people have realized these needs 
and have established locally based ecology centers to try to meet 
them. Most of the centers are non-profit corporations which are 
publically promoting ecology to citizens of the community. They 
are achieving this goal by initiating programs of their own and 
by coordinating the activities of existing and developing 
environmental groups. Programs and services of these centers 
vary with the; circumstances of their locale, but all have the goal 
of generating environmental information and then indicating 
appropriate targets for individual and organizational action. Common 
features of these centers are public environmental libraries and 
bookstores, speakers bureaus, switchboards for environmental 
information and referrals, and publications ranging from weekly 
calendars of events to lengthy political critiques. Ecology radio 
shows, recycling centers, testimony presentations, environmental 
inventories of local areas, and environmental education projects of 
all sorts are facilitated, coordinated or sponsored by most of these 
centers. Some of the centers are deeply involved in counter-cultural 
projects such as free universities, peoples' parks, organic gardens 
and food co-ops. 

At the same time, many of these same centers have worked with 
large corporations and universities , small businesses , labor unions 
and all levels of special purpose government. In dealing with these 
institutions, the centers have adhered to the same viewpoint as in 
dealing with street people or suburban housewives. The viewpoint 
is that the development of an ecological ethic in both individuals 
and institutions supersedes all political ideologies ana 
economic motives. 

Operating from a tax-er.empt framework, ecology centers have been 
relatively very successful in promoting environmental concern and 
action. They are able to avoid the potential pitfalls of political 
partisanship while simultaneously increasing the effectiveness of 

‘ ISA 



political organizations by serving as a clearinghouse and information 
and resource generator for them. 

The ecology center concept is functioning in a cross-section of 
American communities, from the huge eastern megalopolis to 
intellectual centers of the midwest, to small towns in the west and 
south. The concept is evolving concurrently with the sophistication 
of the environmental movement. The success of the concept does 
not appear to be ephemeral, however. Centers continue to receive 
support from many interests and are continually expanding their 
constituencies. More importantly, ecology centers are generally 
recognized by their communities as the organization most responsive 
to the needs discussed at the outset cf this essay. The ecology 
center concept, then , can be regarded as a genuine and hopeful 
first step in developing the movement-generating organ that is 
so vitally needed. 

Proposal. The ecology center concept is a model for the participants 
of this conference to apply to their local communities when the 
conference is over. 



The flexibility of the concept allows ecology centers to successfully 
operate in widely varied areas, depending on local circumstances. 

The centers are operated by full-time staffs, paid subsistence wages, 
and by volunteers from all segments of the community. For the 
most part, the paid staff are under age thirty, but volunteers range 
from Boy Scouts to retirees. Funding has been a problem common 
to all centers and staff members could probably be earning 
substantially more in other capacities. Still, they have chosen to 
work with ecology centers because of the centers' great potential 
for realizing social change. 

It is recommended that the ecology center concept be tested in 
local communities by the returning participants of this conference. 
Described below is a sample budget for a local ecology center 
in its first year of operation. The figures are based on a 
composite for several individual centers. Local rents snd 
utilities may be considerably less and salaries should vary 
according to local cost-of-living expenses. An ecology center should 
be able to operate quite effectively on $40,000 in its first year of 
existence. Budgets for the second year usually rise about 20%. 
Generally, this increase represents an increase in program 
and personnel. 



Salaries 



Director — 

Projects Manager v — 
Researcher & Librarian 
Secretary (part time) 

Payroll taxes (10%) - 



$5,800 

5,800 

5,600 

2,800 

20,000 

2,000 

22,000 



Center Facilities 

Rent ($500. 00/mo) 
Utilities 



6,000 

1,200 

7,200 



Communications 



Telephone ($120. 00/mo) 1,440 

Postage - - 1,000 

2,440 



Staff Travel & Expenses 

Fares - 600 

Office Supplies 500 

Equipment 



(Typewriters, filing cabinets, chairs, etc.) 700 



Libr ary 

(Books, newsletter and 

magazine subscriptions) 1,500 

Public ity 

(Ads, handbills, posters) 500 

Publications 

(Reprints, fact sheets, booklets) 1.600 



Project Seed Money 
(Materials, fund raising 



costs, services) 3,000 

Legal & Accounting Fees 200 

Insurance 350 

Total _ 40,590 



Notes. More specific information, suggestions and individual 
consultation may be obtained from the Ecology Center 
Communications Council, Inc., 1728 20th Street, N.W., Washington, 
D.C. 20009. This Council was formed in December 1970, as a 
means of improving communications between existing centers and 
facilitating the development of new centers. 

Eighteen ecology centers which were operating at that time compose 
the charter members of the Council. Since December several other 
centers have become informally affiliated. Through its central office 
in Washington, the ECCC is able to draw upon the expertise of 
successful grass roots organizations, as weii as the wealth of 
information which is in Washington. The Council can then make 
these resources directly available to parties wishing to apply the 
ecology center concept to their own community in an effort to make 
the environmental ethic an integral part of the American culture. 



Reallocation of 
National Defense Budget 



ERIC 

UB323333. 

13b 



5.9 The Task Force recommends that 20% of the national defense 
budget be re-allocated to the defense and protection of life in the 
United States. One of the broad objectives which should receive 
additional funds is the improvement of environment in urban areas. 



Arctic Alaskan Oil 



5.10 The Task Force recommends that the risk of environmental 
damage from transportation of Arctic Alaskan oil is great enough to 
halt further development of these fields at this time. If ensi'gy 
requirements require their development, transportation should be 
designed to lower the risk of environmental damage. 



Publication of Activities 



5.11 The Task Force authorizes the publication of their activities, 
discussions, proposals, and recommendations by an editorial board 
elected from this group. The editorial board will meet aftc-i tne 
Conference to prepare this report. 

The report would include a prologue defining ine environment and 
trends in the environmental movement, delegate essays, and an 
appendix of eco tactics and action programs which have been 
discussed by the Task Force groups. 

Any profits from the publication will be contributed to the eco-centers 
and/or the International Youth Conference of 1971. 



Cut Funds of Chemical 5.12 The Task Force recommends that funding for chemical and 

and Biological Warfare biological warfare be halted. 



War: Environmental 
Disaster 



Cultural Exchange 
Programs 



5.13 War is an environmental disaster. Intraspecific killing <s not 
conducive to the survival of a species. In addition, wars have 
spread disease and destroyed the land through fire, devastation, 
and deforestation. 

In our own time, the environmental hazards of war have greatly 
increased. The power of environmental destruction by nuclear war, 
biocides, and oi.’ner biological and chemical methods is so great that 
no country should be able to risk the total destruction of all or large 
parts of the planet. 

To this end, the Task Force recommends the following: 

(1) Completely banning of nuclear tests; 

(2) Completely banning all forms of chemical and biological warfare; 

(3) Banning weapons from the sea as well as the sea floor, and 

(4) Banning military equipment and operations from space. 



5.14 National governments need not be the only vehicle for contact 
between people. Since non-political citizen contacts are sometimes 
productive, the Task Force recommends the expansion of cultural 
exchange programs among citizens of the United States, the Soviet 
Union, Red China, ar.d the developing nations, with emphasis on 
scientific and ecological cooperation. 



O 

ERIC 



1 



137 



£37 



All recommendations were voted upon and approved by the whole 
Task Force meeting in general session. Drafts of the recommenda- 
tions originated from Task Force workshops. The Task Force 
decided to include a list of minority positions which appear at the 
end of each section. At the end of some paragraphs there also 
appears, in italics, the Task Force vote on the particular issue 
involved. 



African Workshop; 
Racial Policies 



Black Africa 



©.I We the members of the African workshop deplore the racist and 
colonial regimes of southern Africa. Further we feel that our policies 
towards these nations hinder our relations with black and other 
non-white nations. Therefore, we make the following policy recom- 
mendations for endorsements by this Task Force plenary session: 

That the U.S. government ratify the U.N. Convention on 
Elimination of Racial Discrimination. 

2. That the U.S. government initiate restrictions on U.S. invest- 
ments contrary to this convention. 

3. That in line with the U.S. boycott of Rhodesia through U.N. 
sanctions, the U.S. initiate an international boycott of South Africa 
in all financial, social, economic and cultural areas. Specifically 
the U.S. government should: 

a. Boycott all athletic events involving South African players, 
which are not open to black Africans on an equal basis. 

b. Support the Congressional Black Caucus effort to withdraw 
the sugar quota from South Africa and shift it to black African nations. 

4. That the U.S. government should inform the American public 
of the problems of southern Africa, specifically those problems 
related to legalized discrimination. 

5. That the U.S. government should condemn the restoration of 
British arms sales to Africa. 

6. That the U.S. government tighten loopholes which allow trade 
to continue with Rhodesia through Portugal and South Africa, and 
the U.S. government urge other governments do likewise. 

7. That we condemn U.S. military aid to Portugal and request 
that it be cut off until such time that Portugal recognizes the right 
of Mozambique, Angola and Guinea (Bissau) to self-determination. 
Yes 68; No 20; Abstain 18. 

8. That the U.S. government should not exercise its veto in the 
U.N. Security Council on the use of force in bringing down the regime 
in Rhodesia. (Minority Report): Yes 41; No 55; Abstain 7. 

6.1a We also urge the U.S. Government to better its policies with 
Black Africa. Specifically: 

1. To support the Congressional Black Caucus proposal to double 
U.S. economic aid to Black Africa from 8 to 16 percent of the U.S. 




140 ' 



141 





aid without any political strings attached. This aid should be 
allocated in line with the recipient countries' priorities. 

2. To broaden cultural exchanges, scholarships and betterment 

of education in Black Africa with particular consideration of programs 
including black Americans. 

3. To increase aid to the refugees of the South African conflict. 

4. To support the stockholder's attempt to withdraw Gulf Oil 
from Angola. 

5. To urge other organizations to follow the lead of the World 
Council of Churches in supporting national liberation groups in 
Black Africa. 

Furthermore we condemn the Cabora Bassa Dam project in Mozam- 
bique which allows the influx of South African troops to suppress 
the Mozambique freedom fighters. We also express deep concern 
over the adverse implications for the villages and people resulting 
from the dam’s operation. Yes 74; No 3.0; Abstain 5. 


Indochina; 
Withdrawal By 
December 31, 1971 

1 

i 


6.2 The Task Force on Foreign Relations of the White House 
Conference on Youth rejects the Administration's continuing plea 
for a gradual withdrawal to be terminated at some unspecified 
date as one last attempt to influence militarily the eventual outcome 
of the war in Indochina. Therefore, the Task Force on Foreign 
Relations 

Recommends total and immediate cessation of U.S. ground and 
naval operations in Indochina. 

Recommends total and immediate cessation of U.S. bombing in 

Indochina. 

Recommends total withdrawal of all U.S. military forces and cessa- 
tion of logistical support, both overt and covert, from Indochina 
by December 31, 1971. Such action will best insure the release 
of all prisoners of war as we see no relationship between military 
pressure and the release of American prison'""' 

Recognizing the U.S. share of responsibility for the plight of the 
refugees and the rehabilitation of the land, the Task Force further 
recommends that at the cessation of the conflict in Indochina, even if 
confronted with a reorganization of the political spectrum in 
Vietnam, the U.S. should vigorously support an international effort 
to assist in reconstruction and economic development by means 
designed to benefit and strengthen the maximum number of people 
of that area, at the request of the governments of the area. 

Yes 50; No 34. 


1 

Vietnamization; 
Minority Report 


6.2a The Task Force believes that a majority of young people 
support efforts to withdraw American combat troops from Indochina. 
The Yankelovich Study indicated that 56 percent of American 
young people support “steady withdrawal but with reasonable 
assurance the South Vietnamese will remain strong enough to be 
able to make their own political choices.’’ This, we believe, speaks 
to the heart of the problem. The ability of South Vietnam and the 
extent of the American commitment to protect the right of self- 

•V;:. 141 



1 JlO 



People’s Peace 
Treaty; 

Minority Report 



f 



\ 



determination of these people must be considered sn any discussion 
of American Troop withdrawals. 



We support the continued and accelerated withdrawal of Aaneric*h 
combat P-ocss from S ->utheast Asia. Mi belie*# in the V&tnamiz# 
tion process on the giounds that nr <>ns should devevr- the 
capability to defend themselves . 



Withdrawal of American Troops must be based on factors including 
the safety of American trooos and an agreement on the safe return 
of prisoners of war once the American combat involvement has ended. 



We call for increased diplomatic efforts to encourage the ear 'y 
exchange of prisoners of war between the United States, South 
Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the Viet Cong. We further call for the 
release of information of the names of prisoners new held by 
North Vietnam and the Viet Cong, the flow of correspondence, and 
the inspection of POW camps by the International Red Cross. 



The government of the United States and its citizens must realize 
that we should have a continued interest in the development of 
the nations and peoples of Indochina. We encourage increased 
economic assistance to these nations over the next ten years. 



We believe that America cannot once again return to a policy of 
isolationism especially in Indochina, but must involve itself through 
cultural and economic assistance to aid these people in their 
development throughout the 1970's. 34 votes. 



6.2b The Foreign Relations Task Force joins with the special session 
on Indochina in endorsing the principles of the People's Feace 
Treaty, and calling upon President Nixon to instruct our represen- 
tatives’ in Paris to end the war on its fair and just terms 



INTRODUCTION 



Be it known that the American and Vietnamese people are not 
enemies. The war is carried out in the name of the people of the 
United States, but without our consent. It destroys the land and 
the people of Vietnam. It drains America of her resources, her youth 

and her honor. 

We hereby agree to end the war on the .ollowing terms, so that 
both peoples can live under the joy of independence and can devote 
themselves to building a society based on human equahty and 
respect for the earth. In rejecting the war we also reject all forms 
of racism and discrimination against people based on color, class, 
sex, national origin and ethnic grouping which form a basis of 
the’war policies, present and past, of the United States. 

Principles of the Joint Treaty of Peace 




(Americans agree to immediate and total withdrawal from Vietnam, 
and publicly to set the date by which all U.S. military forces will 

be removed. 

Vietnamese agree to participate in an immediate cease-fme, and 
will enter discussions on the procedures to guarantee the safety of 
all withdrawing troops, and to secure release of all military prisoners. 

Americans pledge to stop imposing Thieu, Ky and Khiem on the 

f'j' 24P 



UN and Geneva 
Conference; 
Minority Report 



Economic Assistance; 
Minority Report 



Release of 
Prisoners 




people of Vietnam in order to ensure their right to self-determina- 
tion, and to ensure that all political prisoners are released. 

Vietnamese pledge to form a provisional coalition government to 
organize democratic elections, in which all South Vietnamese 
can participate freely without the presence of any foreign troops, 
and to enter discussions of procedures to guarantee the safety and 
political freedom of persons who cooperated with either side in 
the war. 

Americans and Vietnamese agree to respect the independence, 
peace and neutrality of Laos and Cambodia. 

Upon these points of agreement, we pledge to end the war. We will 
resolve all other questions in mutual respect for the rights of 
self-determination of the people of Vietnam and of this United States. 
7 votes. 



6.2c In light of the continued deadlock in the Vietnamese peace 
negotiations we call on the United States government to: 

1. Ask the Soviet Union and United Kingdom to reconvene the 
Geneva Conference of 1954 and also to consider expanding Asian 
membership; 

2. Request the United Nations, and its members, especially the 
Asian ones, to mediate and supervise a peace settlement, the 
withdrawal of all foreign troops, and the holding of free elections 
so that the people of Southeast Asia may settle their own destiny. 
Yes 36; No 57; Abstain 1. 

6.2d Whereas the United States has a continuing responsibility to 
the people of Indochina; and 

Whereas it has consistently been an ideal of the United States to 
provide economic assistance towards social development of foreign 
nations; and 

Whereas the United States has been directly responsible for 
destruction of people, agricultural lands and hospital facilities in 
Indochina; and 

Whereas the United Nations has been an effective channel for 
administration of foreign assistance problems: 



Therefore be it Resolved, That the Vietnam caucus of the White 
House Conference on Youth recommends agricultural support, 
development rehabilitation, and relief in the form of a two billion 
dollar grant to the people of Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos; and 

Be it further Resolved, That these funds be administered by the 
United Nations. Yes 36; No 57; Abstain 1. 



6.2e A resolution passed by the Task Force on Legal Rights and 
Justice and referred to the Task Force on Foreign Relations for 
consideration: 



We believe that the current plight of ALL prisoners of war in South- 
east Asia is an insult to human dignity as well as international 
justice. We therefore call upon the People's Republic of North 
Vietnam, the National Liberation Front (NLF), the Pathet Lao, as 



1 A A 



Resolution on PQW’s 



Vietnam Protests 



Vietnam Oil Fields 



Middle East; 

Aid to Palestine 
Refugees 



International 

Guarantees 



well as the government of South Vietnam for the IMMEDIATE 
UNCONDITIONAL release of all , soners of war currently being held. 
We furthermore support the immediate exchange and repatriation 
of any prisoners of war taken after the initial release of all prisoners. 
Yes 52; No 18; Abstain 2. 

6.2f In 1965 U.N. Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold flew to 
Peking in a dramatic humanitarian gesture that brought about the 
release of all American Korean War POW’s. 

Accordingly we call on Secretary General U Thant to take personal 
action to help secure the freedom of all prisoners of war being 
held in both North and South Vietnam. Passed unanimously. 

6.2g BE IT RESOLVED that the White House Conference on Youth 
strongly endorses and supports non-violent demonstrations in 
opposition to the United States military activities in Indochina. 

We further resolve that telegrams of support be sent to the following 
sponsors of ongoing and future activities. 

(1) Vietnam Veterans Against the War endorsing the Dewey 
Canyon III operation through this week. 

(2) Concerned Officers Movement Memorial Service for the 
Indochina War Dead to be attended by G.I.’s in uniform at the 
Washington Cathedral on April 23, 1971. 

(3) National Peace Action Coalition marches in Washington. D.C. 
and San Francisco on April 24, 1971. 

(4) Moratorium for Kent State and Jackson State on May 5 in 
major cities in the United States. Yes 52; No 23; Abstain 4. 

6.2h Given the growing controversy regarding the significance and 
dimensions of the newly discovered oil fields off the coast of 
South Vietnam, and the possible relationship between American oil 
companies’ requests to the Saigon regime for leases and the potential 
influence these requests may have on United States policy toward 
South Vietnam; 

Be it Resolved, That the Task Force strongly requests immediate 
and exhaustive hearings by the Senate Committee on Foreign 
Relations and the House Committee on Foreign Affairs on this vital 
and emerging issue. Yes 48; No 17; Abstain 8. 



6 3 We strongly recommend that the United States increase its 
financial support of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency 
for Palestinian Refugees (UNRWA) in order to maintain the medical, 
educational, welfare, and other humanitarian services of that 
organization. We also urge that, effective immediately, the United 
States assume the UNRWA deficit for a period of three years, if 
possible in concert with other nations. 

6.3a We believe that a solution to the Middle East crisis should not 
be imposed by the great powers. Rather, we urge the United States 
government to act even more energetically to promote international 
guarantees for the maintenance of a durable peace in the Middle 
East acceptable to all parties concerned including the Palestinians. 
And to th.s end, the United States should support the development 



Of am apparatus to maintain any mutually acceptable peace 
arrangements. 



De-escalate Arms 
Buildup 



Mid-East Common 
Market 



Permanent Home for 
Refugees 



Mid-East People-to- 
People Program; 
Minority Report 



Terrorist Tactics; 
Minority Report 

O 




6.3b We urge the United States to intensify negotiations with the 
other major powers involved in supplying military assistance to the 
Middle East to reduce military polarization and to de-escalate the 
arms buildup. And further, we urge the government and private 
organizations of the United States to make special efforts to renew 
and strengthen diplomatic, educational, and cultural ties with all 
peoples and states in the Middle East. 





Yes 


No 


Abstain 


6.3 


58 


45 


8 


6.3a 


48 


42 


7 


6.3 b 


79 


9 


6 



6.3c We recommend that immediately after a peace settlement in the 
Middle East, the United States government support an increased 
economic, political, and educational interchange between all 
countries of the Middle East as the first stage in development of 
a Middle East independent common market. And to this end, we 
urge that the United States, at the request of the countries involved, 
take the initiative in creating an international authority through the 
auspices of the United Nations, for the regional development of the 
area, including water, highway communication, and fundamental 
resources. Yes 46; No 41; Abstain 10. 

6.3d (1) We support the struggle of the Palestinian people to live 
in their own homeland with freedom and dignity. 

(2) Resolve that a permanent and just solution to the Middle East 
conflict must be based on the right of both Jews and Palestinians 
(Moslems and Christians) to live in a democratic, secular state that 
ensures the freedom, equality and integrity of all its citizens. 





Yes 


IHO 


. Lc* ill 


(D 


40 


29 


5 


(2) 


42 


28 


4 



6.3e We endorse and support the rightful aspirations of Palestinians 
as of all peoples everywhere to political and national identity. We 
condemn and oppose the use of terrorism — that is violence directed 
against non-combatant civilians — to achieve these or any other 
aspirations. 

Presently the Palestinian people regard as their principal means 
for recognition fighting oppressive Arab and Israeli regimes. Though 
we appreciate those efforts taken by nation-states, we believe that 
immediate initiatives must be taken on a people-to-people basis 
to promote a meaningful co-existence politically, culturally, and 
economically, of all peoples of the Middle East. 

Yes 28; No 43; Abstain 5. 

6.3f Let it be known that the White House Conference on Youth 
stron^y condemns the murdering and shooting of women, children, 
and other unarmed civilians. We, therefore, condemn the tactics ‘ f 
the Palestinian terrorists, whose constant target is the innocent 
civilian. Yes 33; No 34; Abstain 9»~ — — - 



UN Conference on 
Human Rights; 
Minority Report 



Arms Control 
Resolution 



| 

i 

\ 

i 

1 



o 




6.3g Citing the first resolutions of the United Nations Conference on 
Human Rights, we condemn the destruction of homes, dispossession 
of property and inhuman practices of Israeli authorities in occupied 
territories and demand their compliance and respect of the 
Declaration of Human Rights and rules of the Geneva Convention 
of which Israel is a signatory. Yes 27; No 41; Abstain 5. 



6 4 Whereas the arms race has continued unabated for more than 
two decades with the nations of the world, spending literally hundreds 
of billions of dollars on armaments, we call upon our national 
leadership and the leaders of other major powers to critically examine 
the balance of power philosophy and the accompanying threat 
system as practiced by all nations which forces them to expend 
much of their human and material resources on war and national 
defense. As youth, most of us have lived our lives under the shadow 
of nuclear annihilation. We ask, is there not another way to achieve 
peace and security? 

We are particularly concerned about recent escalations in the nuclear 
arms race with the development of MIRV (multiple independently 
targetable warheads) and ABM (anti-ballistic missiles). 

1. The U.S. should accept the Soviet Union's proposal for a freeze 
on further deployment of ABM systems, on condition that negotiations 
proceed on a ban on further deployments of offensive strategic 
nuclear weapon systems. 

2 The U.S. should announce an immediate and unilateral 
suspension of MIRV flight tests and call upon the Soviet Union to 
do likewise, pending the outcome of negotiations on a limitation 
on offensive systems under the preceding paragraph. 

3 The U.S. she ild announce an immediate and unilateral 
moratorium on nuclear weapon tests, call upon the Soviet Union 
to do likewise and to enter into an exchange of technical data 
regarding the detection of underground nuclear explosions, and 
negotiate a treaty which would ban all underground nuclear weapon 
tests, in addition to those in the atmosphere, outer space and under 
water which are already banned under the Limited Test Ban Treaty. 

4. The U.S. should propose that the United Kingdom, France arid 
the Peoples Republic of China be invited to join the U.S. and 
Soviet Union in Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), on the 
understanding that multilateral talks would proceed on this basis 
without prejudice to the continuation of bilateral negotiations 
between the U.S. end Soviet Union. 

But, strategic weapons are not the only ones which should be subject 
to international control. The arms trade business has resulted in a 
massive proliferation of conventional weapons in the less developed 
countries of the world. These weapons have been used to kill and 
maim hundreds of thousands of human beings. The United States 
and other nations are profiting from the sale of weapons abroad. 

This should be stopped. We urge that the United States take an 
initiative in pressuring other nations to agree to a multi-lateral 
moratorium on arms transfers so that effective steps toward 
disarmament can be undertaken. 

Finally, we would recommend that the Senate ratify the 1925 
Geneva Protocol banning the use in warfare of chemical and 



biological weapons without re.-.ervation. If ratified, the United States 
would then join 95 other nations, including all the major powers, 
in supporting this Treaty. Yes 60; No 22; Abstain 5. 



Human Rights 
Resolution 


6.5 The United States is committed to the protection and promotion 
of human rights both under its own Constitution and laws, and 
through its Charter membership in the United Nations. 

The Task Force strongly supports the implementation of this 
commitment and urges the President and Senate to approve and 
ratify the several human rights conventions which have been 
presented to the nations of the world in anticipation of developing 
an international code of conduct in line with the Universal 
Declaration of Human Rights. These include: 1) the UN Genocide 
Convention now waiting Senate debate, and also ILO and UNESCO 
Conventions binding states that ratify them; 2) tc grant women 
political rights equal to those of men; 3) to prevent discrimination in 
employment and occupations; 4) to give equal remuneration for 
work of equal values for men and women; 5) to eliminate 
discrimination in education; and 6) to guarantee civil and political 
rights to all persons without regard to race, religion, class, political 
beliefs or sex. 

We further urge the United States to use its influence in the 
international forum to speak out against the violation of human rights 
in every nation and to join in international efforts to secure the 
implementation of human rights for all peoples in the world, 
regardless of race, religion, political views, class, sex, for all 
the oppressed. 

While all issues of human freedom rightly concern us, we speak 
out here on certain areas of specific concern. 


Genocide 

Convention 


6.5a Twenty-three years have passed since the United Nations 
General Assembly passed the Genocide Convention, outlawing 
genocide and making it a crime against all humanity. 

Virtually every major nation on earth has ratified this document. 

At the moment, however, the treaty’s future in the Senate as a whole 
remains very much in doubt. 

The White House Conference on Youth calls on President Nixon, 
the leaders of both parties in the Senate, and all national opinion 
holders to work for a speedy ratification of this document. 


International 

Exploitation 


6.5b We deplore the exploitation of one nation by another, whether 
in the form of colonialism, neo-colonialism or imperialism. We cite 
as examples of these phenomena, the continued existence of 
Portugal’s African and Asian colonies, Soviet domination of its 
East European bloc and the Baltic States, and the control of 
Nambia (S.W. Africa) by the Republic of South Africa. 

We therefore strongly endorse the United Nations termination of 
South Africa’s mandate over Nambia and the United Nations 
Resolution on the granting of independence to colonial peoples 
(passed December 17, 1970). We urge the United States not only to 
support actively these particular proposals, but also to put an end 
to all forms of international exploitation whether committed by 
other nations or by itself. 


W C «ric a a nd 


6.5c The repressive racist regime of the Republic of South Africa 
has earned the propel condemnation of the civilized world. The policy 



X?“- : r~- y x-Y 



of Apartheid, of forced racial separation and separate development, 
is merely a euphemism for a form of virulent racism unrivaled 
anywhere in earth. 



Soviet Jewry 



United Nations; 
Reforms 






i 







We call on the government of South Africa to rejoin the family of 
democratic nations by immediately doing away with this discredited 
policy, by abolishing its detention and bill of attainder acts that 
violate international norms for civil and political rights and by 
allowing universal free suffrage so that the people of South Africa 
may decide their own future. 

We demand that the government of the United States cake every 
step commensurate with the requisite United Nations resolutions to 
influence the government of South Africa. 

6.5d Despite its great progress in technological and scientific 
matters the Soviet Union’s record in the realm of minority protection 
harkens back to the days of Czarist oppression. 

Soviet Jews, in particular, are denied the most rudimentary elements 
of religious life and civil liberties while their ethnic identity is 
ruthlessly stifled. They are singled out for harsh and unjust 
treatment in every realm of Soviet life. 

We call on the leadership of the Soviet Union to treat its Jewish 
citizens in accordance with the rights guaranteed to all by the 
Soviet Constitution, the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, 
and the Communist Party program. Religious freedom, the right to 
teach and be taught, and the right to emigrate are birthrights 
of ail men everywhere. 

We urge the government of the United States to use its good offices 
and those of the United Nations is an effort to alleviate the plight 
of Soviet Jewry. Yes 70; No 12; Abstain 5. 



6.6 Whereas most human problems now have global dimensions 
that obviously will not yield to partial, national, or piecemeal 
approaches; and 

Whereas global problems, i.e., ecology, poverty, war, population, 
human rights, and disease require global solutions; and 



Whereas the U.N. has shown itself to be an effective and vital force 
in bringing about social, economic, and humanitarian change but 
still does not have the authority to cope effectively with many of 
the momentous problems facing mankind and his world; and 

Whereas a strengthened United Nations could become an effective 
international authority to implement agreed upon law at the plenary 
levels in matters as national, provincial, or state and local levels 
do now: 

Therefore be it Resolved, That we, the Foreign Relations Task Force 
of the White House Conference on Youth, commend the decisions 
of the United Nations; 

a. To consider reform of the procedures of the General 
Assembly; 




149 



- 


b. To study in 1971 the views of member States on the role 
of the International Court of Justice; 

c. To study in 1972 the views of member States on the need 
to consider proposals for reviewing the Charter of the 
United Nations. 

We further urge that the U.N., in its study of possible Charter 
revision, place particular emphasis on the question of voting 
procedures in the Security Council and General Assembly. 

These decisions represent a timely response to the conviction of 
the great majority of States that the United Nations must be 
improved and given greater responsibility in the conduct of 
world affairs. 

We specifically request that the President of the United States 
initiate high level studies in the executive branch of the government 
to determine what changes should be made in the Charter of the 
U.N. in order to make it a more effective force in the pursuit of a 
just and lasting peace and for the advancement of fundamental 
human rights and freedoms. 

The President is further requested to report to the Committee on 
Foreign Relations of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign 
Affairs of the House of Representatives before March 31, 1972, 
the results of such studies. 

The government of the United States is requested to support the 
formal calling of a conference to review the U.N. Charter in 
accordance with article 109 of the Charter, not later than 1974. 
Yes 67; No 7; Abstain 8. 


Security Council 


6.6a In many instances it has not been possible for the Security 
Council to give effect to its decisions or even to reach decisions on 
matters of the utmost importance to the international community. 
There are several possible approaches to enhancing the decision- 
making authority and ability of the Security Council. These 
approaches include enlargement of the number of permanent 
members of the Security Council by including such countries as 
India and Japan, thus reflecting more accurately the present 
distribution of political and economic power. Yes 42; No 26; 
Abstain 9. 


Conciliation 

; 


6.6b Because there is no provision in the U.N. for mechanisms 
aiding in the peaceful settlements of political disputes through 
arbitration or negotiation, we recommend the establishment of a 
United Nations Conciliation Commission. The Conciliation 
Commission would enable parties to avoid representation before 
the Security Council or other U.N. bodies where the tendency had 
been to fix blame, condemn, or impose penalties on one of the 
parties involved in the dispute. 

In addition, the development of a corps of trained U.N. civil 
mediators could be called upon to assist in the settlement of local 
disputes and their terms of reference set forth. Yes 48; No 26; 
Abstain 8. 


Peacekeeping 


6.6c The primary responsibility of the U.N. is the maintenance of 
international peace and security. This role has not been satisfactorily 


ERIC 

£ idO 


fulfilled primarily due. to the lack of adequate peacekeeping 

< 



j 

Universal Membership 



Associate Membership; 
Small States 



! 



Financing 



t 

| 



Accept World Court 
Decisions 




machinery and the prevalence of nationalistic attitudes of States. 

The benefits of multilateral efforts are many, not only in regard to 
confining international conflict but also in terms of providing an 
alternative to unilateral action which may be costly in terms of 
international respect and physical resources. 

We advocate that the following related measures be considered 
to improve the United Nation’s peacekeeping capabilities: 

1. Agreement should be sought among U.N. members on a 
definition of U.N. peacekeeping operations and on rules to govern 
the deployment and withdrawal of U.N. forces, their proper and 
effective use, and their financing by an equitable assessment 
formula. A significantly large peacekeeping fund should be 
immediately established to assure that there are sufficient funds 
on hand to guarantee long term financing of this operation. 

2. U.N. peacekeeping forces should be composed of specially 
trained, nationally recruited contingents from States other than the 
permanent members of the Security Council. Yes 48; No 27; 

Abstain 7. 

6.6d Membership in the United Nations should be universal and 
the jurisdiction of the United Nations, as defined in the Charter, 
should equally be universal. Although we are cognizant of the 
political problems involved in the question of divided States, we 
advocate their admission into the United Nations as soon as possible 
contingent on their desire to assume membership. 

6.6e In this day and age we no longer regard membership in the j 

United Nations as a mere privilege but as a duty. Realistically j 

speaking, however, we advocate the exploration of providing a j 

separate associate status for those countries that are so limited j 

in their geographic area and resources that they are unable to j 

fulfill the responsibility related to membership. Associate status 
would exempt these states from the usual financial obligations but 
they would receive all other membership benefits except the vote. 

6.6f In order that the United Nations may adequately discharge the 
responsibilities which it has been assigned and will not be dependent 
on the good will of the governments of member States, it must have 
at its disposal its own independent financial resources. 

We advocate the exploration of a U.N. tax on the exploitation of the 
sea bed and outer-space; i.e., on those resources which would be 
regarded as belonging to all mankind. 

We further advocate that the United Nations’ Special Account, 
established for the collection of private and corporate donations, j 

be given widespread publicity. Yes 56; No 18; Abstain 8. j 

6.6g International Court of Justice. The World Court is presently in a j 

state of disuse. The reasons are several but fundamentally it is j 

the historic conflict between the sovereignty of the nations and the j 
jurisdiction of the Court. j 

As a first step toward overcoming the problem, we recommend the ; 

U.S. rescind the Connally Reservation. We also urge that the U.S. . | 

join other nations in accepting the decisions of the Court as binding. 

Yes 53; No 19; Abstain 11. 




151 






Peaceful Uses 6.7 Nations now have the technological ability and the political, 

and Economic economic and military incentives to occupy and exploit the ocean. 

Development of the If the seas are to remain viable, their waters must be treated as 

Oceans an ecological whole consisting of many interdependent life processes 

and must be proclaimed the “common heritage of mankind.” 

We commend the United States State Department’s forward looking 
“Draft United Nations Convention on the International Sea Bed 
Area,” and urge its support in all branches of our government. 
Although we do not believe that intermediary trusteeships favoring 
coastal States should be established, we are especially heartened 
by the support of our government for a United Nations International 
Sea Bed Resource Authority with enforceable powers. Passed 

unanimously 



Environment; U.N. 



t 



:■ 

! 

r 

?, 






Resolutions on China 




6.8 The closed system of Earth and its atmosphere is being 
drastically affected by unforeseen consequences of our modern 
technology, made far worse by threat of overpopulation. These 
threats to the environment create an urgent need for international 
controls. 

We applaud the action of the United Nations in planning a “United 
Nations Conference on the Environment” in Stockholm in 1972. We 
urge those preparing for the conference to think in bold terms 
commensurate with the dangers we face. 



We urge the United States to intensify its internal efforts to cut 
pollution, preserve our natural resources, stabilize our population, 
and protect our environment; to offer assistance to all nations in 
meeting these problems; and to back United Nations efforts to alert 
mankind to these dangers and to develop and publish suitable 
guidelines. 

We further recommend that the United States take a leading role 
in efforts to establish a United Nations Environmental Agency whose 
task it would be to initiate, coordinate and oversee all environmental 
programs of an international nature. Yes 71; No 8; Abstain 4. 



6.9 Whereas the promotion of a lasting peace in Asia, including a 
stable resolution of the conflicts in indochina, requires a 
normalization of relations between the United States and the 
People's Republic of China; and 

Whereas the Nixon Administration has responded promptly and 
constructively to the recent initiatives of the People’s Republic of 
China to promote freer contact between citizens of the two countries; 

Be it Resolved, That it is the sense of the White House Conference 
on Youth that the United States Government be commended 
for its rapid and positive response to initial communist Chinese 
overtures; and 

Be it Resolved, That the Conference urges the United States 
government to seize every possible opportunity to promote better 
relations with the People’s Republic of China, culminating in 
recognition and the establishment of full diplomatic relations. 
We agree with the President that “there is no place on this 
small planet for a billion of its potentially most able people to live 
in angry isolation.” Yes 59; No 21; Abstain 3. 




152 






China 

Minority Report 



6.9a The Task Force resolves that the President of the U.S. seek 
negotiations toward the establishment of diplomatic relations with 
the People’s Republic of China, and that he publicly announce that 
the U.S. is prepared, through negotiations, to recognize the P.R.C. 

It is further resolved that the U.S. should support a resolution 
acknowledging the fact that the P.R.C. is the effective government 
of mainland China and therefore entitled to be the sole representative 
of China in the General Assembly and Security Council. 

The Task Force, in addition, recognizes that eventual resolution 
of the future identity and political status of Taiwan is neither the 
unilateral responsibility nor within the power of the U.S. We believe, 
however, that the U.S. can contribute to a solution by seeking 
possible step-by-step solutions, on a multilateral basis. 

In keeping with the emphasis on multilateral endeavors, we urge 
the U.S. government to adopt a stance which would permit and 
encourage long range peaceful resolution of these difficulties. 

Such a stance should include cessation of “Vietnam surplus” 
arms and other small arms to the Republic of China and a carefully 
termed reduction of U.S. military assistance to, and presence on, 
Taiwan. Yes 36; No 44. 



Panama Canal Policies 6.10 The present existing problem in the Panama Canal Zone is a 

unique situation. To be specific, the type of discrimination in the 
United States is not really relevant in the Panama Canal Zone. 

i- 



It is undoubtedly a true fact that such a thing as discrimination 
exists but in a more subtle manner. 






t 







The discriminatory problem lies in equal job opportunities and 
equal education. 



What we are concerned about as a group is humanitarian rights 
which are not completely exercised in the Panama Canal Zone. 

The status of the Panama Canal Zone as a nation is a very technical 
and argumentative situation. Most people really do not have any 
knowledge about the Panama Canal Zone. It has a large historical 
background which would take days or weeks to expound. 



The primary objective here is to make everyone aware of serious 
problems concerning Panamanians in the Canal Zone, in relation 
to the foreign policies exercised by the United States government 
and the Republic of Panama. 

As indicated earlier, we would like to see some changes in the United 
States foreign policies, specifically in equal opportunities 
and education. 

There are a lot of obvious things that show how discriminatory the 
United States is in relation to the black Panamanians. 




153 



Canal Zone. 





2. That a serious revision be made to the present Civil Service 
Commission laws that are being exercised in a foreign country. 
Yes 49; No 15; Abstain 8. 


orld and Domestic 
slides; Diplomatic 
ecognition 


6.1 1 Recognizing that communication among nations is an essential 
first step toward the achievement of mutual respect for, and 
understanding of, other peoples; and 

Recognizing that diplomatic recognition is an indispensable step 
in furthering such communication; and 

Recognizing that such : deas as the Wilsonian concept of diplomatic 
recognition as is exemplified in the Stimson Doctrine are dangerously 
naive and inaccurate in their perception of real power in the 
world today: 

Be it therefore Resolved, That the United States establish diplomatic 
relations with the governments of all nations which are well 
established and clearly in control of the people within their 
boundaries. Such recognition shall not be construed to indicate 
support for, or disapproved of, a particular regime. 

Exceptions to this policy are valid only in those circumstances 
where a regime is so abhorrent to the community of nations, as is 
the case with regard to Zimbabue, the U.N. decide to invoke 
diplomatic sanctions. Yes 53; No 22; Abstain 1. 


lestructure 

’riorities 


6.11a Resolved, That if the White House is serious about a 
generation of peace, the Administration and the Congress take steps 
to initiate a fundamental change in our economic priorities away 
from arms production and war materiel and toward international 
exchange, food programs, housing, health care, education, and 
environmental protection. In order to implement this, we recommend 
a reduction of 25 percent in our defense spending for next year 
from present levels and the immediate initiation or steps toward 
the implementation of a peacetime economy. Yes 45; No 23; 
Abstain 3. 


Clandestine 

Operations 


6.11b Whereas the White House Conference on Youth recognizes 
that the United States, like ail nations, has interests to be 
acknowledged and defended; and 

Whereas the Conference regards these interests as best served 
by open diplomatic and economic measures: 


L54 


Be it Resolved, That the Conference condemns the resort to 
clandestine political and military operations; advocates as a general 
principle military non-interference in the internal affairs of other 
nations; and recommends that in every case of internal conflict, 
our government should initiate negotiations with all parties a 
policy of universal military and paramilitary non-interference with 
the internal affairs of other nations. Yes 76; No 14; Abstain 6. 


O 

ERIC 





Rename DOD 



DOD Educational 
Programs 



Pakistan Military 
Conduct 



European Nuclear 
Free Zone 



Sudan 



Limit Forces to 
1 Million 
Minority Report 



Re-channel Funds 
Minority Report 



5 : 

f 

l 

t 

\ 

I 



Economic Priorities 
Minority Report 



fc-.- 



,vi:, 

- 




U. S. Alliances 
Minority Report 



6.Xlc Resolved, That the United States Defense Department be 
renamed the War Department. Yes 56; No 34; Abstain 3. 



6.11d The Department of Defense, due to its vested interest in war 
preparedness, should not produce educational material on ' fore, 8 n 
relations designed for public and troop consumption. Yes 49; No 42, 
Abstain 3. 

6. lie Whereas the Government of Pakistan has utilized brutal force 
to suppress insurgency in East Pakistan resulting in the massacre 
of the civilian population of East Pakistan: 

Be it Resolved, That the White House Conference on Youth strongly 
condemns the military conduct of the Government of Pakistan. 

Yes 58; No 28; Abstain 5. 

6 Ilf Resolved, The White House Conference on Youth encourages 
the convening of an all-European security conference that would 
propose the mutual withdrawal of -Russian and American troops from 
Europe and the establishment of a nuclear free zone in Central 
Europe. Yes 49; No 38; Abstain 5. 

6 ng Let it be Resolved that the White House Conference on Youth 
condemns and deplores the massacre which took place in Sudan 
by the Sudanese Government against the non-Moslem people in 
South Sudan. Yes 48; No 31; Abstain 9. 

6.1 lh Reduction of United States armed forces to a maximum of 
one million men in order to avoid future Vietnarns and to lessen 
the ability to intervene militarily in other nations. Yes 33, No 53, 
Abstain 4. 

6. Hi Whereas the purpose of American foreign economic assistance 
is to assist recipient nations; and 



Whereas the tying of American economic foreign assistance to 
considerations of national interest distorts the purpose of foreign 
assistance: 

Be it Resolved, That the White House Conference on Youth 
supports the re-channelling of all United States bilateral foreign 
economic assistance to multilateral agencies under the auspices of 
the United Nations and the consequent termination of all bilateral 
foreign economic assistance. Yes 41; No 47; Abstain 5. 

S.iij Resolved, That if the White House is serious about a generation 
of peace, the Administration and the Congress take steps to initiate 
a fundamental change in our economic priorities away from arms 
production and war materiel and toward international exchange, foo 
programs, housing, health care, education, and environmental 
protection. In order to implement this, we recommend a reducti n 
of 50 percent in our defense spending for.next year from present 
iawoIc Voc Wo 43.* Abstdin 9. 



6.11k Whereas, the assumptions under which many U.S. alliances 
have been created are no longer realistic. 



We-therefore propose the disbanding or re-negotiating of all formal 
military alliances in which the U.S. participates; i.e., NA ™- SEATO, 
ANZUS, Rio Pact, and informal, military alliances such as CENiu, 
the Middle East Resolution, ttenmiEary relational ip with Spain an 

,154 






Pakistan Military 
Conduct 
Minority Report 



Sudan 

Minority Report 



all informal military alliances which would involve and imply 
automatic U.S. participation. This does not preclude formation of 
future military alliances, either bi- or multi-laterally on the condition 
that these are re-negotiable, as formal treaties, every 5 years. 

Yes 24; No 41; Abstain 9. 

6,111 Whereas the Government of Pakistan has utilized brutal force 
to suppress insurgency in East Pakistan resulting in the massacre 
of the civilian population of East Pakistan: 

Be it Resolved, that the White House Conference on Youth urges 
the United States Government to strongly condemn t hr ' military 
conduct of the Government of Pakistan. Yes 36; No 4 ^; Abstain 4. 

611m We, the participants in the White House Conff 'ence on Youth, 
urge the United States Government to condemn the idanese 
Government for the slaughter of the non-Moslem people of 
South Sudan. Yes 35; No 45; Abstain 12. 



Economic Policy; 
Endorse Pearson 
Commission Report 



No Punitive Action 
Against Expropriations 



Repeal Hickenlooper 
Amendment 



Promote Private 
Investment 



Lift Trade 
Restrictions 



6.12 Resolved: That the Task Force on Foreign Relations strongly 
endorses the conclusions and recommendations of the report of the 
Pearson Commission, “Partners in Development." Yes 51; No 11; 

Abstain 6. 

6.12a We urge that national integrities be respected and that the 
U.S. will not take punitive action against a foreign country which i 

expropriates or takes economic action against U.S. foreign j 

investment. ] 

A 

6.12b Resolved: We urge the repeal of statutes such as the f 

Hickenlooper Amendment, which legally bind aspects of American | 
foreign policy to American private investment abroad. Task Force | 
vote on 6.12a and 6.12b: Yes 35; No 31; Abstain 6. | 

6.12c Resolved: The U.S. should promote U.S. private investment in j 
less developed countries with aid of international organizations, | 

(i.e.. International insurance policy); | 

1 

That a substantial interest of the corporation be controlled by the ] 
people in the host country; | 

That such investment should aid economic development of the host | 
country through local employment of human and natural J 

resources; and I 

■i? 

Concluding that a specific percentage of the profit, determined by 1 
negotiation between the host country and the corporation, be ] 

reinvested for the economic development of the people through I 

technical and capital transfer to less developed countries. 

Yes 35; No 18; Abstain 5. j 

I 

6.12d The Foreign and Economic Policy Workshop urges the 
immediate lifting of all punitive U.S. trade restrictions and economic j 
restraints imposed on socialist countries. ; 

We are opposed to the economic blockade of Cuba, and further urge 
that Cuba be admitted back into the OAS. We applaud the recent 
moves to facilitate trade between the U.S. and The People’s 
Republic of China. Yes 43; No 27; Abstain 3. 



Public Opinion; 
Press Conference 



Dissatisfaction 
with Information 




Youth Liaison with 
Congress 



Education in Foreign 
Affairs 



I 

t 

i 

l 

l 

? 

I 

? 

f 

i 

International 

Education 




6.13 Resolved: The delegates to the White House Conference on 
Youth request the President to hold a prime-time televised 
Presidential press conference, informing the American public of the 
resolutions reached in the plenary session of the White House 
Conference on Youth. 



6.13a Resolved: The youth of America formally register their 
dissatisfaction with the credibility, quality, and quantity of 
information reaching the public, especially in the area of U.S. 
foreign relations. 

6.13b Resolved: That each Congressman shall have a systematic 
liaison with concerned youth of his constituency for the purpose of 
the exchange of information on the priorities of youth. 



Yes 



No 



Abstain 



Total 



6.13 

6.13a 

6.13b 



55 

66 

51 



25 

14 

28 



5 

6 
5 



80 

80 

79 



6.13c Resolved: That the teaching of international relations in the 
elementary and secondary schools be implemented, expanded 
and improved. 

a. Language classes should include culture, history, 
religion, etc. of that language area. 

b. Bilingual programs not only are of obvious value to the 
population involved, but they offer as well an expanded view 
of world horizons and an appreciation of foreign peoples and 
cultures to a community’s exclusively English-speaking 
members. This is an important secondary gain to be 
recognized and exploited. 

c. Secondary school government and history classes should 
include a study of U.S. Government agencies, international 
law and international agencies. 

d. The view of world problems should be expanded with 
emphasis on mutual respect and the means by which to 
solve the problems. 

Resolved: That long-term commitment be made to these projects. 

Resolved: That the funding of the Institute of International Studies 
be expanded to permit development of curriculum materials in 
international and intra-cultural studies for elementary and secondary 
schools. In addition, we recommend that additional emphasis be 
placed on publication of American intra-cultural study materials. 

6.13d Resolved: That the International Education Act should be 
extended and fully funded. 

Resolved: That there is an urgent need for expansion of meaningful 
and significant exchange of youth within the world community. 

There should be a mechanism established that shall provide for: 

a. Development of programs that emphasize life styles of 
countries rather than the tourist overview. 

b. Expansion of educational exchange in all fields of study 
to be taken in a foreign environment in order to promote an 
international orientation. 



157 



c. Expansion of international input by inviting more foreign 
professionals and students on temporary assignments. 



Mediia 

Programming 



Local Activity 



WHCY Implementation 
Committee Needed 



0 




158 



6.13e Resolved: That more background and analytical programs 
on international relations should be produced and broadcast on 
public and commercial mass media. 

a. Documentaries should take an objective and analytical 
overview of each area discussed. 

b. The Public Broadcasting Corporation should be encouraged 
to support and devise analytical, in-depth programs on 
international affairs. 

Resolved: That a National Youth Mass Media Council' should be 
established for the purpose of input on local programming and 
international coverage. 

a. Youth exercise influence in content of programming. 

b. Youth should be responsible for expanding participation in 
productions for local programming. 

6.13f The committee recommends that youth take the initiative in 
their local communities to instigate informal study and discussion 
groups on international relations, giving special emphasis to 
participation and leadership by youth; and that the WHCY delegates 
take the responsibility for generating this interest in cooperating 
with existing organizations. 

Sections 6.9c-6.9f passed Yes 76; No 7; Abstain 2. 



6.14 As youth becomes more involved in world affairs the need for 
recognition becomes increasingly necessary. Acknowledgement of 
the young in the form of a conference once every ten years is 
simply not enough to maintain a realistic contact with youth. 
Communication and interchange must be a continuing process. 

The structure for an agency which would continue the White House 
Conference on Youth process must have the ability to follow up 
the 1971 White House Conference on Youth with implementation of 
the recommendations and resolutions submitted by the Conference 
group. If must also have facilities to keep in touch with the opinions 
of the young through such means as Outreach and national 
polling organizations. 

Resolved: That an Interim Steering Committee for the White House 
Conference continuation and follow-up be established for 
approximately one year. 



A. Purpose of the Committee 

1. To work in conjunction with the Conference staff and the 
executive department in implementing Conference recom- 
mendations and resolutions. 

2. To act as representatives of Conference delegates offering 
explanations and clarifications of the Conference reports and 
recommendations. 



B. Membership Composition 

1. This committee should be composed of two (2) adult and 
three (3) youth delegates from each Task Force. 



iryiT.’. 
& *** 



I 

I 

i 



t 

i 

\ 

i- 

\ 

& 

f; 

i 

I 

J 

I 



18 -Year-Old Vote 
and Community 
Politics 



.'if : . 



Mr ■ 

o 

ERIC 



159 



2. The youth delegates should include all ten (10) youth 
Co-chairpeople. These persons will select the remaining youth 
delegates from Task Force sub-group leaders. 

3. The adults will be selected by the youth members of the 
Committee. 



Resolved: That this Conference Interim Committee in their 
follow-up activities establish a National Youth Foundation. 

A. National Youth Foundation will serve at the national level and 
whenever possible at the local level as a means of obtaining and 
publicizing youth opinions, ideas and proposals on national and 
international issues and policies. 

B. All youth delegates to the 1971 White House Conference on 
Youth will be charter members of the National Youth Foundation. 

C. The Interim Steering Committee of the White House Conference 
on Youth will draft a charter for the Foundation submitting it to 
the members for ratification by a majority vote. 

D. In designing this Foundation, the need for a demographic 
representation of a diverse youth population, with special con- 
sideration of ethnic and minority groups, must be considered. 



Resolved: That in order to develop more adequate information and 
more effective youth impact on international affairs, delegates to 
this Conference are urged to work with and seek to strengthen 
existing voluntary organizations such as United Nation Associations, 
U.S.A., Council on International Relations and UN Affairs 
(CIRUNA) and world affairs councils at both the national and 
inrai IovpU Passed bv voice vote. 



6.15 The power of the people rests in the power to vote. The majority 
of the population are the “young.” The “ballot box is the best 
influence on foreign policy. 

We think that organizations of Youth Voter’s Leagues in states that 
have lowered the voting age to eighteen should be organized an 
funded through private constituencies. The leagues ° r 2 a "'f*! 
by blacks throughout the country have been somewhat effective. 

Young people need to be informed of political procedures. Very few 
know what revolves in a political wheel. We feel this is why mos 
demonstrations fail to get a positive response. Some type of 
political organization should be formed to make them aware of 
these things. We cannot wait for the government to aid our programs, 
hilt heein working ourselves. 



Resolved: That individual delegates torn the Conference returning 
tc their various communities, be responsible for leading the 
movement and organizing community actioagroi^ and 

voung vote. A central liaison body should be established, an 
information should be elicited from such organizations * s 
“Common Cause” through Mr. Gardner, National 
Voters and BlackiLeague of Voters. Yes 48, No 34, Abstain . 









Individual Rights; 
Minority Report 



6.16 Whereas every man has the right to his own life and the 
product of his labor; and 

Whereas no individual or institution has the right to take money 
(property) from any individual without approval; and 

Whereas no individual or institution has a right to prohibit 
voluntary association between men, that does not deny others their 
inalienable rights as human beings. 

Be it Resolved, That the United States government end all 
unconditional tax collection for aid to the United Nations and 
underdeveloped Nations; 

Furthermore, the U.S. government should limit importation taxes 
and end import quotas on non-strategic goods. 

Yes IS; No 53; Abstain 5. 



Rights 

istice 





) 






i 

I 



The Legal Rights and Justice Task Force dedicates this report to 
Frederick H. Evans of Washington, D,C., who passed away on May 31, 

2972. Fred was an energetic and conscientious member of our Task Force 
and his warm personality and delightful sense of humor will be 
remembered by us all. 



ERIC- 

162 





I 



>**w 






The procedures used in developing this report were as follows: all 
recommendations were voted upon by the entire body of delegates 
only after they were fully researched and reported out of committee. 
The minority report was not adopted by the entire body, but we feel 
that because these arguments were raised, they were valid enough 
for inclusion in our official record. 

The additions, addendums, and exhibits attached to the 
recommendations were included to show not on 'y ^ aC ^ ground 
material but also are intended to show some of the bases for 
recommendations. 


Preamble 


The various recommendations emanating from this Task Force, as 
well as from various other Task Forces and groups of the Conference, 
will doubtless require sizeable allocation of national resources if 
they are to be implemented. Given prior experience concerning the 
actual implementation of stated objectives, we are concerned about 
the likely fate of our recommendations. 

Regrettably, our society has a long and dismal history of verbalizing 
idealistic objectives while failing miserably to allocate resources 
toward the implementation of stated objectives. Such glaring 
discrepancies between rhetoric and reality are especially noteworthy 
in the juvenile and criminal justice systems. For example, t e 
beneficent and humane objectives of the juvenile court philosophy f 
parens patriae have consisted essentially of good intentions 
distinctly unsupported by the actual realities to which JuvenHes are 
exposed. Similarly, it has been estimated that the cost of the entire 
Federal judicial system is somewhat less than that of a single 
sophisticated jet bomber. 

Therefore, if we are to deal sincerely with the problems addressed 
by this task force and the conference as a whole, it is essential 
a basic re-ordering of national priorities be undertaken. 

However, to ensure that good intentions and rhetoric do not become 
substitutes for the actual implementation of program obiect.ves 
we strongly urge that some system of accountability be devised for 
Tonitoring and evaluating the adequacy and effectiveness of various 
social institutions and agencies. 


National Laws; 
18-Year-Old Vote 


7.1 Whereas the emotional, political, and educational maturity of 
today’s 18-year-old is greater now than at any time in the history 
of our country; and 


C 


Whereas today's 18-year-old is fully capable of handling the 
responsibilities of voting; and 

Whereas the great expense of a dual voting age in the country may 
consume money that could be better spent; 

Now therefore, the following resolution be, and hereby is adopted: 



o 



Be it resolved, that the participants in this White House Conference 
on Youth support the amendment to lower the voting age; and be 
it further 



Resolved, That this Conference recommend that the legislatures of 
the following states seek passage of the amendment: Alabama, 
Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New 
Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, 
Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, 
Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming; and 
be it further 

Resolved, That this Conference recommend that the legislature of 
aforementioned state legislatures at the earliest possible date. 

National Laws; Direct 7.1a Recent Presidential elections have served to dramatize the 

Election of President urgency for Electoral College reform. 

Under present electoral provisions, it is possible that the candidate 
who is not the popular choice of the people may be elected. There is 
the danger of an “unfaithful elector” thwarting the express wishes 
of the voters, and of the Congress, rather than the people, ultimately 
selecting the' President and Vice President. In addition, the influence 
of an individual vote may vary depending on the geographic 
location of the voter. 

Only the direct election of the President and Vice President will 
eliminate all of these dangers and assure the election of the popular 
choice of the voters. 

To this end we recommend that the Congress approve, and the state 
legislatures ratify, an amendment to the Const/tut/on providing for 
the abolition of the Electoral College and the establishment of direct 
election of the President and Vice President of the United States. 



Lower Age of Majority 7.1b Be it resolved that: It is the unqualified recommendation of the 
to 18 members of this Task Force that the age of majority be lowered to 18, 

granting our young citizens full rights and responsibilities and the 
opportunity to participate fully in our society. 

We commend the Report of the Special Commission on the Age of 
Majority, established in Michigan by Governor William G. Milliken. 
This report, endorsed by the Governor, can serve as a foundation 
for future legislation throughout the country. 

We recommend that a copy of this resolution be transmitted to the 
governors and legislatures of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, 
the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and all United States' territories 
and trust territories. 



Corrections System 
Needs Revision 




ERJC. 



7.2 The quality of justice depends upon the nature of correctional 
institutions as well as precedents set by the courts. Recently, the 
rights and welfare of the individual in a free society have been 
carefully examined and safeguarded. Regrettably, a comparable 
concern and commitment of resources has not been shown for the 
criminal offender. Not surprisingly, recidivism has taken on alarming 
proportions. Clearly, the legal system must begin to exercise power 
beyond the interpretation and application of laws. 




Correctional Institutions 



7.2a We recommend that the following be required to regularly 
inspect the correctional facilities with which they are associated: 



Authority for 
Prisoner Release 



National Standards 
for Institutions 



Federal Legislation 
and Compliance 



(1) Federal and state officials having administrative responsibility 
for such facilities; 

(2) Legislators having budgetary responsibility for such facilities; 

(3) Judges sentencing criminal defendants to such facilities; 

(4) Attorneys involved in criminal prosecutions. 

7.2b We further recommend that there be created a high level 
correctional authority to release — conditionally or absolutely 
— prisoners at such time as such authority determines that a 
prisoner has been rehabilitated. We further recommend that 
judges of original criminal jurisdiction facilitate such release 
by means of indeterminate sentencing within statutorily mandated 
limits. These limits should reflect an appropriate categorization of 
criminal offenses. 

7.2c National standards for correctional institutions should be 
established. Basically, these standards should assure that no 
juvenile, youthful offender or adult be detained or incarcerated in a 
correctional institution that is unable to provide meaningful 
programs and satisfactory facilities. More specifically, national 
standards shall call for: 

(1) Emphasis on the development and operation of community 
based correctional facilities and programs, including diagnostic 
services, half-way houses, probation, and other supervisory release 
programs for pre-adjudication and post- offenders, and first 
offenders, as well as community oriented programs for the 
supervision of parolees; 

(2) The specification of minimum standards for physical facilities 
of correctional institutions; 

* f 

(3) Separate facilities and programs for juveniles, youthful 
offenders, and adults. 

Furthermore, the national standards shall specify qualifications in 
training for corrections personnel, minimum levels of pay, and a 
satisfactory means of securing and monitoring the compliance of 
each state to the provisions of the standards. 

7.2d We recommend enactment of Federal legislation to establish 
national standards for correctional institutions and programs. 

The legislation shall empower the Department of Justice to issue 
appropriate regulations to carry out the provisions of the Act and 
monitor compliance by the states. The Department of Justice shall 
appoint a National Advisory Board, composed of representatives of 
national organizations concerned with corrections reform, to assist 
in developing appropriate regulations. 

Following enactment of the national standards, the states and local 
communities shall be allotted a reasonable length of tim.^, specified 
by the legislation, to inspect correctional institutions within their 
jurisdiction and initiate necessary reforms. 



Subsequently, the Department of Justice shall conduct an annual 
review of correctional institutions and issue a report to the President, 
Congress, and the Governor of each state. This report shall indicate 
the degree to which each institution has complied with the national 
standards. If, after notice of a reasonable length of time in which to 
comply, the institution remains in non-compliance, no offender may 
be detained or incarcerated in such an institution, and Federal funds 
shall be withheld. 

In addition, we urge public defenders, community legal services, 
and the legal profession at large to bring suit against prisons and 
prison officials on the grounds that serving sentences in many 
correctional institutions not only constitutes cruel and unusual 
punishment proscribed by the Eighth Amendment, but also violates 
the positive statutory duty to provide rehabilitation. 



Court Reform and 7.3 Courts which are understaffed encourage inadequate judicial 

Legal Service determination of particular cases; shortage of probation officers 

results in a lack of careful individualized disposition; woefully 
inadequate numbers of legal aid services and public defenders 
deprive poor people of a fair and just adjudication of these cases. 



We recommend that the judicial system be funded to increase the 
number of judges and supporting services, including legal aid 
services and public defenders to help insure a fair and just 
disposition and adjudication of every case. The judicial system today 
is not adequately equipped to deal with the magnitude of the 
problems before it. We further recommend the following strategy: 

(a) urge Congress to enlarge the appropriations for the 
operation of the Federal judicial system to permit, among 
other needs, increasing the number of judges and probation 
officers; 

(b) urge the individual states to enlarge their appropriations 
for the aforementioned items, in addition to increasing the 
number of state public defenders and legal aid programs; 

(c) urge that state planning agencies re-allocate Law 
Enforcement Assistance Administration funds to give greater 
priority to programs aimed at prevention of delinquency and 
crime, and improvement of adult and juvenile and rehabilitation 
programs, 



Access to Lawyers 7.3a We believe that Americans of all ages should have access to 

lawyers. Therefore, we recommend that the necessary public funds 
be appropriated to provide partially subsidized legal services. The 
lawyers who provide these services should be responsible only to 
their clients and not to political pressures. Funds to particular 
programs should not be discontinued for political reasons. We are 
deeply concerned about recent attempts to cut off funds to publicly 
funded legal service programs. Consequently, we recommend that 
the power of executives to veto specific programs be abolished by 
Federal statute. 



O 

ERIC 



Pre-Indictment Release 



7.3b A system of pre-indictment release is recommended for first 
offenders, those with minimal police records and those who 
apparently will receive probation anyway. If the prosecutor and court 
agree that the defendant is not a threat to the community, the 
defendant may be placed on probation until his trial comes up, 
rather than waiting in prison. 



.I* r‘ • 
7y 




166 



Sanctions for Trial Delays 7.3c We recommend that sanctions be imposed on parties 

responsible for unsatisfactorily explained delays in criminal 
proceedings. These sanctions might be provided by court rule 
or legislation. 

Minority Report on 7.3d, The pace of justice in both state and Federal courts has 

Sanctions for Delay become slow and unsure. Extensive reform is needed to end the 

delays. A large number of the delays in court are the result of 
adjournments, lateness, and non-appearance. To reduce the 
occurrence of these events, we propose the following sanctions: 

1. One non-appearance or lateness by the defendant, which causes 
an adjournment and has no reasonable excuse, shall result in the 
forfeiture of bail or the fixation of bail if the defendant had previously 
been released on his own recognizance. 

2. If without legitimate reason the prosecution is not with its case 
on two occasions, the charges shall be dismissed for lack 

of prosecution. 

3. If without legitimate reason the defense is not ready with its 
case on two occasions, the case shall be moved to trial or hearing. 

4. If a police officer is iate or fails *3; report without a legitimate 
reason, the court shall notify his commanding officer. 

“Human Justice" 7.3e The Task Force on Legal Rights and Justice resolves that it is 

important for the development of 2 "'uller future for us all that 
we substitute, as soon as possible, t*ae term “human justice" for the 
presently used terms “criminal justice ' and juvCTite justice. 

We would further recommend that tire concept and practice of 
human justice be applied beyond police, courts and corrections to 
all other institutions which attempt to fulfill the promises made to 
the people of the United States of America. 



Abolish Capital Punishment 7.4 We recommend that Federal and state law be amended to abolish 

capital punishment. 



Criminal Law Reforms 7.5 We further recommend the enactment of Federal law to require 

registration of all firearms; and to establish uniform national 
minimum standards for licensing firearms ownership and use. 
These provisions to be enforced by individual state governments. 

We further recommend that any criminal sanctions for all types of 
private consensual sexual conduct between adults be abolished. 

We further recommend that there be enactment of Federal legislation 
to make willful deprivation of civil rights by economic coercion — as 
well as by force and violence — a criminal offense. By this, we mean 
that the use of economic pressure or means to punish an individual 
for or deter an individual from exercising his or her civil rights 
shall be prohibited. 



Crimes Without Victims 



O 

ERIC 



7.6 A significant body of our criminal law- — local, state, and Federal 

concerns itself with criminal activities involving purely voluntary 

participants. These are widely termed “crimes without victims.” 
Many people, and especially young people, object to laws proscribing 



■ L’* S * • 






167 





such activities on the grounds that individuals should be free to do 
as they choose so long as they do not infringe on the freedoms of 
others. But there are practical grounds as well for challenging many 
of these laws. Law, in general, can be a flimsy defense against 
certain unapproved behavior; sometimes it actually encourages the 
outlawed practice and worsens its consequences. If an activity is 
slightly risky under the best and most controlled of situations, it 
can be perilously so when placed in the grips of an irresponsible 
underworld apparatus. Thus, the man who solicits an illegal 
prostitute is also buying a high probability of being conned, beaten, 
robbed, or infected with venereal disease. These are all dangers 
nobody would make light of; yet they are introduced into the economy 
of prostitution by our desire to prohibit a practice which we are 
clearly far from unanimous in condemning (if there were no 
dissenters, after all, it could not survive). 

Other such crimes include drug abuse, sexual deviation, 
pornography, obscenity, gambling, and birth control (and arguably, 
abortions). We propose a set of guidelines for making the law a 
positive and productive instrument in these areas, rather than 
merely a compounder of the problem. 


Specially Zoned Areas 


7.6a We recommend that practices which have not been objectively 
demonstrated to do serious injury be licensed and controlled as any 
other business, the controls to give special attention to protecting 
the customer or participant and to insulating from the activity all 
those who wish not to be exposed to it. Thus prostitutes and 
pornographers could operate in specially zoned areas or entirely 
without public display and promotion. 


Drugs or Food Additives 


7.6b We recommend that the controls to be placed on the 
manufacture and dissemination of a drug or food additive be decided 
solely according to the degree and likelihood of injury it may cause, 
and without regard to the kinds of social circles in which use of a 
given substance enjoys popularity. If alcohol is to be publicly 
available (and our experience with prohibition indicates it ought to 
be), then .‘here can be no grounds for outlawing a drug unless its 
dangers appear to be more serious than those of alcohol. 


Birth Control 


7.6c We recommend that all laws restricting acceptable kinds of 
birth control, or seriously discouraging birth control through 
excessive controls, be repealed. 


Abortions 


7.6d We recommend that, so far as our criminal laws are concerned, 
a woman should be free to determine for herself her own 
reproductive life. Therefore, all laws prohibiting abortions should 
be repealed. 


Publicity 


7.6e Where an activity or a drug has been shown to do serious 
injury, whether or not that injury is eventually deemed sufficient to 
justify prohibition, publicity should be a major weapon wielded 
against it. The fluctuating economic fortunes of the birth control 
pill are an indication that openness can be as powerful a weapon 
as criminal restraints. 


Consenting Adults 


7.6f We reiterate our opposition to all laws coverning private, 
consentual sex between adults. At best, such regulations are 
a comic anachronism; at worst they drain off time from legitimate 


ERLC 


law enforcement activities and constitute an unconscionable 
interference with personal liberty. 



In short, we recommend a “no smoking car” approach to some 
of these questions, legalizing a practice so as to protect innocent 
persons from its real or fancied effects. In some areas, this will 
involve a complex system of controls; in some, possibly no controls 
at all. But in general, we believe that legal restrictions placed on 
voluntary criminal transactions ought to reflect a balance of 
the following factors: 

(1) Objective harm caused by the practice; 

(2) Effects on persons other than direct participants; 

(3) Practicality of eliminating it; and 

(4) The projected consequences of controlled legalization in 
terms of cutting underworld income and generating new tax dollars. 

In suggesting such a massive reconsideration of crirminai statutes, 
we necessarily call upon such nationwide bodies as the American 
Bar Association to consider and codify the broad recommenda- 
tions made here, and to work along with other groups and 
individuals toward their implementation at all levels. We do not 
claim that the changes set forth above will be the final answer 
to these nagging questions.. But if Americans as a whole are 
to regain a common threshold of respect for our laws and the 
institutions that administer them, we will have to move quickly to 
redraw the statutes referred to above and others of a ilike nature. 
We soon will have had studies, reports, recommendations, and 
conferences enough. 



7.7 There is a feeling among youth of an abrogation and diminution 
of civil rights in the United States, particularly with reference to 
conspiracy trials and surveillances by various government 
agencies of the activities of politicians, political candidates, and 
politically active citizens, and those considered radicals (whether 
to the left or the right of the political spectrum). While we are 
concerned with repressive trials, the recommendations that follow 
do not address themselves to this issue, but rather to the methods 
by which information and evidence for possible prosecution are 
obtained. 

Another aspect of the abuse of information gathering techniques 
and agencies is the passage of confidential information among 
and by commercial institutions, including insurance agencies, 
credit bureaus, loan companies, banks, promotional sales forces, 
etc., without the individual’s consent. We believe that in many 
cases this constitute:; an invasion of privacy. 

It is our opinion that the practices of collecting confidential 
information have become uncontrollably widespread in this country. 
The offending agencies have inadequate, unrestrictive regulations 
placed on them, leaving the individual with very little means of 
redress to correct injustices which may result from these practices. 

We therefore present the following recommendations to the 
Department of Justice, Congress, and the state legislatures to 
rectify this state of affairs. 

7.7a We recommend the establishment of governmental agencies 
(on the Federal and state levels) for the protection and expedition 



of claims processing in the area of invasion of privacy. The 
primary purpose of such an agency would be to aid the individual 
in protecting his rights as set forth in the Constitution, with 
particular reference to the Bill of Rights. 

Judicial Tribunal 7.7b Furthermore, we recommend the establishment of judicial 

tribunals (under Article llTof the Constitution) at Federal and 
state levels to enforce justice in the disposition of cases referring 
to infringement of such rights. In cases of questionable integrity 
arrd propriety of revealing information, where it could be detri- 
mental to the welfare of the community, the information agency 
in question will be responsible to show due cause as to why such 
information should not be revealed to the individual. 

Information Gathering 7.7c We recommend that strict regulatory codes be imposed 

on information gathering agencies with references to the use of any 
electronic and/or mechanical means of gathering confidential 
‘ information. Such codes should be drawn up with the purpose of 

protecting the rights of the individual citizens. The Federal and 
state legislatures, with the assistance of the government agency 
and judicial tribunal, will be responsible for creating and legislating 
means for the implementation of these codes. 

7.7t/ We recommend that all commercial institutions and agencies 
be restricted from divulging any confidential information to any 
person(s) or agency without the first party consent of the individual 
concerned. If violations of these restrictions occur, the institution 
which received the information should be compelled to inform 
the individual of the origin of that information. Severe sanctions 
should be imposed on thc^e commercial institutions that reveal 
information without the party’s consent. This administrative 
function will come under the protection agency outiined above. 



Restrictions on 
Divulging Information 



7.8 It is alleged that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has evolved 
into an overreaching (unwarranted) institution engaged in indis- 
criminate spying and surveillance activities on law abiding and 
innocent citizens. 

Charges of improper and expanding activities leveled against the 
FBI have generated a chilling effect that has resulted in a feeling of 
fear and intimidation among the youth, minorities, and a signifi- 
cant number of people in this nation and members of both 
houses of the United States Congress. 

FBI investigations have smacked of political surveillance of citizens 
who express themselves by engaging in protesting public policies. 
Eavesdropping is '»ot a legitimate function of the FBI where no 
crime or threat of crime or violence is involved. 

To counteract the excessive zeal of the FBI and other civilian 
intelligence agencies, we propose the creation of an Independent 
Review Board composed of Congressmen, judges, lawyers, intel- 
ligence officers, laymen, university professors, and youth, all 
of equal representation. 

The validity of all allegations leveled against the FBI is a question 
that needs to be answered by the Independent Review Board. 

The purpose of the Board would be to monitor all government 
V) agencies which gather intelligence information on civilians as well 

1C as national civilian agencies performing similar functions. 



independent Review 
Board; FBI 



The Board would issue an annus! report and such other reports 
as deemed necessary and appropriate by its members. The Board 
shcould further be charged with recommending limitations on 
the scope of domestic intelligence by the FBI and other government 
and national civilian agencies. 

In line with the above avowed purposes, said recommendations 
put forward by the Board should be reflected in support legislation. 
This legislation would include limitations on: (1) secret surveillance; 
(2) the maintenance of secret files; and (3) the use and acces- 
sibility of such secret files. 

it is to be pointed out that the proper vehicle for such investiga- 
tions as the proposed Board would undertake is not the Senate 
Constitutional Rights Subcommittee. This subcommittee has little 
rapport with the Justice Department, which itself has constantly 
balked at undertaking such investigations. 



Students’ Rights and 
Responsibilities 



v 

i 

i- 

l 

I 




7.9 Students, as the major constituency of educational institutions, 
should have a clear understanding of their rights and respon- 
sibilities in that context. These rights and responsibilities are rarely 
specified and students usually have little hand in the formation 
of rules governing their lives in these institutions. In order to 
correct this, this Task Force recommends the following: 

(1) Statement of Rights. We recommend that each secondary 
school system , college or university, whether public , private, or 
public on a military reservation, with participation by all significant 
constituencies , such as students, teachers and administrators, 
devise a statement of the rights and responsibilities of students. 
This statement shall include: 

(A) An explanation of how the application of the basic 
freedoms apply to students within the education system, to 
include as a minimum: 

(a) Freedom of speech, press, assembly, and association 
within the educational institutions; e.g., dress codes, hair 
styles, and movement to include open campuses, and finally, 
the right of the students to petition the administration. 

(b) Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure of 
person, property, and place of residence, whether on 

or off campus. 

(c) Freedom from administration restrictions on students 
involved in off-campus activities. 

(B) An enumeration of student responsibilities, coupled 
with a statement of administration, faculty, and student 
responsibilities to not unreasonably interfere with the orderly 
educational process, others’ participation in the process 
and other individuals' rights. 

(C) A statement on the procedural safeguards when penalties 
can be imposed, to include, but not be limited, to the 
following: 

in disciplinary proceedings, students are to be entitled 
to elements of due process of law: the right to notice of 
the rule and the charge; a timely hearing, including the 
right to present evidence, and the right to an advisor’s 
assistance, the results in a decision; and review of any 
decision reached in the hearing. 

(D) A statement of the degree to which students shall get 
involved in various areas of ins+itutional decision-making. That 
students, along with others whose interests are vitally affected, 




171 



have significant voting rights in the decision-making process, 
and that student participation shall be present in all areas 
of decision making. 

(E) A guarantee of necessary participation when revisions in 
these statements are made. 

(2) Educational program. We further recommend that the body 
which establishes these rules should undertake an educational 
program o insure that the various constituencies are informed of 
the rules and of the rights, responsibilities, and procedures 
concerning policy within the scho^ 1 and relations between the school | 
and the outside community. 

(3) Foreign Students. We further recommend that foreign stu- 
dents’ rights include the following areas: 

(A) That every educational institution with a foreign student 
enrollment should accept the obligation of protecting the 
rights of their foreign students and to establish procedures 

by which each foreign student wiil be informed of his rights ! 
and obligations in the United States. ( 

(B) That each educational institution should also ensure 
that any enrolled foreign student faced with deportation 

be provided legal assistance and be advised of his legal rights 
in such procedures. 

(4) Record Keeping. We further recommend that all academic, j 

disciplinary or other permanent evaluative records regarding 
individual students by academic institutions be made available to 

the students on demand, in the case of secondary or higher i 

institutions’ students, or to parents in the class of younger students, j 
Also, that all students be given the right to place, in all school j 

records, any rebuttal explaining disciplinary actions or academic j 

performance. We further recommend that the student receive a j 

copy of any part of his record sent by the institution to any party j 

making an inquiry as to the record at the time of the inquiry, and j 

that no student records, other than enrollment status, age at j 

entrance or graduation, and degrees received shall be released 
by an y educational institution without the written permission of the j 
student himself. In the case of a student who has not attained 
the age of majority, su :h information may be released to said j 

student’s parents or legal guardian without the student’s written j 
permission. j 

i 

(5f Budget withdrawals. We further recommend that budgets | 

appropriated for academic research or other administrative, faculty, j 
or student activities by governmental bodies or to academic j 

institutions for such activities be protected from untimely with- j 
drawal or future budgetary retaliation due to student political { 

activity — -provided that such funds are utilized in accordance 
with the purpose of the funding. 

(6) We further recommend that the above be implemented as j 

follows: 

(A) That the aforementioned measures be implemented to 
include all races, creeds, colors, sexes, or varying economic i 
backgrounds, and that they be instituted in every educa- 
tional institution (private, public, and parochial) in the United 
States, its territories and military bases. That each of these 
recommendations be printed in those languages necessary 
so as to provide every student in the above mentioned areas 
with a full and complete understanding of their substance. 




{ 



Police and Youth 



Police Training 
and Education 



i 

t 

\ 

1 




(B) That the above recommendations shall be distributed 
to all state education agencies and their various decision- 
making bodies in the Union, as well as all national, state, and 
local educational associations accompanied by a letter 
stressing the need for immediate implementation of the 
recommendations within their specific education areas. Fur- 
thermore, copies of these recommendations should be made 
available for distribution to anyone who desires them. 

(C) That all state education agencies and their various 
decision-making bodies shall require each individual educa- 
tional institution within their jurisdiction to establish a 
student-faculty-administrative review board composed of not 
less than 50 percent student participation, which would 
review administrative decisions involving students' rights 
and responsibilities. 

(D) That the recommendations shall also be distributed to 
all educational accrediting associations with the purpose 

of requiring the individual educational institutions to imple- 
ment the recommendations as a criterion for accreditation. 



7.10 There is a very serious concern by youth with the role of police 
in our society. Communities often have little control of police, 
lacking leverage over the pressure points that affect police behav- 
ior (funding and appointments). Some police are often unresponsive 
to the problems of the community and appear to have no sense 
of responsibility for their solution. 

7.10a The lack of training and education of many police officers 
continues to limit the effectiveness of some police departments. 

The insensitivity to the problems of youth has necessitated con- 
stitutional changes in the procedures in recent years. Because 
of these problems, we recommend that: 

(1) The individual police officer should make every effort to 
become involved in the community he serves. 

(2) A civilian community review board composed of youth and 
adults and not more than one-third police representatives 

be established on a precinct level to provide advice and recommen- 
dations in the areas of promotions, assignments, and complaints. 

(3) Police officers should be limited, as lawyers and judges, 
in discussing a pending case. 

(4) More police should be assigned to foot and motorscooter 
patrol and regularly assigned to the same community beat. 

(5) Trivial physical requirements, such as near-sightedness, 
hay fever, etc. be relaxed or eliminated so that an otherwise 
qualified candidate may not be eliminated from consideration. 
Similarly, a man with a juvenile or minor criminal record who might 
otherwise be qualified. 

(6) We recommend that more officers be recruited from groups 
sensitive to youth and minority group problems. We further request 
that recruitment efforts be made to encourage minority and 
youth involvement. 

(7) We r-oommend that all uniformed officers be required to 
wear highly visible pictured name tags to make them more identi- 
fiable and accountable. 



i 



1 7Q 



jal Education for Youth 


and that these funds be directed to assist in the implementation of 
the above described goals. Through educational programs supported 
through the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, assistance 
to academic institutions should be made available for the 
foundation and funding of college courses implementing studies 
in youth and community problems. We further request that law 
enforcement agencies assist officers in the pursuit of academic 
training by providing them time and incentive for attendance, 

7.10b We recommend that State boards of education require young 
people to take a professionally designed course or series of 
courses on youth and the law, including the role of the police, 
courts and correctional systems. Such a course should include 
classroom experiences and direct observation of as much of j 

the criminal justice system as practicable. 

Because we, as youth, feel that we are not adequately informed < 

with regard to the impact of the legal system, we recommend 
that the Attorney General of the United States and the individual 
attorneys general of each state initiate and undertake to make i 

available to youth on the local level information and explanations 
of programs, policies, and the impact of the legal system, par- 
ticularly the criminal law, on youth. It is to be stressed that 
implementation of these programs should be oriented to fit into j 

every local school system in the country. Such programs should 
include the use of persons responsible in the application and 
theory of law and legal rights; e.g., judges at all levels, prosecutors, j 
defense attorneys, law students, police, law professors, offenders, 
etc. A similar program is operating successfully in St. Louis, 

Missouri. Another is the Appalachee Correctional Institute's 
program in Florida, called “Boys in Blue.” 


ilitary Justice 


7.11 The American publics’ attention has focused on the growing 
controversy over the quality of military justice. It is evident that many 
Americans, including a substantial number of servicemen, are losing 
faith in the military legal system. Action must be taken immediately 
to restore faith in the system. Reforms which increase the 
typical serviceman’s confidence in the military legal system's 
fairness will inevitably raise rather than lower the state of military 
discipline and morale. 

The appropriate Departments of the Executive Branch and com- 
mittees of Congress should immediately undertake a comprehensive 
review and revision of the military legal system. 

To implement this recommendation, the Departments and com- 
mittees should consider the adoption of the following proposals: 

(1) Command influence in the court martial. Every serviceman 
who is the accused in a general or special court martial should be 
granted the right to trial by a single, independent military judge 
or a panel of such judges. When the accused elects to have a 
jury trial by court members, the court members should truly con- 
stitute a jury of the accused’s peers;-; officers should be tried 
by courts of officers an£»®pfeted men by courts of enlisted men. 


O 

ERLC 





(2) Administrative board proceedings. The servicemen who are 
resoondents in administrative board proceedings should be granted 
additional procedural safeguards. They should be granted such 
elements of procedural due process as a broader right to counsel 
and a more effective guarantee of the right of confrontation. 

(3) Article 15 procedure. Current procedures are so informal 
that they might be unjust. All services should adopt the United 
States Army's rule that the serviceman in an Article 15 proceeding 
be guaranteed the right to consult legally qualified counsel. 

(41 Survey of opinions. A survey should be made of young service- 
men’s perceptions of or opinions about the military legal system. 

The survey's scope should include members of the Reserves, 
including the National Guard. The survey's results should be 
distributed nationally. 

(5) Legal rights and responsibilities. The limitations on servicemen’s 
constitutional rights should be revised to eliminate any restric- 
tion’ which unnecessarily limits those rights more severely than 

the national defense requires. . . . QVton 

(A) During basic training, servicemen should receive exten- 
sive training concerning their constitutional rights and the 
limitations upon the exercise of those rights. 

(B) National Guardsmen should receive additional training 
concerning their responsibilities under the Uniform Code 

of Military Justice and during civil disorders and disturbances. 

(C) All servicemen should receive intensive training in the 
standards to be used to determine whether an order issued to 
them is illegal. 

(D) Servicemen should be guaranteed their rights under 
the First Amendment to freedom of speech, press, freedom 
to organize and peaceably assemble. 



Rights 



7 12 We call upon the Congress of the United States to effect the 
immediate passage of Equal Rights Amendment, H.J. Res. 208, 
forbidding discrimination on the basis of sex, and further request 
that all differential treatment of women under state, local and 
administrative regulations be eliminated. 



Consent by Youths 



7 13 It is well established that many minors are not seeking, and 
thus not receiving, medical care for serious health problems 
because of their reluctance to reveal them to their parents. In 
addition, physicians, in many states, are prevented by state laws 
from treating minors without parental consent. 



Although the Task Force on Legal Rights and Justice of the White 
House Conference on Youth believes that the parents should be 
informed and their consent obtained whenever possible for treat- 
ment of minors, nevertheless the Task Force on Legal Rights 
and Justice stands in favor of legislation which would allow the 
self consent for diagnostic, preventative, and therapeutic health 
care of minors when, in the judgment of the treating physician 
or hospital, there exists significant hazard to the health of said 
minor or others, and the treatment of such health hazards could not 
be administered effectively if the right of self-consent were denied. 

ERIC This legislation will not only permit the physician to treat venereal 

disease, which increased to epidemic proportions in the past few 



years with the highest incidence and increase in the age group 
15 to 24, but will also permit the treatment of drug addiction, 
emotional problems, and others. 



Venereal Disease Control 7.14 Whereas the incidence of gonorrhea, according to calculation 

of ratios based on estimated number of cases treated in the United 
States, indicated that one in every 50 teenagers contracted 
gonorrhea in 1968, the 1971 projected ratio is considerably higher. 
The Chief of Venereal Disease Control for the State of California 
Public Health Department recently stated that in “some urban 
areas at least 20 percent of our high school students will be 
infected before they receive their diplomas;’’ and 

Whereas venereal disease is reaching epidemic proportions 
throughout the nation with the highest incidence and increase in 
the age group of 15-24; and 

Whereas the National Congress of Parents and Teachers already 
in 1966, endorsed VD education in the school curricula and 
many other groups since have endorsed it: 

Be it resolved, That the statutes dealing with VD education be 
amended to remove prohibitory language that makes it difficult, 
if not impossible, for public schools to teach the prevention, 
control, and treatment of VD; and be it further 

Resolved, That the Task Force on Legal Rights and Justice of the 
White House Conference on Youth endorses an objective and factual 
educational program on venerea! disease with consideration of 
prevention, transmission, and treatment in the junior and senior 
high school curricula. 

A copy of this resolution should be transmitted to the state 
Boards of Education in each of the 50 states. 



Illegitimacy and 
Pregnancy 




7.15 Illegitimacy among teenagers has risen sharply in the United 
States since World War II. The pregnant teenager married and 
unmarried is frequently suspended from high school attendance 
under various pretexts which are arbitrary and capricious. 

The importance of receiving public education through twelfth 
grade has not only social and psychological but also economic 
vaiues. To deprive a teenager of high school education is to inflict 
upon her irreparable injury, to deprive her of her property 
without due process of law and to deny her the equal protection 
of the law. 

The pregnant, unwed adolescent girl is not only at risk physically 
and emotionally, but also educationally if she is deprived of her 
basic, legal right to attend school. The Task Force on Legal Rights 
and Justice of the White House Conference on Youth reaffirms 
the legal right of the pregnant adolescent to attend school if she 
so wishes. 

The Task Force, furthermore, endorses the introduction of courses 
in family life and human sexuality, which would include in its 
subject matter the development of a realistic picture of the risk 
of pregnancy. Such courses should be integrated into the school 
curriculum in the hope of preventing, out of wedlock pregnancies 




176 



Right to Choose 
Country of Residence 



Law Schools; Clinical 
Legal Education 



Funding Legal Clinics 



and their consequences: the unwanted, neglected, rejecteo, and 
often battered child. 

A copy of this resolution should be transmitted to the state 
Board of Education in each of the 50 states. 



7.16 Each individual has a right to choose his place of habitation 
and to emigrate to another country which is ready to accept him. 

This resolution was brought forth in front of the Foreign Rv..a- 
tions Task Force for endorsement and further elaboration on 
specific examples of oppressed peoples of the world. 



7.17 There is a great need for the law schools of the United States 
to enhance the legal education experience by the establishment 
and expansion of extra curricula and co-curricula programs to 
give law students relevant experience in the practice of law. 

Equally there is an unfilled need in today's society for adequate 
and readily available legal services for the lower income citizen. 



Law school clinical programs are uniquely appropriate to meet the 
aforementioned needs and such programs, to be successful, require 
new sources of financial support. 

An urgent plea for Federal support of clinical teaching in law 
schools is recommended. 

Specifically, it is recommended that the Secretary of Health, 
Education and Welfare take all appropriate and necessary measures 
to effectuate the implementation of Federal legislative measures, 
such as Title XI of the Higher Education Act of 1965, designed 
to provide Federal funding to law school clinical programs. 

Clinical programs to be included in Federal funding measures are 
juvenile legal processes, legal aid programs, public defender 
programs, prosecutor programs, consumer protection programs, 
and prisoner legal assistance programs (both civil and criminal). 

The Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare is to make his 
efforts publicly known to the House Special Education Subcommittee 
and the Senate Subcommittee on Education. 

It is further recommended that the Secretary of Health, Education, 
and Welfare fully coordinate his efforts with the Association of 
American Law Schools (AALS), the American Bar Association (ABA), 
the Law Student Division of the American Bar Association, the 
Council on Legal Education for Professional Responsibility 
(CLEPR), the National Bar Association (NBA), and the Associa- 
tion of American Law Libraries (AALL). 

7 17a The Senate Subcommittee on Department of Labor and Health, 
Education and Welfare and Related Agencies is presently con- 
sidering Higher Education Act appropriations, but inclusion of any 
funds for Title XI is uncertain. The House Subcommittee on Labor, 
Health Education and Welfare did not provide any funds for 
Title XI or clinical legal education as regards to any other program. 
Should funds be forthcoming from the Senate Subcommittee 
a Conference Committee made up of both House and Senate 
Subcommittees will have to give final approval of the Senate 
Amendment providing funding for Title XI. 



The Administration has come forward with legislation proposing 
the repeal of Title XI and the creation of a National Education 
Foundation which would be able to fund clinical legal programs. 

A number of bills have been introduced by various Congressmen 
and Senators in the higher education area, the majority of 
which seek to continue a specific authorization for clinical legal 
programs. The Title XI designation is retained in the majority 
of the bills, but at least the bills would include a program under 
different legislation. 

Title XI has been on the bocks since 1968 and all efforts to 
secure funding of the provision have failed. The authorization to 
fund the provision will run out in June 1971. 

The following is a statement of the Association of American Law 
Schools on Legislation for Higher Education presented to the 
House Special Education Subcommittee on April 15, 1971: 

. . . sound and effective legal education is vital to the 
success of our legal system. The lawyers of the nation 
numbering about 330,000 have a crucial role in preserving 
liberty, in maintaining equality before the law and equality 
of opportunity, and in providing the framework necessary for 
ordered progress in all aspects of our national life. A 
legal profession worthy of its responsibility is crucial to 
sustaining and reaffirming the validity of the democratic 
process of this nation. Our law schools, through their 
teaching function, are the wellsprings of the profession. 
They also can and should be increasingly important 
centers of research into the workings of justice in the 
community and sources of public understanding of the 
proper role of law, legal institutions and processes. This 
function of the law schools and of the legal scholars in 
their faculties can, if adequately supported, make a truly 
significant contribution to the solution of the problem 
of society in the nation and even beyond its borders. 



White House Conference 7.18 Whereas the express purpose of the White House Conference 

on Youth is to offer a platform for the presentation of Youth’s 
viewpoint on problems confronting America and their possible 
solutions to those in power; and 

Whereas a conference held each decade does not encounter the 
many generational and attitudinal changes of American society 
within that ten-year period; and 

Whereas the nation's educational institutions also produce several 
generations of different composition and attitudes within a 
decade, whose needs are not met or considered by a conference 
held every ten years; and 

Whereas the governmental administrations of that ten-year 
period need a continuous flow of relevant and futuristic ideas which 
a conference held every four years would provide in order to be 
effective in meeting the needs of the people, especially those 
of youth: 

Be it Resolved, By the Task Force on Legal Rights and Justice 
that the White House establish, finance, and administer a national 
conference on youth in the middle of each Presidential term. 




178 



Conference Follow-up 



Department of 
Children and Youth 



Civil Rights for Youth 



Juvenile Justice 



0 




7.19 In order that the efforts of the White House Conference on 
Youth have maximum impact, we recommend that the White 
House Conference on Youth follow-up body be responsible for 
conveying recommendations to the appropriate bodies and reporting 
back to all the delegates, accounting for implementations and 
follow-up of specific Legal Rights and Justice Task Force recom- 
mendations. Such reports should be sent to Task Force delegates 
at least every six months. 



7.20 In assessing the legal needs and rights of youth as well as 
children, and consistent with the recommendations of the delegates 
to the White House Conference on Children, we urgently recom- 
mend a Department of Children and Youth at the Cabinet level. 

Surely if we have Departments of Defense, Justice, Transportation, 
and the Interior — and we allege that children and youth are a 
national priority — how can we not afford to have a Department 
of Children and Youth to guarantee attention to and solution of 
their problems? 



7.21 In the United States, especially in the field of civil law, there 
is a definite resistance by legal institutions, such as boards of 
supervisors, community councils, and even the courts, to allow 
young people to work up through networks of laws, codes, and 
municipal regulations. In short, young people are often not allowed 
to solve or even attempt to find solutions to their own problems. 
Therefore, we recommend: 

That the resistance to youth businesses and other related activities 
should be reduced and that the vast amount of red tape that 
young people must go through to achieve their goals should be 
cut back, thereby giving young people similar oppc .mities to 
those of their adult counterparts. 

Implementation: A. Some changes in laws, especially in the are^. 
of municipal codes, will help in assisting these kinds of equal 
protection for young people. Such changes may in turn be facilitated 
if young people try a variety of pressure tactics on local legislative 
bodies. 

B. We also urge that courts include themselves in considering 
such questions of discrimination against young people. 



7.22 We recommend that the goal to be strived for is the improve- 
ment of the juvenile justice system with emphasis on community 
treatment and prevention programs. 

We recognize four directions which must be taken in achieving 
this goal: 

First, the White House Conference implementation body is urged 
to insure that Conference recommendations are evaluated 
and carried out. 

Also, because of the lack of knowledge about the effectiveness 
and consequences of the juvenile justice system, we recommend 
that programs and pilot projects bo established that will allow 
authorities to evaluate existing programs and to plan alternatives. 



Overview of 
Juvenile Justice 



General Concerns 



0 




180 



Second, because of the lack of knowledge by youth and the com- 
munity of how the juvenile justice system operates, who gets 
involved and why, we recommend expanded efforts in disseminating 
information about the system to the entire society. 

Third, because of the high incidence of youth contact with the 
law, we recommend that ways be developed to improve the effec- 
tiveness of the social institutions that deal with youth. 

Fourth, because of the inadequacy of present laws pertaining to 
the problems of youth, we recommend that present statutes 
be revised. 

Also, because of the inadequacy of the juvenile justice system 
in areas of law enforcement, adjudication, disposition, treatment, 
and corrections, we recommend that there be drastic reorientation 
of the roles and functions that these institutions perform. Such 
changes should include greatly expanded youth involvement. 

7.22a Long-term planning, research and demonstration programs 
should be initiated on a statewide basis: (a) for gaining a more 
relevant understanding of the problems of our young people in 
trouble; (b) for developing viable methods of preventing juvenile 
delinquency and youth crimes; (c) for developing more effective 
law enforcement techniques; and (d) for improving our juvenile 
justice system. The design and development of these programs 
should recognize the following: 

(1) That we as a nation have made limited progress in delinquency 
prevention during the past three decades. And if our focus con- 
tinues to be only upon the existing system, the existing processes 
and the existing rules, there does not appear to be much prospect 
for innovation or progress over the next several decades. In spite 

of the complexity of the problem, we cannot indefinitely afford 
the cynical iuxury of focusing only upon controlling crime and 
correcting offenders. If we believe we are capable of improving 
our record on preventing delinquency, then we must seriously 
commit ourselves to the task. 

(2) Within a general framework of Federal and state guidance 
and support, the principal centers for innovation and action in 
developing useful delinquency prevention tools appear to be at the 
local level, and particularly at the community level. Increased 
Federal and state support should include those public and private 
research levels that have established background in dealing with 
young people in trouble and ho exhibit a high degree of com- 
petence in modern methods of management and analysis. 

7.22b A review should be required of each level of the justice system 
through citizen effort involving youth and adults to ensure that 
justice is rendered in behalf of youth. 

Major efforts are needed in funding programs which are preven- 
tative in nature with special consideration given to assisting the 
individual youth and his family, improving the educational system, 
and other community and societal improvements which generate 
and/or increase the problems of youth. 

Study is needed in the identification, assessment and alteration 
of those features of the institutional functioning that impede and 
obstruct a favorable course of youth development for all youth. 




Major study and action ar 3 required in the problem of incarcera- 
tion of the poor and/or minority young people and equal justice 
through more adequate social supports available to the middle-class 
deviant youth. 

Progrsms need to be developed and funded which provide 
legitimate helping roles for the juvenile offender. 

More small group homes should be established within the com- 
munity setting for those youths who have inadequate homes as 
defined by the court or a desire by parent and child for a brief 
separation period to obtain needed counseling. 

Counseling services should be provided to those youths who are in 
trouble in school and/or community. Counselors should work 
with the community agencies to help provide the conditions for the 
youth to succeed. Such services could be rendered by the 
public as well as subcontracting such services to any appropriate 
community agency. 



Traffic offenses, civil or criminal, should not be handled in juvenile 
court, with the following exception: traffic court could waive 
jurisdiction and remand to the juvenile court cases it felt could 
be more appropriately handled there. 

We submit the following workshop recommendations as possible 
solutions. The Task Force did not vote on the specific recom- 
mendations included in this background material. 



Implementation: 

A. Program Planning and Management 

1. Establishment of Department of Children and Youth 

2. Establish management group for White House Conference 
proposals 

3. Develop strategies for implementation 

4. Develop standards for all aspects of the system 

5. Develop evaluation process for total and selected levels 
of the system 

6. Youth representation on governing boards. 



B. Understanding and involving youth and their families in the 
juvenile justice system 

1. Multi-educational programs for understanding the system 

2. Thorough involvement of youth, adults, and professionals 

3. Study the nature of the problem, and develop appropriate 
social institutions to deal with the problem 

4. Understanding of legal rights of youth. 



C. Preventing Youth Problems and Juvenile Delinquency 

1. Create and strengthen a series of community based 
treatment programs 

2. Make agencies accountable 

3. Urge agencies to respond to the youth in conflict 

4. Development of service bureaus 

5. Study and change institutional functioning that impede 
and obstruct youth development 

6. Encourage programs of diversion from juvenile justice 
system 



7. Probation subsidy approach 

8. Youth involved in projects in the justice system. 



Juvenile Records 
Need to be Clarified 



Availability of 
Juvenile Records 



O 

ERIC 

10 / 



D. Improving Laws and the Juvenile Justice System 

1. Restrict use of court for serious offenses 

2. Legislative review (every five years) 

3. Juvenile court cost-effectiveness study 

4. Evaluation, including youth, of the juvenile justice system 

5. Develop qualifications and standards of practice 

6. Involve the bar and law students in the juvenile justice 
system 

7. Equalize justice for minority youth through more 
adequate social supports 

8. Waiver to adult court be reviewed 

9. Use of records be limited (possibility of destroying 
records) 

10. Increase funding and staffs 

11. Raise tolerance levels of community 

12. Establish separate facilities for youth 

13. Visit by judges and lawyers to the institutions to which 
youth are sent 

14. Increase public defender services 

7.22c Juvenile arrest records can be extremely deceptive . A charge 
of robbery, for example, may turn out to have been one kid 
stealing a rubber ball from another kid; or, on the other hand, a 
teenager assaulting a woman to take her pocketbook. Such 
discriminations ought to be evident on the record itself. 

Thus we recommend that charges should always be accompanied 
by a description of the events composing the crime. 

Also such records — including psychiatric and probation records — 
often unfairly restrict themselves to a negative or prosecutorial 
view, when, as is sometimes the case, this was the only view to 
receive official airing or else the charge in fact never made it into 
court. 

Juvenile records should contain the defendant's own version 
of events , plus relevant statements from his counsel, parents, or 
a psychiatrist or social worker advocate v/here these might tend 
to balance the picture. 

7.22d Juvenile records are sometimes dispensed to a variety of 
public and private agencies for a variety of purposes, while at 
the same time they remain completely inaccessible to the defendant 
himself. 

We recommend that juvenile arrest, social and court records be 
open only to police, courts and treatment agencies, when the 
juvenile is being processed by these agencies; and to the defendant 
himself, his parents and his counsel, at all times. 

We further recommend that Federal and state laws be enacted 
to prohibit identification by communications media of juvenile and 
youthful offenders and the juvenile and youthful victims of such 
offenders. 

Legislation should be drawn up to ban the passing of law enforce - 
ent information and records to unauthor/zed agencies and persons, 
with meaningful sanctions. 




Juvenile Advocate System 



7.23 The juvenile justice system, as presently constituted, is too 
heavily weighted in favor of the official or parens patria viewpoint, 
reinforcing existing notions of how to treat juvenile offenders, 
reaffirms conventional definitions of juvenile delinquency, gener- 
ally holding out for adherence to the norm even when a child's 
reaction against it may, on balance, prove more rational than the 
norm itself. 



Accordingly, we propose a massive buildup of the defense and 
related counseling networks, to give defendants some approxima- 
tion of the resources and knowledge now being used by others 
to decide their fates. Specifically we recommend: 

(1) An expanded public defender system for juveniles, possibly 
to include law student interns under proper supervision, following 
cases from contact through disposition and treatment. 



(2) An expanded network of high school, college, and graduate 
student interns to pursue individual cases from intake to dis- 
position, and beyond. 

(3) Substantial programs to involve neighborhood people, including 
ex-offenders, as paraprofessionals in all phases of juvenile 
delinquency prevention, rehabilitation and follow up. 

(4) A psychiatrist advocate system responsible for examining and 
challenging official diagnosis where he feels a juvenile may have 
been unfairly categorized as abnormal or maladjusted. 

(5) A purely educational program to involve peers in the juvenile 
justice system, giving juveniles a chance to be exposed to its 
workings and in turn drawing on their impressions to make the 
system more comprehensible to the people with whom it directly 
deals. “Teen juries” for certain cases would be one such program. 



Federal Funding; 
Local Control 



7.23a A few of the proposals we make draw on volunteer services, 
but the total cost of the approaches described here will be mas- 
sive. Federal funds must be the main source of money. The 
responsibility, however, for generating and running these programs 
must lie with the communities. Once again, funding agencies 
must broaden the categories of programs considered for support. 
Present 'funding concentrates too much on traditional court and 
corrections processes. By striking a new balance between those 
agencies charged with viewing the juvenile from the system’s 
vanta<?° point, and those other agencies charged with viewing the 
syste.n from the juvenile’s vantage point, we can conceivably 
channel some funds from one side to the other. 



Alternative Treatment 



7.24 We know that existing means for handling juvenile offenders 
show depressingly low rates of success — and high rates of 
recidivism. Vet the system is not nearly open enough to competing 
approaches. An orthodoxy that has proven itself a failure is often 
defended as if, instead, it had made a compelling case against 
all comers. 

A wide range of treatment and referral programs should be 
organized outside the existing juvenile justice system, by private 
and public sponsoring groups alike, and a greatly increased number 
of juveniles be remanded to such programs, especially before 
being channeled into court. 



Review of Juvenile 
Court System 



Volunteer Programs 
for Juvenile Justice 

O 




Specifically, we would encourage neighborhood based and com- 
munity controlled referral agencies, to counsel and discipline 
troublesome youths and to give them positive functions within 
their communities. 

At the same time we would encourage private and public groups 
to launch pilot treatment programs. 

To implement these recommendations, we propose that agencies 
of the juvenile justice system be reorganized to fund alternative 
approaches on a contract basis. In other words, young persons 
coming into contact with the juvenile justice system should be 
assisted into programs administered by public and private agencies 
which have not traditionally been part of the system. 

In order to avoid the danger that established agencies might 
exclude especially unorthodox approaches, we recommend that 
additional money be made available for such programs through: 

(a) the Federal government (including HEW, the Labor Department, 
Model Cities, and the Law Enforcement Assistance Administra- 
tion); and (b) state and local governments directly. To facilitate 
this, the LEAA in particular and other funding agencies in general 
must broaden their definitions of fundable activities to include 
informal and para-judicial programs operated by neighborhood 
or private organizations. In addition, local communities with 
Federal planning grant assistance must devote vast new energies 
to the development of imaginative programs suitable for their 
communities. 

In summary, we believe that an injection of free enterprise and 
competition into corrections couicf certainly do no harm, and 
might lead us toward new and promising solutions. 



7.25 We recommend that state and local officials undertake an 
immediate review of the functions and jurisdiction of the juvenile 
court with a view toward developing and strengthening non -judicial 
agencies to handle some of the problems of dependency and 
incorrigibility now dealt with by the court. Specifically, we urge that 
three options be considered: 

(1) State and local governments create a Youth Service Bureau to 
perform the function of intake, diagnosis, and referral to other 
community agencies for treatment and utilize juvenile courts as a 
last resort. 

(2) That state and local governments reevaluate r>nd analyze their 
current resources in such a way as to create and/or strengthen 
privately funded community based agencies such as family 
counseling programs, neighborhood centers, and other counseling 
programs to respond to the needs of youth. 

(3) In addition, each state legislature should review the statutes 
as they relate to youth every five years to make certain of the 
relevancy of the laws like the area of the definition of a delinquent. 



7.26 At present over 100,000 Americans contribute supplementary 
services without pay to the juvenile justice system in courts, 
probation, parole, and juvenile institutions. These services are 
rendered principally in rehabilitative areas. 





184 



Current Functions 
of Volunteers 



Redirection of 
Volunteer Service 




This modern volunteer movement has grown a hundredfold in the 
past four years and continues to grow rapidly. Even at this early 
stage, at least 50 percent of juvenile courts today have volunteer 
programs, and there are at least five times as many volunteers as 
paid workers in the juvenile justice system. 

Thus, the very magnitude of the movement demands our attention 
in that its vast energies be used in the best possible ways. 
Specifically, it is recommended that we contact its leadership to 
urge continual improvement in the quality of existing programs, a 
greater number of such programs, and redirection of the volunteer 
movement's vast energies to the principal concerns of this 
Task Force. 

7.26a The volunteers are currently serving as follows: 

(1) As a treatment agent (at least 100 distinct job descriptions 
exist here); 

(2) In educating the volunteer himself to the problems and concerns 
of youth in the juvenile justice system and to the system itself; and 

(3) To open channels of direct communication between the 
community and the juvenile justice agency. Note that a volunteer 
worker is listened to by the agency far more than an ordinary 
uninvolved citizen. 

7.26b The volunteer program could usefully be redirected as follows: 

(1) More volunteer programs to be developed in non-jud;cial, 
diversionary or preventative projects. 

(2) More effort to be concentrated on volunteer programs as an 
alternative to institutionalization for youngsters who are dumped on 
institutions because no treatment alternatives exist in the 
community Volunteers may provide the only such alternative 

in smaller communities, 

(3) At present, juvenile justice system volunteerism is mainly a 
middle class phenomenon (both black and white). While the middle 
class should be encouraged to make whatever contribution it can 
through this medium, more effort is nevertheless necessary to attract 
other groups, including: youth; minority groups; poverty people; 
ex-offenders; and the offender himself, 

A special effort should be made to involve the clients of the system, 
and there is precedent tor the success of special efforts in this 
regard. If remuneration or subsidization for services is appropriate 
for these people, no lilywhite conception of pure amateurism 
should prevent it. 

In fact, volunteers create the need for more paid supervisory 
positions in the supervision of volunteers, and at least one statewide 
program is managed by OEO. 

(4) In general, more effort must be devoted to making more citizens 
of all types aware of the opportunities for juvenile justice system 
volunteer service. 

Jmp/ementat/on: At present, two national organizations exist for 
no other purpose than to encourage the launching of such volunteer 



i a*; 



Youth Involvement; 
Model Projects 



Youth Model Courts 







programs and to provide technical assistance in making them 
effective and responsible. These organizations are: 

a. The National Information Center on Volunteers in Courts, 

Box 2150, Boulder, Colorado. 

b. Volunteers in Probation, Inc., 200 Washington Square Plaza, 
Royal Oak, Michigan. 

A. The resolutions of this Task Force should be communicated to 
these organizations, emphasizing especially the redirections of 
volunteer program efforts, advocated as the principal concerns of 
this Task Force. 

B. While most juvenile justice system volunteer programs are 
primarily locally planned and managed in response to local needs, 
some state resources and support are needed for these local 
programs if they are to reach full potential. In acknowledgment of 
this need, 35 states are currently planning to operate in this area, 
though only four or five of these are fully operational at the 
present time. 

We recommend the further development and strengthening of these 
state plans in the juvenile justice volunteer program area. 

C. We urge that this be placed on the agenda of each state follow-up 
conference of the White House Conference on Youth. 

For each state the National Information Center on Volunteers in 
Courts can provide names and addresses of the volunteer planning 
or operational agencies in that state. 

The Center is also convening a national conference of state 
correctional volunteer planners on September 22-25 in Boulder, 
Colorado. Details are available from the Center. 



7.27 Three projects are proposed that will increase your 
understanding and knowledge of the juvenile justice system by 
participatory educational involvement in its processes. 

From that basis of increased knowledge, youth's potential for 
creative impact on the system will be advanced. The three projects 
are proposed initially for funding as demonstration or pilot projects, 
to be implemented more broadly as r "pidly as is consistent with the 
evaluation -of the results of the piloi projects. 

7.27a It is recommended that in as many communities as is feasible, 
youth model courts be held in which youth participate in the roles 
of Judge, Probation Officer , Defendant , Parents , Attorney , and 
other significant people in the juvenile justice process . 

Open discussion between participants and audience, following the 
youth court, will be an important part of the process. Particular 
pressure should be exerted on juvenile justice system professionals 
and judges to attend youth court. 

The model is Boy's State, the Hawaii State YMCA Model Legislature, 
and similar programs in which youth participate in model 
legislative processes. Here the idea will be applied to the 
juvenile justice process. 



iftfi 



The purposes are: 



I. 

Youth Observer Corps 


(1) To familiarize both participating youth and audience with 
the juvenile justice process. 

(2) To serve as a model for adults and youth on ideal ways in 
which the juvenile justice system should be conducted. We 
therefore urge that youth not only imitate traditional rules in the 
conduct of youth court, but also develop experimental innovations 
which they believe will improve the process. 

(3) There must be developed a serious connection between youth 
Courts and actual courts in the community in terms of which youth 
court participants can forward actionable recommendations to the 
community court. We reject thereby any notion of youth court as 
“those cute kids playing around” in favor of a concept of real impac 
as well as education emerging, along with a potential for local or 
national innovation from the point of view of youth as potential 
and real clients of the court. 

(4} As part of the impact process, local and national media coverage 
should be given to youth court sessions so that the general public as 
well as the immediate audience is exposed to youth i ideas °n the 
subject. National commercial and educational TV should be asked 
to consider presentation of youth court sessions along with local 
TV stations. Perhaps the best youth courts can be elected for 
national coverage or at least a range of selected courts. 

Implementation: A. A Youth Task Force should be set up to ^ 
implement this proposal immediately upon the conclusion of tni= 
conference and/or in each state follow up conference. 

B Support for the program should be sought from national 
organizations, some of which might be radio, press, TV national 
networks and local outlets, National PTA (Committee on Judicial 
Concern for Children in Trouble), National Council of Juvenile Court 
Judges, American Bar Association (Special Projects) and/or local 
bar associations, National Trial Judges Association (Reno, Nevada), 
National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD). 

7 27b There are a number of programs in which youth observe 
the legislative process. There are also some programs in which 
adults observe court operations. 

We recommend a national program in which youth act as court 
observers and evaluators , with clear channels to discuss their 
recommendations with local officials of t ho system. 

If court rules as to protection of identity prevent observation of the 
'uveniie court, youth may still observe adult court proceedings, 
visit probation or parole offices and, if permitted, juvenile detention 
centers or institutions. They may also tour high delinquency 
neighborhoods, local jails, police stations arid discuss their 
observations with the personnel concerned. 


0 

ERIC 

i 187 


A report will periodically be issued-by tha Youth Observer Corps 
locally and brought to the attention of the public and appropriate 
local officials.- A national conference of Youth Observer Corps 
chapters, periodically convened, would draw national attention to 
the gist of general conclusions and evaluations. 

ige * 



187 



Considerable attention should be given by youth to development of 
responsible criteria for the evaluation of their observations, and 
this may include innovative as well as traditional standards in the 
administration of juvenile justice. 

Implementation: A. A youth committee be appointed from this 
conference and/or each state follow up conference. 

B. This resolution be brought to the attention of each state follow up 
conference for implementation in that state. 

C. Support to be sought from national organizations capable of 
assisting in implementation; for example, PTA (Committee on Judicial 
Concern for Children), National Council of Juvenile Court ludges, 
American Bar Association and its local chapters, National council 
on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD), existing Adult Court Observer 
programs, notable in Indianapolis, Miami, and St. Louis. 

Apprentice Programs 7,27c It is recommended that a number of positions be created 

in which youth are paid to work as apprentices in the juvenile justice 
system in various rehabilitative and administrative capacities. 

While similar positions currently exist in internsnips in connection 
with college courses in sociology, psychology, and the like, the 
present program would be open to all well motivated youth, 
regardless of college level or specialization. The purposes are: 

(1) To create interest and awareness-by-participation among youth 
who might not otherwise be exposed to the juvenile justice system. 

(2) To add services and ideas to the juvenile rehabilitation system, 
which benefits from the unique perspectives and experiences of 
the youth apprentices. 

Implementation: A. A youth committee ongoing from this 
conference and/or set up by state follow up conferences. 

B. This committee and/or these state conferences should contact 
state juvenile correctional professional associations in each state, 
pursuant to implementing the apprentice idea in each state. 

(NCCD will have names and addresses of such associations in 
each state.) 

C. Substantial funding must be sought for the committee and/or 
state follow up conferences from LEAA, HEW, or state legislatures. 



Upgrading Professional 7.28 The principal thrust of this Task Force and possibly of the 
Services entire Conference has been a vote of no confidence in the juvenile 

justice system and the professionals who work in it, including the 
probation officer, the parole officer, the youth care worker, 
detention officer, etc. 

Witness the emphasis on non-judicial diversionary projects which, 
however intended, seem to say: “Whatever you do, keep the kid 
out of their hands.” 




Witness the interpretation by some of the need for volunteers as a 
rebuke to the inadequacy of the professionals — volunteers have to 
come and bail you out. 




But we have in all this overlooked the juvenile justice system 
professional as a tremendously unused resource, along with all our 
other suggestions, for the improvement of the juvenile justice system. 

In fact, he has never really been given a chance. 

He is underpaid, undertrained, and overworked. Caseloads averaging 
75-100 are absurd and tragic. 

Therefore be it resolved: 

1 That “intensive caseload” model projects be conducted far more 
frequently under the auspices of LEAA, HEW and state correct.onal 

agencies. 

2. That far more Federal and state funds be provided towards 

a decent pay scale for attracting and holding high quality juvenile 
justice system professionals. 

3. That some really adequate funding be provided for state 
training officers in the juvenile justice system, and that the position 
of training officer itself be upgraded administratively and careerwise. 



Guaranteed Adequate 
Income 


All recommendations were voted upon and approved by the whole 
TMkftir meeting in general session. Drafts of the reoommenda. 
tfcns originated from Task Force workshops. 

8 i Everv citizen in the United States has the right to a decent and 
adequate standard of living. Today there are millions of American 
families “in poverty.’’ This incidence of poverty and the factor 
causing it have made it necessary to develop some form of income 
maintenance program to provide for subsistence needs o t Ooe 
incapable of supporting themselves. 

The current welfare system of payments, services, and commodities 
should be replaced with an income program which guarantees 
every person in America sufficient cash income for decent and 
adequate standards of food, shelter, and clothing, supplemented y 
supportive services. We further recommend ' " • program De 

designed to include the following essential chart, ..istics: 

1 Benefit levels. Cash benefits must be sufficient to provide for 
a decent and adequate standard of living. The benefit level should be 
no less than the lower standard budget established by the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics, with regional variations. The BLS lower 
standard budget was $6500 for a family of four in 1S69. 

2. E dibility based on need. The only requirement for eligibility 
should be a simple declaration of need. An individual or ^miiy 
could become eligible through two processes: (a) the P ote " tia ' 
recipient may request cash allowance upon submittal of standardized 
proof of earning level; or (b) the administering agent will inform / 
persons of the eligibility and ineligibility as a result of their record?. 

3. Subsidized public services. The cost of essential services such 
as child care, vocational planning, family counseling, legal an 
health services, should, if necessary, be directly subsidized by the 
Federal government. Participants in the income program should 

be free to purchase the services they need or want. These services 
should be integrated into those used by the affluent citizens and 
available to all on a graduated fee scale based on ability to pay. 

Food stamps, commodities, and other such alternatives to cash 
should be eliminated. 

4. Work benefits. Work benefits should be built in so that partici- 
pants in the income program are encouraged to work and encouraged 
to find higher paying jobs if possible. 

5. Work requirements. No one should be required to work or enroll 
in training as a requirement for initial or continued eligibility. 

6 Privacy. All precautions should be taken to guarantee that privacy 
and other rights of participant are protected including legal rights 

of appeal. 

Implementation: This income program should be federaUy financed 
and administered according to Federal standards. Admimstr t o 


O 

ERLC 


1ST 



procedures should be simple and participants in the program should 
be included in program development, decision-making, and 
implementation. 



Education 



Educational 

Alternatives 



Community Control 
of Schools 



Expand School Lunch 
& Breakfast Programs 



8.2 The Task Force on Poverty believes that the educational system 
is a primary deterrent to the economic and political sufficiency and 
mobility of poor people in America. The American public school 
system cannot meet the needs of all the youth if a significant number 
of people are excluded from the decision-making process. 

Any program designed with the purpose of truly educating poor youth 
must necessarily make education accountable and acceptable to life 
the way it is actually lived in poor communities. We strongly believe 
that there must be a two-pronged approach to the current education 
problems of the poor community. 

8.2a We submit that priority be given to the fostering of alternatives 
to the present education system, and that all vehicles of funding be 
explored, such as voucher systems, street academies, and 
performance contracts. 

8.2b The following steps must be taken to reform the existing 
system. The Task Force advocates full community control of schools 
for poverty areas. Community residents of poverty areas should 
control decisions on personnel, expenditures, and curricula. Each 
school should have a policy-making board of community residents. 
Students above the elementary school level should be represented 
on the policy-making board of community residents. Policy-making 
boards could seek technical assistance in their work, but the role of 
the consultants should be defined by the boards. Students and 
parents should be represented on all district-wide policy-making 
boards. Steps should be taken to involve representation of all 
segments of the community on district boards. We strongly 
recommend proportional representation. 

These two basic approaches — alternatives to the public school 
system and full community control — undergird each of the following 
recommendations. 

8.2c The Task Force on Poverty recognizes the importance of 
adequate nutrition to the educational process. A hungry child 
cannot learn. We support a fully expanded child nutrition program, 
including the following: 

1- We recommend that Congress increase the proposed FY 1972 
budget request for Section 11, Free and Reduced Price Lunches to 
$600 million. 

2. We recommend that Congress increase the non-food assistance 
funds for the purpose of providing facilities to non-participating 
schools to $33 million for FY 1972. 

3. We recommend that Congress increase Section 4 School Lunch 
funds to $500 million for FY 1972. 

4. We recommend that the Administration and the Congress set a 
goal to feed the 10 million eligible school children a free or 
reduc d price lunch by Thanksgiving 1971. 

5. We recommend that the Congress and the Administration work 



Counseling 


toward the implementation of a universal free school lunch program 
by no later than January 1, 1976. 

6. We recommend that the Congress raise the school breakfast 
program budget request to $100 million for FY 1972. 

8.2d The counseling services now established in the public 
educational systems do not satisfy the needs of the individual 
students. Many counselors, appointed by the school boar s, av ^ 
inadequate training, thus having little or none of the students 
confidence. Due to the small number of counselors per school, the 
lack of understanding on the part of the counselors of the 
low-income or minority-group students and the stereotyping Of 
these students’ futures, we see need for changes in the 
present system. 

In accordance with our recommendation for community control we 
feel the following could alleviate many of the present pr^verns. 

1 Guidance counseling, which is crucial to the educational life of 
a student, should be extended to the elementary level. 

2 A maximum cf 300 students per counselor should be established 
to give counselors sufficient time to deal with students individual 
problems. 

3. Junior high and high school students should have an effective 
voice in the selection of their counselors. 


Pre-School Education 


8.2s We strongly recommend the expansion of pre-school educational 
programs. Recognizing the importance of pre-school e uca '° n ' 
we feel it mandatory that all children have equal opportunities for 
development of proper life forms and habits to help enable their 
proper growth and development. Our recommendations in this 
area are as follows: 

1 That a considerable increase be made in funds in the Head Start 
Program, which, in its fifth year, reaches only 15 percent of 
pre-schoolers. 

2. That an expanded Day Care Program be adopted which provides 
for health, nutrition, social services, and early education, is 
controlled by the parents of enrolled students; and staffed by 
community residents. 

3. That public kindergarten be financially underwri^tien by the 

Federal government and immediately incorporated int , 

school system. 


Relevant Curricula 
To Meet Cultural 
Differences 


8 2f The education system is not prepared to present cultu ^ ! Jy 
different children with teachers, materials and environment s w^ch 
respect the differences of unique cultural identities and lifestyles. 
The school system does not present these children with Programs 
which help them deal with the concrete realities of the ghetto, the 
barrio, the reservation and the ‘•holler” rather than wi 
far-away suburbia. 

It is the conclusion of this Task Force that the educational problems 
of poor people in this country are not the result of cultural deprivation 
but rather, the failure of the educational system in mis country a, 
all levels to recognize the right of an individual to possess behavioral 



Indian Education 



Bi-Ungual Education 
for Spanish-Speaking 



Educacion Silingue 



0 

ERLC 



and cultural patterns other than those of the dominant middle-class 
majority. We have come to believe as a result of our hearings and 
study that the freedom to express openly and with pride one's own 
unique cultural heritage is as important an issue in addressing the 
problems of poverty in this country as are the usually cited issues of 
economic self-sufficiency and the right to good education. 

A related deficiency of formal education is the lack of emphasis on 
cross-cultural experience with the result that the public’s 
understanding of diverse behavior patterns and culture is minimal. 
What exposure there is to other cultures is passive and is 
transmitted, in large part, by the mass media. 

It is the conclusion of this Task Force that so long as the American 
educational system at all levels continues to isolate students behind 
four walls with peers of their own social and economic class while 
refusing to give students opportunities to live and work within real 
cross-cultural experiences, racism and discrimination will continue 
to be pervasive influences in American society. 

8.2g Indian children are forced to attend P" ! -«au of Indian Affairs 
(S.I.A.) boarding high schools. away from.ti. homes. There are no 
high schools in Indian communities. Many teachers in Indian schools 
are not chosen by the community. There are many job training 
programs, but they do not lead to jobs on the reservation and there 
are few recreational activities. We propose the following: 

1. High schools should be set up in Indian communities. 

2. High schools should have Indian staff. 

3. The Indians in each community should choose staff, plan 
curricula, and select materials for their children. 

4. Funds should be provided to establish community colleges. 

5. Job-training programs should lead to jobs on the reservation. 

6. Recreation programs and facilities should be set up in 
Indian communities. 

8.2h This Task Force realizes that Spanish-speaking Americans are 
handicapped in the educational system and in the job-market. 

We recommend that a comprehensive bi-lingual education program 
be created and that it be available to Spanish-speaking students at 
an early age, such as Head Start classes; and that where a 
professional bi-lingual teacher is not available to teach in schools 
with Spanish-speaking enrollment, persons from the Spanish- 
speaking community be employed as teac. er aides to facilitate 
ommunication and understanding with students who are not 
proficient in English. 

— Este Grupo de Trabajo estima que los norteamerioanos de 
habla espanola estan en desventaja en el sistema educacional y 
en la disponibilidad de empleos. 

Recomend amos que sea creado un vasto programa educacional 
bilingue y que este a disposicion de estudiantes de habla 
espanola de temprana edad, tales como los cursos del “Head 
Start” y que cuando no se disponga de maestros bilingues para 




196 



Testing Standards 
are Biased 



Vocational and 
Higher Education 



ERJC lousine 



197 



ensenar en escuelas con enrolamiento de estudiantes de habla 
espanola, sean empleadas personas de la comunidad de 
habla espanola en calidad de ayudantes, para facditar a 
communicacion y el entendimiento con los estudiantes que 
tienen dificultades con el idioma ingl6s. 

8.2i l-Q tests have been widely used across the nation as a basis of 
the tracking system in elementary and high school education. 
Performance on these tests is the decisive factor for future jobs 
and opportunities for higher education. Mentally retarded and slow 
learning classes are disproportionately filled with children of minority 
and poverty backgrounds because of the inability of this testing 
procedure to relate to them. The inherent inequities in this type of 
culturally biased testing are further perpetuated by the tracking 
system. 

We hold that this type of testing and the accompanying track system 
are an arbitrary and discriminatory means of categorizing poor 
people. Therefore, the administration of l-Q tests or their equivalents 
should not be used as a measure of a child’s potential and abilities. 

8 2j "''his Task Force recognizes and supports the commitment 
undertaken by the Federal government to provide truly equal 
opportunities for all citizens. In order to facilitate this goal of 
proportionate representation of poor and minority persons in 
4-year institutions of higher education, vocational and junior 
college education, this Task Force recommends the following: 

Vocational-Technical Education: (a) That the President and the 
Congress significantly increase the amount of funds available for 
high-quality vocational-technical education training for poor youth 
and, equally important, that these schools be located within the 
communities where poor youth live; (b) That vocational programs 
be offered in junior high and high schools for students whose talents 
lie outside the academic sphere so that they may develop these 
talents and receive the praise and confidence received by academic 
achievers; (c) That work-study programs be expanded in terms of 
both philosophy and funding. In addition to providing cash income, 
the high school and college work-study programs can be used as 
training vehicles to prepare students for a vocation or profession 
either temporary or permanent. 

Higher Education (a) That the Educational Opportunities Program 
(EOP) be not only retained but expanded and that increased funds 
be made available for the grant-in-aid portion of this program, until 
the goal of proportionate minority and poor representation is met; 

(b) That community junior colleges be within 30 miles of any 
potential student and that these institutions become open-door 
colleges serving the needs of poor students; (c) That state 
legislatures throughout the country re-evaluate their state scholarship 
programs and immediately begin undertaking the direct aid or the 
grant approach insisting students to defray the cost of their 
educational expenses; (d) That a Teacher Internship Program be 
established for residents of poor areas. While they are being 
trained, all persons would receive an adequate living allowance. 
They would work with children, not as mimeograph operators or 
secretaries. Training, which would lead to full professional status, 
would include credits for life experience, work experience, and 
regular academic courses. 

8.3 Today as a direct result of massive indifference on the part of 

1 



Right to Safe, 

Decent and Sanitary 
Home 



National Agency for 
Adequate Housing 



Low Income Housing 
Start of at 
least 50 percent 



ERIC 



our government we face a full-scale housing famine in America. 

/n our country where 43 million Americans do not have an adequate 
income, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we find 
that all poor people, including welfare recipients, the unemployed 
and even the low wage earners, are unable to buy new homes, 
renovate old homes or even pay the meager rents in rent-subsidized 
housing. Wo see the only method of dealing with this mammoth 
crisis as the declaration of a national noosing emergency; and that 
concurrently national economic priorities must be reoriented to 
focus on the housing needs of the poor. 

In 1949, Congress set a national housing goal — to provide 
“a decent home and a suitable living environment for every American 
family.” Today, 22 years later, we have not come close to achieving 
that goal. In fact, the housing needs of the nation’s poorest families 
are more acute than ever. The Task Force is convinced that the 
nation’s housing programs have not been implemented to serve 
the poor, indeed, housing programs for low income urban residents 
have not reached 10 percent of their constituency; in rural areas, 
they have yet to reach 5 percent of those in need. 

8.3a Every American has a moral and legal right to a "safe, decent 
and sanitary home.” Further, we feel that until such time that a 
guaranteed adequate income, consistent with the figures of the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics is instituted for every American, the 
government must provide a safe, decent and sanitary dwelling with 
adequate space for all Americans, whatever the cost. 

8.3b We call upon the President to declare a national state of 
emergency, and reorient national economic priorities to focus on 
the housing needs of the poor. 

To meet this drastic need, we call for the consolidation of all Federal, 
state, and local housing agencies (including the Farmers Home 
Administration) into one supervisory agency called the National 
Agency for Adequate Housing. Extensions of this agency should be 
located in all appropriate political subdivisions. 

The control of this Agency is to be shared equally, on all levels, 
by the administration and those non-governmental organizations 
that represent the recipients of Federal housing assistance (such as 
the National Tenants Organization and National Welfare Rights 
Organization). This Agency will have a specific mandate to follow 
closely the resolutions of this report. 

Included in this Agency will be a special unit for Emergency Rural 
Home Development to deal with the housing problems of the 
rural poor. 

8.3c /n order to expedite the construction of low-income housing, we 
recommend that at least 50 percent of all future housing starts be in 
the low income category. Within the next year, a national housing 
survey should be made. This survey will determine by political 
subdivision the precise percentage of low-income housing required. 
Each political subdivision will be responsible for the implementation 
of the housing survey recommendations. If any subdivision fails to 
come into compliance within six months of publication of the survey, 
the Governor of that state shall be empowered to enforce compliance 
by any means at his disposal. If there is a continued failure to 
produce the appropriate housing ratio, the President shall, through 
the Agency for Adequate Housing, produce compliance. 




198 



Implementation: An extensive program for implementation is 
included as an appendix to the Task Force Report on Poverty. 



Health Care 



Federal Responsibility 



O 

ERIC 



8.4 Seven major obstacles prevent the provision of adequate physical 
and mental health services for the nation's poverty population: 

1. The inability of poor Americans to afford health care. 

2 A health care delivery system unequipped to serve the poor 
chiefly because of geographic maldistribution of medical personnel 

and services. 

3. Exclusion of the poor from policy-making within the health 
care system. 

4. Lack of accountability of governmental and voluntary agencies. 

5. Lack of effective programs for health and family life education. 

6. Lack of coordinated planning for the resolution of the nation’s 
medical programs. 

7. The cost of medicine, particularly ‘.vhen prescribed by brand 
name, often prohibits the marginally poor from following their 
medical programs; 

8.4a The Task Force recommends that adequate health care be an 
inherent legal right of every American. Fulfillment of this right 
requires the development of a national health plan that will include 
the following elements: 

1. Universal coverage for all residents of the United States. 

No one shall be denied participation because of income, race, creed, 
color, geographical location, age, sex, citizenship status, or for any 
other reason. 

2. Comprehensive health services available to all. The following 
types of health services should be provided: preventive, diagnostic, 
therapeutic, rehabilitative, health maintenance, and health related 
custodial care. 

3. High quality health care must be delivered. Program support 
should be restricted to those providers who meet standards of quality, 
effectiveness, and efficiency determined by regional accrediting 
bodies composed of health care professionals and consumers of 
health services. 

4. Equal access to health care delivery system. Comprehensive and 
specialized health services should be distributed throughout the 
nat'on in accordance with the population as a whole and poverty 
an a* areas in particular. 

5. Development of additional manpower. Federal monies should 
be made available to stimulate the development of educational 
facilities for the training of health personnel. Federal traineeships, 
loans, and grants to health care training institutions should be used 
to stimulate the entry of individuals to the health professions. 
Supplemenary funds should be made available to students from 
poverty backgrounds and to the institutions that train them. A 
related program to recruit and train paraprofessional personnel must 




199 



IS 7 



I 



State and Local 
Responsibility 



Hunger and Health 
Care 



O 

ERIC 

MMiflifiir 2QQ 



be implemented and must include built-in opportunities for 
additional training and upward mobility. 

6. Federal financial incentives to guarantee effective distribution 
of health care services. Economic incentives should be used to 
promote an adequate distribution of personnel and facilities so that 
rural and ghetto areas may have access to a full range of health 
services. 

7. Federal support for medical research should receive a high 
priority. Special efforts should be made available to support research 
designed to identify and solve the special health problems of ethnic 
minority groups, such as sickle cell anemia. 

8.4b At the state and local levels, the following is recommended: 

1. Consumer participation in policy making . At each level of service 
delivery, consumers, representative of the service area of the facility 
or service, must have the opportunity to participate, along with 
health care professionals, in the development of policy and the 
evaluation of the overall impact of the service delivery unit. 

2. Attention to case finding and public education. Regardless of the 
quality of health care services, these services will not be 
comprehensive or adequate for thousands of Americans unless 
outreach programs are included which provide health education 
and screening activities, transportation services, rehabilitative, and 
follow-up care. The system should provide that health personnel 
reach the consumer at his level of need within the community. 
Specific efforts must be directed to health and family life education 
within the community and school system and the maximum 
development of public health facilities and community resources. 

3. Treatment of minors. While under normal circumstances it is 
prudent to involve parents or legal guardians of a minor in his 
treatment plan, the public welfare will better be served by removing 
barriers that prevent minors from seeking care. It is therefore 
important to enable health care personnel to provide treatment and 
counseling to minors without the involvement of their parents in the 
following problem areas: drug abuse, birth control, and veneral 
disease . State and local laws should be changed to facilitate 

this practice. 

4. Abortion. It is recommended that the concept of abortion be 
removed from the legal arena and left to a decision that may be 
reached between the doctor and his patient. 

5. Voluntary sterilization should be made available to those who 
wish it. 

6. We condemn legislation or acts which promote involuntary 
sterilization because we believe that it is a step toward genocide 
of poor people. 

8.4c During the period of phasing out the present welfare system 
the problem of hunger persists. The Task Force recommends that the 
Administration and Congress address itself to the question of 
hunger in America immediately. We recommend: 

1. That the President declare a national hunger emergency and use 
the authority he has to assure that no American in need goes without 
Federal food assistance; 






2. That the Food Stamp program be expanded to every appropriate 
political subdivision in the nation; 

3. That the budget request for fiscal year 1972 for the Food 1 Stamp 
Program be increased to 2.75 billion dollars to accomplish 
recommendations 1. and 2., and 3.5 billion for fiscal year 1973, 

4. That the Department of Agriculture henceforth base Food 
Stamp Value of Coupon Allotment on the low-cost Food P.an 
($134 per month fot a family of four); 

5. The Task Force opposes any “Cash-Out" of rood Stamps m a 
guaranteed income proposal unless that cash-out is on a dollar-for- 

dollar basis. 


Recreation 


8 5 There is a continuing need for better recreation programs 
serving poor youth in both urban and rural areas- One of the most 

immediate needs of poor youth is in recreational fac.lmes n the.r 
own neighbdrhoods to give them “something to do Adequately 
funded recreation programs, proposed by poor youth themselves 
could yield numerous benefits in areas such as crime, drug abuse, 
education, and env/ronment. 

Federal aid for youth recreation programs has been severely limited 
in the past, consisting mainly of projects initiated by OEO groups 
at the local level or through the Mayors' Youth Opportunity projects 
funded by the President's Council on Youth Opportunity in the 
nation's 50 largest cities. These efforts have been who ly madequate 
in meeting recreational needs of young people. Most other Fede 
recreation programs provide funds only for the building of Parks, 
lakes and other large public works in recreation programs which 
are not accessible to youth in poverty areas. 


Youth-Originated 

Programs 


8.5a Because the interest of young people in the country varies so 
greatly from region to region and community to commumtyjtis 
difficult to propose Federal legislation to meet this need^ With 
these difficulties in mind, the Task Force has drafted the fo owing 
recommendation which we think can lay the basic groundwork for 
improving the nation’s recreation resources for young peop e. 

we recommend there be established in the appr^riate Federal 
agency a national youth recreation program which would receive 
funds V from Congress to fund youth-originated recreation proposals 
from young people across the country. There would only be two 
limitations on the type of project which this agency would funcL 
(a) that it would be a recreation project proposed by poor youth fo 
their neighborhoods; and (b) that the programs should not compete 
with or duplicate existing private effort, unless that effort is not 
in fact serving poor youth. 


ERJC 


Implementation: There would be a number of details which would 
have to be worked out to insure that maximum utilization was made 
of thp funds available. In most communities, Community Action 
Programs, Local Development Districts or Mayors' Youth Opportunity 
Offices could be used as clearinghouse offices for youth-originated . 
proposals from their areas. The Task Force recommends that 
$10 000 000 be made available on a demonstration basis to test 
the effectiveness of such a program for one year. Six months .after 
the initial funding c* such recreation programs, they should be 
reviewed by the community which they serve to determine whether 

■iss ,•?„ 



201 



funding should continue. The level of program funding should 
automatically increase with a downward shift in the value of the 
dollar. Persons who are sympathetic with the economically and 
culturally deprived should be appointed in every state and territory 
of the IJ.S. to inform poor youth of the recreational and cultural 
activities available in their neighborhoods. 

In funding recreation programs in accordance with this 
recommendation, special attention should be given to areas such 
as Indian reservations where few if any recreational facilities exist. 

It is also recommended that the public schools do their part in 
providing recreational facilities by allowing their gyms and other 
facilities to be used by youth on weekends, after schools hours, 
and throughout the summer. 



8.6 Manpower programs in the past have not adequately dealt with 
the employment problems of poor youth. Poor youth have been 
trained for irrelevant jobs which do not offer them opportunities for 
upward mobility. They have not been given the training and education 
necessary for securing self-satisfying jobs in their own communities. 
Therefore, we recommend that the following program be 
implemented: 

1. A national service-learning program should be established to serve 
all poor youth between the ages of 14 and 24. 

2. Participants in this program should receive, in payment for their 
services, a salary of no less than the minimum wage, with 
provisions for fringe benefits and salary increase on the basis 

of merit. 

3. Participants should be trained for development of specific skills 
suited to their need for upward mobility. They should receive 
academic credit and also documentation of their skills which could 
be used as a job qualification. 

4. Adequate supportive services should be provided, including 
counseling, health services, and provision for transportation to work. 

5. Length of participation in the program should vary with 
individual skill and needs. 

6. A follow-up program should be established to ensure placement 
in an open job market after participation in this program. 

Implementation: A national body, separate from any existing body, 
should be established and authorized to administer this program 
and all existing youth manpower programs. It would contract and 
make grants to local public and private agencies which would conduct 
service-learning programs, and it would develop and encourage 
greater participation by state and local institutions and agencies. 

An advisory Board, composed of 51 percent youth, would be 
established on a national and local level to advise and make 
recommendations to the national and local administering bodies 
in the areas of program planning and coordination. 

Education and training of youth participants should take priority 
over administrative costs when determining economic allocations. 





in areas where the local economy cannot support this program, 
such as Indian reservations, Appalachia, migrant camps and rural 
areas, funds should be allocated by the Federal government to 
develop and implement this program. 

A special committee, consisting of a youth majority, should 
be established to ensure the implementation of the listed 
recommendations. 


Nationalization of 
Appalachia Coal 
Mines 


8.7 In Appalachia, strip mining has caused injury to miners, black 
lung disease, and the destruction of natural resources. In addition, 
the natural resources of Appalachia are mined with very little 
benefit accruing to the people of the region. This leads to only 
one conclusion: the industry must be nationalized or preferably 
Appalachianized so that the people will have the power to halt the 
needless death and human suffering and be able to reclaim the 
wealth generated from mining industry which is rightfully theirs. 


Appalachian Mountain 
Authority 


8.7a An Appalachian Mountain Authority, similar to the Tennessee 
Valley Authority, should be created to own and operate the mining 
industry for the people of Appalachia. The wealth accrued from this 
ownership should be invested in needed public projects for the 
uplift of the Appalachian Region. 


Abolishment of Strip 
Mining 


8.7b Federal legislation should be proposed immediately to abolish 
strip mining as a legitimate process for the extraction of coal from 
the earth. 


Office of Economic 
Opportunity 


8.8 Of all 0E0 programs CAP comes closest to serving the poor 
because it comes closest to being a client-oriented program. Under 
CAP guidelines residents of a poverty community are expected to 
draw up their short and long-range plans and priorities for a local 
war on poverty and then wage the battle. 

And it is to these recommendations from the low-income residents 
that the CAP programs must give their first priorities. This procedure 
insures the adherence to the mandate of 1964 legislation bringing 
0E0 into being. The mandate guarantees that the poor will play a 
major role in establishing the programmatic priorities that directly 
affect their lives. 

The philosophy of felt need by the poor is only viable and effective 
when CAP administrators and CAP boards and local officials reiuse 
the temptation of superimposing their values upon the will o, 
the poor. 

If some CAP programs have failed to respond to the needs of the poor, 
the fault lies not in the basic OEO philosophy, but rather in the 
failure to honor the premise that the people affected must have 
a powerful voice in determining their destiny. 

We strenuously object to the recent arbitrarily imposed across-the- 
board reduction in funding for all CAP programs. 


2°1 

A ^ 


CAP funding should instead be based upon the degree to which a 
local CAP program responds to programmatic priorities established 
by its low-income recipients. 



Coal Mining; 
Minority Report 



Right to Life of 
Unborn Child; 

Minority Report 



8-9 The coal mining minority group feels that the Poverty Task 
Force as a whole was not aware of the true nature of strip mining and 
mine safety regulation issues. Furthermore, specific information 
was not presented to the Task Forces. Neither was there adequate 
discussion upon the recommendation as adopted by the Poverty 
Task Force. Therefore, we wish to offer a minority opinion and 
alternative recommendations. 

1. A severance tax should be placed upon all coal. The revenue 
from this tax should be distributed to the state and local governments 
on a 40-60 percent basis respectively. 

2. The minority group recognizes that strip mining is detrimental 

to both the physical and social environment. We further acknowledge 
that some strip mining can be accomplished without serious 
permanent damage to the environment. It is recognized that certain 
geographical features are conducive to strip mining and others are 
not. Thus the minority opinion is that a Federal mining agency 
should be established to formulate and execute strict strip mining 
regulations. A possible implementation of this could be through 
the establishment of a Federal agency along the lines of the Federal 
Reserve Board. No one associated with mining could serve in 
this agency. 

It is recommended that this agency formulate and enforce safety 
regulations for all mining. 

This agency should formulate and present to the local, state and 
Federal governments any proposals that would improve area 
development of coal mining regions. 

(This statement was presented by a minority caucus. The Task Force 
considered it and voted to include it as part of the record. The Task 
Force also re-affirmed its support of the majority recommendation 
on coal mining.) 



ed by our Constitution, respected 
as a most precious possession. This, 
not only to the strong and affluent, 
and the handicapped. It must be 
,, but especially for those who are 
least able to defend and pro ect themselves. This defense must be 
embodied in the attitudes and actions of everyone in our society. 
But above all, it must receive the protection of our laws. 



8.10 The right to life is guarz 
by society, and considered by 
if meaningful at all, must app 
but also to the weak, the poc 
defended and protected for 



Among the weakest and most in need of protection is the unborn 
child. This child has the right to be born. This right must be 
respected and protected. Its existence cannot be left to the private 
determination or whim of other individuals. It cannot protect itself, 
but deserves the defense and protection of a society which cares 
for its weakest members. This protection must find expression 
in laws which prohibit abortion. 



Moreover, the ill-effects of illegal abortion must be overcome, not 
by legalizing abortion, but by educational programs, service and 
action programs, and by enforcement of those laws which prohibit the 
killing of the unborn child. 



(This statement was presented in response to Section 8.4b4 of the 
recommendation on Health of the Task Force on Poverty.) 



Housing Appendix 



Rural Housing 



J 




8.11 Housing Recommendation of The Task Force on Poverty. 
Strategies for Implementation — committee report on Housing. 



a.Jla Two-thirds of the inadequate housing in the United States 
is found in rural areas. Furthermore, the depressed economic and 
housing conditions in rural America are the cause of the mass 
migration of the rural poor into urban ghettos. In light of these acts, 
the housing workshop proposes the following: 



(a) The establishment of a 5-year Emergency Rural Home 
Development Agency, as proposed by the National Rural Housing 
Alliance. This agency would be charged with the responsibility 
to fulfill all rural housing needs within 5 years. 

(b) That until such time as a guaranteed adequate income consistent 
with the figures of the BLS is available for all Americans, each 
American who is unable to pay for a dwelling-unit due to low 
income must be provided with a “safe, .decent and sanitary 
dwelling” at the government’s expense. : 

(c) That the institution of a guaranteed adequate income is 
inseparable from the fulfillment of housing needs. The 
low-income persons who are unable to provide themselves with 
other needs are also unable to provide themselves with 
adequate housing. 

(j) The establishment of regional rotating funds to supply loans for 
pre-mortgage costs and the homeowners' share of construction 
costs. 

(e) The establishment of regional component housing industries 
making use of local natural resources as materials for building 
low-income component housing. 

(f) The assimilation of Farmer's Home Administration into the 
National Agency for Adequate Housing. 

(g) The restructuring of housing efforts for Indians, including: 

(1) the abolition of the practice that Indians cannot obtain FHA 
loans because they are wards of government. 



(2) the abolition of BIA control over Indian land. It is 
dehumanizing to the Indian that he has no say over the control 
and disbursement of his real property. 



(3) the institution of complete community control over decisions 
relating to housing on the reservation. This will include free 
choice to: (a) institute a self-help program whereby the 
government supplies the materials and employs trained, 
unemployed Indians at a competitive wage to build their own 
homes, if they so wish: or (b) reject the self-help program, at 
which point it would become the responsibility of the National 
Agency for Adequate Housing to build homes that are judged by 
the tribal council to be consistent with the lifestyles and culture 
of the tribe. 



(4) full implementation of the 1970 Farm Labor Act. 

* £n :- > 



rtAC 



203 



(h) Serving the housing needs of migrant workers, including: 

(I) providing specific funds for mortgages for ‘those migrant 
workers who are leaving the migrant stream. 



(2) centralized camps providing housing and social services 
for the migrant workers who are forced to leave the migrant cycle. 



(3) rest stations every 250 miles on the major routes taken 
by migrant workers. 



(4) providing mobile homes for those migrant workers who 
have the desire and capability to use them. 

? (i) We would like to focus attention on the housing needs of Alaska. 

Because of the distance of Alaska from the continental U.S. and 
the distance of Alaska's welfare from the minds of people in the 
continental U.S., only a pittance of Federal money ever gets 
to Alaska. 

Financial 8.11b Since adequate provisions of low income housing are directly 

Mechanisms dependent on increased allocations of money; and since the Federal 

government is the only feasible source of the sums needed, we call 
for a commitment of massive Federal funding in the low-income 
housing field. 

(a) The key to home ownership and property maintenance is a 
financially sound family structure. For this reason we call for 
the adoption of a Guaranteed Adequate Income based on the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics' lower standard budget. 

(b) The administration must apply pressure to the nation's financial 
institutions to insure that they participate fully in Federal 
mortgage porgrams such as section 235 of the Housing Act. 

1 (c) The President must use the power and prestige of his office to 

inspire in the American people a commitment to fulfill the goal 
of a “safe, decent and sanitary home for all Americans." 

(d) Outmoded and restrictive zoning and building codes should be 
reviewed in order to allow the use of new technological 
breakthroughs in housing. 

(e) The use of the Section 23 teasing program should be greatly 
expanded; a requirement should be instituted that 25 to 50 
percent of the occupants of any Section 23 building be 

low income. 

Urban Neighborhoods S.llc We must develop an understanding of the role of the 

neighborhood. Too often we put a new house into a tormented 
neighborhood only to be surprised when the house is destroyed. 

(a) The administration should state publicly the inseparable 
relationship between poor housing, poor health, racism and 
inadequate education. Further, the administration must commit 
itself to solve all these problems in concert. 

(b) The President must make use of the prestige of his office to 
assure that all Americans accept the necessity for a full social 




onA 



1 

i 

\ 

Maintenance and 
Rehabilitation of 
the Community 


and economic mix in their community. Nothing short of an 
outright declaration by the President can be effective. 

(c) No Federal program can successfully be imposed on a 
neighborhood without the responsible participation of the 
community. 

(d) A metropolitan housing policy should be devised that can 
effectively assist in achieving the previous two points. This 
policy should give more than lip service to these goals, using 
capital incentives for compliance, and withdrawal of funds 
for non-compliance. 

(e) Metropolitan areas should be compelled to develop neighborhood 
scale plans for each community. These plans should be 
created by the community residents with the help of advocate 
planners assigned to the community by the National Agency 

for Adequate Housing. 

m A point of emphasis in these plans should be community 

determination of allocations for recreational facilities, parking, 
green spaces, etc. 

(s) A commitment of NAAH’s resources to supportive services for the 
vitality of the community; i.e., day care, drug rehabilitation 
centers, youth centers and community health services. It is 
further recommended that these services be free to all 
community people and that community participants manage the 

projects at all levels. 

8.11d In order to break the pattern of slum growth, comprehensive 
community maintenance must be instituted. We must stop the 
wasteful cycle of allowing communities to deteriorate to the point 
vhere the only cure is massive demolition. We call for a commitment 
to retain every existing neighborhood in America as a viable and 
healthy social unit. We recommend: 

(a) A significant commitment to the rehabilitation of existing housing. 

<b) That a firm commitment by NAAH be made to deal with 

community capital improvements by matching on a 2:1 ratio 
all monies expended for residential property improvements. 
Capital improvements could be in the form of playgrounds, 
paving, etc. 

fc') That private landlords and homeowners be offered relief of 
assessment for improvements made to their properties. In e 
case of landlords, incentives should be given only with the 
provision that tenants that live in the dwellings before the 
improvements will also live in the dwellings after the 
improvements and that their rent levels will remain constant. 


o v 
ERIC 


fd) That the unemployed be given on-the-job training in the 

construction and other vocations related to the building trade on 
location in their own neighborhood. Further, we recommend 
that job training wages be set at a minimum of at least $3.00 
an hour. Again, we stress maximum community participation 
and that work is optional, not mandatory. 

20 5 * : '- S 



207 



Legal Rights 



New Technology 



New Towns 



O 

ERIC 



8. lie We affirm our belief that all people have a right to a safe, 
decent and sanitary home. In order to facilitate this basic human 
right, we recommend the following: 

(a) That all tenants in both public and private housing have the 
right of a fair hearing prior to eviction and that NAAH provide 
counsel to all tenants. 

(b) That all tenants be given the right not to pay rent to public or 
private landlords if the dwelling unit does not satisfy the 
requirement of a '‘safe, decent and sanitary dwelling. " 

(c) That a national housing code be developed by NAAH and that 
fines be imposed on landlords that do not comply; funds to go 
to tenant organizations. 

(d) That funds for tenant organizations come directly from NAAH 
upon request from the community in both public and private 
housing and that all monies are controlled by community people. 

(e) That tenants are guaranteed the right to bargain collectively with 
landlords and that a mechanism be set up to deal with 
tenant grievances. 

(f) That tenants have the right to withhhold portions or whole 
payments of rent if the tenant chooses to make the necescury 
improvements to the property. 

(g) That in public housing on all levels the tenants represent 51 
percent of the decision-making body. 

(h) That HEW cooperate with NAAH to make sure that the housing 
needs of welfare recipients are not overlooked. 

8. Ilf We make the following recommendations on housing 
technology: 

(a) The President must use the prestige and influence of his office 
to get from the building trades unions a commitment to a 
program of production-line, low-income component housing. 
Without this, no significant progress can be made in alleviating 
the housing emergency. 

(b) Component housing technology should be developed to make 
use of the specific natural resources of a given region. This will 
allow for a myriad of new regional industries and will greatly 
reduce the shipping costs of the components. In addition, our 
country will be able to return to indigenous regional styles. 

(c) Building codes and zoning ordinances must be revised to allow 
for the use of component and mobile housing. 

(d) We criticize Operation Breakthrough as a non-committal 
showpiece to substitute for real action. It's time to stop 
demonstration projects and get down to work. 

8.11g We make the following recommendations concerning New 
Towns: 

(a) Publicly owned lands should be transferred and used, wherever 
possible and feasible, for the development of new communities. 




with a high percentage 01 iuw ... 



Retooling Industry 



Negative Factors 



( h •) Throughout the nation there are cities of under 100,000 
<b) population. These cities should be aided in efforts to provide 
jobs and services so that they will grow significantly. This is 
imperative if we hope to minimize the misery involved in the 
continued mass migration to megalopolis. 



8.11h We make the following recommendations concerning economic 
conversion: 



(a) We call for the President to appoint a biue-nbbon commission 
to make specific recommendations as to how our country can 
successfully go from a wartime to a peacetime economy. 



(b) 



Component housing offers many opportunities for retooling 
existing factories. This is a key element in a successful attack 
on the housing emergency. 



8.11i We make the following additional recommendations. 



(a) 



Social regulations controlling the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads 
must be strengthened at least to the point where BPR must pay 
for and construct two dwelling units for each one it demolishes 



(b) There must be a significant cutback in funds for BPR. Those 
funds should be redirected to urban mass transit. 



(O Finally the greatest single negative factor interfering with 

progress in the area of housing is the attitude of our present 
administration. We have an insensitive administration that is 
wholly and consciously unwilling to respond to a clear crisis. 



209 





I 




Preamble 



All recommendations were approved by the respective workshops 
and discussed by the whole Task Force. 

We, as members of the Task Force on Race and Minority G ™P 
Relations, have worked from the following assumptions and beliefs. 
The majority of this Task F: -ce realizes that it is impossible to deal 
collectively with the concerns of minority groups. We reject the 
American concept of the “melting pot". Accordingly we rather chose 
to recognize the unique features of the cultures of the various 
mSf groups and their right to determine the effects of racsm 

on them. 

Whv does white America need this sickness of racism? It is up to 
white America to take the responsibility now for this sickness w ic 
it has caused and perpetuated. 

White America cannot lean on oppressed minority groups for 
solution of the problems of all Americans, oppressors and opp 
All Americans, especially the youth, must become aware of the 
discrepancy between the preachings of what should be done, 
what is actually done. 

As a result this Task Force on Race and Minority Group Relations 
Sccidad to deal effectively and realistically with the problem of 
racism in the United States. This Task Force recognizes that any 
dS or procrastination on the part of those with power to 
implement the following recommendations perpetuates the very 
real and progressing cancer of white hegemony and non-white 
subjugation. 



Scientific Racism 



.1 Scientific Racism which stems from faulty premises and 
oDularizes the myth of inferior and superior peoples and their 
pspective cultures is the most insidious form of racism because it 
ermeates the value and moral structure of American society. 



Asian Caucus 
Report 




2 The Asian Caucus of the Task Force on Race and Minority Group 
Lmhs met to inform the President and the nation of the concerns 

'Asian-Americans. 

e like several other ethnic minority caucuses, face sii. ilar 
•o'blems brought about by American institutional racism. »»« 
rongly S fee° that this nation must recognize the Asian-Amencan 
jncerns along with the other ethnic minority concerns. Often 
-American is ignored in the discussion of racism m the 
iscussion of representation in boards, commiWOTS .andl . 

nd in the discussion of America as a whole. The lack of 
sian-Americans in established institutions is of great concern 

he Asian-American Caucus strongly believes that ethnic minorities 
eed not conform to the white American culture and standards. 

Ve believe that America should be a pluralistic society made up 
if all races and cultures. 

Ve endorse all twelve recommendations of the Task Force. However, 
because we feel that the implementation should be more specific 
and strategic, we have made a series of additions and modifications. 
Ne have also added two recommendations dealing with the repeal 
of the emergency detention provisions of the Internal Security Act 
of 1950, and the creation of New American Centers to aid new 
immigrants in the United States. 



213 



21G 



Oppose Racism; 
Presidential Leadership 



Textbooks Must 
Reflect Racial 
Diversity 



Understanding of 
Racial Cultures 



Bilingual 

Education Program 



9.2a American institutions must actively oppose racism. 

The Asian Caucus joins the Task Force in naming institutional racism 
as a major problem in American society, and it agrees that more 
than proclamations are needed. 

Implementation: We recommend that the President of the United 
States officially denounce racism and initiate broad discussions 
across the country by community groups, civic and fraternal 
organizations, and churches and other religious bodies on national, 
state, and local levels. The Asian Caucus recommends further that 
these discussions be held with the purpose of reviewing institutional 
racism, and that the progress of these reviews be publicized in 
newspapers, on television, radio, and through other news media. 

9.2b Those American textbooks which are used in elementary 
schools, secondary schools, and colleges must more clearly and 
honestly reflect the diverse racial and ethnic heritage of this country. 

The Asian Caucus recognizes the concern and need for accurate 
minority representation in history, literature, music, art, and all 
curricula. The history of the Chinese in America is rarely mentioned 
although it has played a significant part in the history of the building 
of America. The history of the Japanese concentration camps is an 
ugly blot in the history of the American democracy, and it is never 
mentioned. The rich classical and folk literature and arts of the Asian 
and Pacific peoples are rarely studied as part of world literature 
and arts. 

Implementation: The Asian Caucus therefore not only recommends 
that students, parents, teachers, boards of education, school per- 
sonnel, book publishers, and authors demand the inclusion of Asian 
perspective in all facets of education, but that the Federal government 
establish facilities and provide funds for the research of the true 
histories of minority groups in America and for research into 
curricuia for students at all grade levels. 

9.2c All Americans should be encouraged to know the culture of 
each racial and ethnic group in the country. The Asian Caucus could 
well identify with this recommendation of the T *»sk Force. 
Misconceptions as to their cultures " ' is were many at the 

Conference, as were their own misco, _ P uonsoi other ethnic groups. 

Implementation: The Asian Caucus therefore recommends that 
Federal and state agencies make funds available to racial and ethnic 
minorities for the establishment of regional and national non-profit 
cultural educational centers, as the Task Force did, with the 
suggestion that the Federal government also fund a pilot project to 
take place at the University of Ffawaii’s Center For Cross Cultural 
Training and Research at Hilo. This pilot project would bring white 
members of large American institutions to workshops in sensitivity to 
the understanding of peoples of other ethnic cultures and vice versa. 

9.2d Bilingual-Bi-cultural education must become a reality. 

This proposal is particularly of concern and importance to the Asian 
Caucus, as there is a great need for bilingual and bicultural edu- 
cation for Asian immigrants to America. Bilingual programs do exist 
for Chinese immigrants, but there are not nearly enough programs 
to meet the need, and practically none exist for Filipino immigrants 
who have a great need for them. 



211 



214 



Youth Participation in 
Decision-Making 


Implementation: The Asian Caucus therefore recommends that 

Federal subsidies be made available to states so t a ry 

with at least 10 percent of its studerts for whom English is a secon_ 

language could provide * free bilingual-bi-calturaueducahnn orogr,r 

9.2e Youth must br *ven more decis; -> making responsib ties, 
especially in areas wmch directly affect their lives. 

The Asian Caucus asserts that by the very dedication and hard work 
that youth have put into the White House Conference on ou 
they demonstrate that they are both willing and capable of commiting 
themselves to effecting legitimate political and socia change. /\ 
the same time, the minority youth on the various Task Forces 
shown clear responsibility to the elimination of racism. 

The Asian Caucus therefore also recommends to all Federal, state, 
and local governments as well as private institutions which serve 
youth to include young people as a significant part of their pol cy 
making bodies, and that those organizations wh'ch serve mmonty 
youth include minority young people as a significant part of thm 
policy-making bodies. This would include lowering the age restrict o 
on elective positions to 18 or 21 wherever possible, and involving 
youth in full participation in the planning, policy-making, and imple- 
mentation of issues which affect them. 


Job Opportunities 
and Testing 


9 2f A national campaign should be waged to broaden meaningful 
part-tie anS full-time job opportunities for racial and ethnic minority 

youth. 

The Asian Caucus recognizes the position of the Task Force that 
there should exist for every American a standard of .iving below 
which no one would be expected to live, and the fact that many youth 
must work to remain in school and/or support the,, fam hes. 

As members of a minority group, the As, an Caucus coulc i also 
strongly relate to the fact that youth unemployment is heaviest in 
minority communities. 

Implementation: Therefore, the Asian Caucus joins the Task Force in 
Icomlerd ng that the President and Congress initiate programs 
toeTher create or generate meaningful employment. opportunm es for 
minority youth 16 to 24 in school and out, and that this work 
should either be apprentice in nature or give youth s ^ e °PP ortun,ty 
x n see the wide variety of jobs which are available. The Asian 
Caucus further recommends that one step in such change would be 
fhe administration of equivalence tests to the Civil Serv*e Exam, 
nation to racial minorities and the poor who often cannot qualify o 
a job for which they are capable because they ca "^ 
standardized Civil Service Examination (that is, standards d 
American white values). 


Coordinated 

Services 


9 2g Coordinated recreational, educational, and counseling services 
must be made available for all youth throughout the country. 

The Asian Caucus expresses particular concern for the lack of 
centers where youth might gather for recreational or educational 
purposes in their communities. Asian poverty communities such as 
Chinatown, San Francisco, urgently need space, facilities, equip- 
ment, and staff for both day and night recreation for youth. 

Implementation: The Asian Caucus supports the Task Force/s 
recommendation for joint community action in the establishment of 



Buildings already established with space and equipment and suitable 
for recreation, library use, and tutoring. State and local governments 
and agencies should staff, equip and fund such projects. 

9.2h The (radio and television) media which lease the public air 
waves must begin to better serve their entire listening and viewing 
audience. 

The Asian Caucus strongly agrees with the Task Force position that 
the American public is badly served by the broadcast media. Asians 
feel that television has bee r> one of the foremost perpetuators of 
Asian stereotypes. Rarely are Asian actors and actresses cast in 
any television roles, but those who are most often past as cooks, 
laundrymen, sly spies, or exotic peoples. Never are they portrayed 
as the family next door. 

The Asian Caucus also believes that almost no time f is devoted to 
Asians in public service time, even in San Francisco, wfjere Asians 
comprise about 15 percent of the total population. THerefore, the 
Asian Caucus joins the Task Force on Race and Minority Relations in 
recommending to the President that he appoint able, involved 
members of all minority groups to the Federal Communications 
Commission, and that the FCC look to providing more public service 
time at prime time to serve the interests of the community. This 
recommendation is closely related to Recommendation #3, in that 
public service time could be used to broadcast cultural events and 
documentaries. 

Implementation: The Asian Caucus feels that community control of 
the airwaves is essential for obtaining responsive broadcasting. 

In addition, it recommends that the Federal Communications 
Commission should offer scholarships to train Asians and other 
minority groups members for media staff in order that the 
coordination and presentation of the news be made by people whose 
attitudes reflect the thinking of the minority communities served. 
The Asian Caucus also recommends that the FCC require applications 
for renewal of licenses to be made public and to be made at least 
three months before the expiration date to ensure public access to 
and time for study, consent, or dispute of the station's licence 
renewal. 

9.2i The concept of educational exchanges of students, faculty, and 
administration of different racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds 
within a city or state should be endorsed and initiated. 

Implementation: The Asian Caucus felt that few people were aware 
of their Asian communities, and that both the members and non- 
members of the community suffered by it. Some people know about 
Chinatown, San Francisco, for example, and some have even visited 
it. But few know about the poverty, sickness, mental illness, 
juvenile delinquency, and general frustration which goes on there. 
Consequently, most people know a Chinatown which exists only for 
the tourists, and little concern is given to solving its real problems. 

Implementation: Therefore the Asian Caucus recommends that 
school boards and communities throughout the country initiate 




Puerto Rico 

Appropriations 


dialogue with other school systems, inside and outside of their 
state to determine the sibility and desirability of educational 

exchangess. 

9 2i The basis on which Federal expenditures are determined for 
youth activities should be applied equally to Puerto R.co as to the 

fifty states. 

The Asian Caucus joins the Task Force recommending to the 

President and the Congress that the special formula ^ ' nTthe^ame 
is used for Puerto Rico appropriations be discontinued and the same 

basis used for the 50 states be instituted instead. 


Solving Social 
Problems 


9 2k A National Minority Youth Foundation should be established by 
the Federal government to provide grants to private non-profit youth 
organizations which offer innovative approaches to solving the 
social problems of racial and ethnic minority youth. 

Implementation: The Asian Caucus believes that the National 
Minority Youth Foundation would be important in spotlighting 
concerns of minority youth, and that such a funding source is 
badly needed for programs which are worthy but poor in Asian 

communities. 

Implementation: The Asian Caucus joins the Task Force in recom- 
mending to the President and Congress of the United States that they 
investigate the possibility of establishing such a nations o y 
the desire of making it a reality within the next three years. 


Community Control of 
Indian Education 


9 21 The past approach to Indian education should be abandoned by 
the Federal government with the power to make decisions given to the 
Indian people themselves. 

The Asian Caucus joins the Task Force in recommending to the 
Federal government that Indian communities be given the right to 

control and operate their own schools. It is also School ^dis+ricts 

Johnson-O’Malley funds which are presently given to school d s nets 
to helo Indian children in public schools be channeled directly to 

and communities, thus allowing the Indian ~«» 
to either have far greater influence in those public schools where 
large percentages of their childr ’ «*l*nd or perm,, therr V - 

their own school systems. 


Repeal Emergency 
Detention Law 

1 

1 


9.2m Title II, the Emergency Detention provision of the /nter "«' 
Security Act of 1950 should be repealed immediately by the Congress 

of the United States. 

This law authorizes the detention, imprisonment, and relocation of 
American citizens during times of national emergency based upon 
mere suspicion without any proof that they have committed any 
crime. It authorizes on a continuing basis what was ^one to the 
Japanese-Americans living in the United States during World War II. 

During World War II, thousands of Japanese-Americans were 
accused of being dangerous conspirators with the enemy, althoug 
not one was ever arrested for espionage. They were forcibly 
evacuated from their homes without compensation, and relocated in 
isolated detention camps as prisoners in various parts of the 
country. Such acts were not only unconstitutional, but fully racist. 
They denied the judicial process of law, and they singled out an 



ethnic minority group to imprison and punish. The Japanese were 
shown no evidence or just cause for their evacuation, nor were they 
accorded the right of fair trial. In the same war, America was also 
fighting Germany, yet the German-Americans were not evacuated 
and relocated in concentration camps. 

As long as this law remains on the books, the rights of American 
citizens are in jeopardy. For many years many people have worked 
hard to have Title II repealed, but up until now they have met with 
little success. Last year its repeal was passed by the Senate, but 
not by the House, This year, a bill to repeal it has just been 
unanimously voted out of the House Judiciary Committee. 

The Task Force on Race and Minority Relations opposes the efforts of 
the House Internal Security Committee to amend the Emergency 
Detention Provision of tha Internal Security Act of 1950, and urges 
its total repeal by the House of Representatives and the Senate of 
the United States. 

9.2n “New American Centers’’ should be established in areas where 
settlement of foreign immigrants is heavy to assist immigrants in 
adjusting to the new life they find in the United States. The centers 
should be established by the Department of Health, Education and 
Welfare in conjunction with immigration officials. 



The proposal for New American Centers to assist immigrants 
recognizes the plight of peoples newly arrived from foreign countries 
to the United States. When Chinese, Filipinos, Puerto Ricans, 
Chicanos, and other groups come to this country, they face certain 
problems and have certain needs which only immigrants have. 

They do not speak English, and therefore, cannot seek jobs outside 
their own ethnic communities, and their children need intensified 
bi-lingual programs. Since many immigrants are forced to live in 
their ethnic ghettoes, they share a common language understanding, 
and way of iife. There is an increased need for clinics, hospitals, 
and public health services Crowded c- us mean more r'.ress, a 
' iglie e of disease, and less recreation space. Delinquency 
increases. 

Social service agencies are woefully inadequate in srving recent 
immigrants. Federally-sponsored New American Centers should 
be established, not to impose white American values upon the 
immigrants, but to teach them essential English and skills for 
adapting to American society. This wouid include oroviding day care 
centers for mothers who must work, offering English classes which 
would teach new Americans adequate English to .buy in American 
s+ores, use public transportation, register at hospitals, and perform 
other activities essential to daily life. Orientation classes should 
also give an understanding of the economic, political, and social 
systems which affect them. In addition, tutorial programs could 
be set up in these centers, as well as recreation p ograms for youth. 
The list of needs and possibilities is endless, but it should be 
emphasized that such programs would not deny^r suppress the 
native cultures of the new Americans, but respect it for enriching 
the American society as a whole. 

Implementation: The Asian Caucus, recommends that the United 
States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, in conjunction 
with the Bureau of Immigration, establish New American Centers 



in areas where immigrants settle in substantial numbers, seeking to 
enable immigrant people of other cultures to survive within the 
framework of the American society. 



Black Workshop 
Report 



9,3 We unanimously support the black United States Congressmen 
in their effort to get the Nixon Administration to respond to their 
questions concerning its handling of the problems relating to black 
people. 



Self-Determination 
for Blacks 



Education; Black 
Studies 



9.3a The present institutional structure of racism in America is 
unable and unwilling to change by itself. Only non-white oppressed 
people can develop viable opposition and create alternatives to 
these institutions. The survival of this socio-economic and political 
system depends upon the Federal government and other white 
institutions making available, on an unconditional basis, financial 
and technical resources to blacks specifically, and other oppressed 
people generally, in programs of self-determination. This investment 
should reflect at a minimum the annual military expenditure. 

It is essential to initiate a domestic plan to counteract the social 
and psychological disorders among blacks caused by white racism, 
i.e., drugs, prostitution, poor housing, etc. 

9.3b Resolved, That every school , black and white, receiving Federal 
funds, require Black Studies and require that blacks have 
representatives on the board which chooses curriculum and books. 



Foreign Policy 
with Non-White 
Nations 



O 

ERIC 



Employment Programs 
for Minorities 



219 



Black Studies: (1) The incorporation of black representation in all 
textbooks at ail educational levels. 

Course Structure: (1) Courses which impart the knowledge iec ssary 
for daily life (i.e. home management, employment, employment 
information, etc.) should be offered. (2) Courses should be offered 
to prepare non-college-bound youths for an adequate family 
income, (i.e. trade schools, vocational studies, etc.). 

Teaching Requirements: (1) “Humanism’' incorporated into the rules 
of teaching. (2) College level future teachers should be required to 
learn how to deal with the socially deprived, mentally retarded, the 
exceptional child, etc. Teachers should be granted tenure only after 
evaluation in terms of competence and effectiveness; and teaching 
resources should reflect the needs of all students. 

9.3c We recommend that United States foreign policy must be 
guided by the universal principle of “equality" of all peoples: (1) 

We demand a change in immigration policies to make entrance into 
the United States from black and white countries the same. (2) We 
demand an equality of foreign aid and assistance (technical and 
monetary) for all countries. (3) The United States must cease 
the investment and economic control (and therefore governmental 
control) which make developing nations of black and non-white 
countries become satellites of the U.S. (4) Promote the exchange 
of black personnel among diplomatic staff and terminate the 
promotion of division among blacks and other oppressed peoples. 

9.3d Institutional racism has manifested itself in the employment 
of racial and ethnic minority youths. This is evident in the j 

discrimination practices in apprenticeships and labor unions and i 

employment standards set by agencies which systematically exclude j 

2ip i 



Communication of 
WHCY Proposals 



Voter Registration 



Law and Justice 
are Biased 
Against Blacks 



d 

ERIC 




minorities because of their socio-economic background. The 
employment of minority youth is essentia! to the upward mobility 
of the black people. 

The Black Caucus resolves that the President of the United States, 
the Department of Labor, and national employment agencies and 
unions be advised by minorities affected by inequitable employment 
practice and initiate from their recommendation programs to 
counteract these conditions, and that: (1) All employment 
examinations be designed with questions relevant to the job 
sought. (2) Creation of labor force minimum quotas for minority 
labor involved in public works. (3) Extensive apprenticeship and 
on-the-job training with incentive pay be established and expanded 
among minority youths not enrolied or unable to enroll in school. (4) 
The Federal government establish programs for summer employment 
among minority students who depend on these earnings to continue 
their education. (5) A proportionate quota of the proposed revenue- 
sheing funds be raised by state governments for establishing 
apprenticeship and on-the-job training programs among minority 
youth. (6) Re-establishment and expansion of these programs such as 
ihe Neighborhood Youth Corps be immediately initiated in order to 
prevent frustration and sublimation of minority youth energies in 
lawless violence channels. (7) The Federal and state governments 
influence and solicit the establishment of industrial development in 
minority group areas which would utilize minorities in all levels of 
management and labor. 

9.3e All Federal authorities support the proposition that significant 
segments of the population are entitled to programing service which 
meets their needs and interest. The Supreme Court has stressed 
the public right “to receive suitable access” to ideas and problems 
of interest and concern to their communities. Be it hereby 
resolved that the Federal government recognize and dedicate 1/2 
hour per night of prime network time to the on-going task of reporting 
implementation of all resolutions formulated at the 1971 White 
House Conference on Youth. The total content of all productions will 
be controlled by minority youth. Programs wii! be produced by each 
specific ethnic group. 

9.3f Institutionally, the electoral process frustrates blacks and other 
minorities because of the power structure of the two major political 
parties. In regard to this, we recommend that: (1) A massive and 
concerted effort toward implementation of programs be made for 
greater vote registration as well as voter education. (2) Various 
federally funded institutions be established to insure adequate 
safeguards against intimidation and infraction of the rights of 
voters at the polls. 

9.3g Since its inception , the United States has maintained a racist 
and dual system of law enforcement and criminal justice. This has 
resulted in a disproportionate amount of black and other minorities 
being found guilty of crimes and the subsequent more severe 
sentences. Consequently, depending on the locality, penal institutions 
contain from 60 percent to 80 percent minorities despite the fact 
that these comprise less than 16 percent of the total population. 
Phrases such as “crime in the street" or “a man’s home is his 
castle,” “no-knock" laws and "search and seizure” techniques, 
have all contributed to making a law and order society and not a 
just society. The Black Caucus concluded that there can be no law and 
order today without the right combination of law-order and justice. 




Health and Welfare 



O 

ERIC 



To help achieve this, Federal, state, and local governments must 
insure that funds received under the Law Enforcement and Criminal 
Justice Act or direct grants from the Department of Justice are 
used to: (1) promote better police-community relations; (2) recruit 
more minority group policemen; (3) revamp courts; (4) humanize 
our penal institutions and improve the delivery system of justice 
as opposed to purchasing anti-riot equipment and other hardware 
which serves to further oppress ghetto residents. 

We are also concerned that too few juries consist of a “jury of peers” 
in cases involving blacks. 

Finally, we must reinstate for black people the system of justice 
which indicates that a person is innocent until proven guilty. The 
situation that surrounds black liberators suggest that the reverse is 
true — blacks are guilty until proven innocent. 

Why are drugs allowed to flourish in black communities? Get drugs 
out of our community. Stop the financiers. Stop the pushers. 

Why are young black women allowed to prostitute ui full view of 
observing police? Replace corrupt police with blacks who care. The 
connection between prostitution and drugs is obvious. 



When young blacks are imprisoned they are questioned by parole 
boards about political concepts; i.e., what do you think of the Black 
Panthers? The Muslims? Angela Davis? Questions normally asked 
whites about rehabilitation actions such as jobs, housing and 
sponsorship are not considered. These are institutional acts of 
“genocide.” 



&.3h We resolve that: (1) Funds for health care be made available 
to all black people to cover the full cost of doctor's fees, medicine, 
and hospitalization for both mental and physical health problems. 

(2) The black woman has the freedom to control her own body. It 
must remain her choice to decide whether and when she will give 
birth. (3) There be adequate prenatal and post-partem care for all 
black mothers and children. (4) Massive financial aid be invested into 
bringing the percentage of blacks in professional capacities in 
the field of medicine up to the percentage of blacks in the population 
as a whole. (5) Guaranteed annual income be instituted by the 
Federal government in accordance with its responsibility to 
“promote the general welfare” of its people. (We reject, however, the 
philosophy that in order for a human being to survive he must agree 
to perform degrading tasks in dead-end jobs for slave wages.) (6) 

The welfare system be humanized so as to reflect in its administrate 
a respect for the inherent worth of every individual. An individual 
whose dependence is the result of institutional racism at work on all 
levels of society must not be patronized and condescended to by 
those who have succeeded in the system at his expense and who 
continue to prosper solely because he exists. (7) The administrators 
of the welfare system be prohibited from requiring the acceptance 
of white standards of behavior, family structure, and culture of 
those black people who seek their rights under the system. 



Implementation: In order to implement the above recommendations, 
as well as those of the minority group caucuses: 



We recommend that the President create a cabinet level Department 
of Racial and Linguistic Minority Group Affairs; that this department 




221 



be headed by a member of the concerned groups; that its staff be 
composed of persons in proportion to the representation of these 
minorities in the national population; that this department be 
empowered to advise and make binding recommendations to all other 
departments, offices, and bureaus of the Federal government on 
their aspirations, programs, and staffing as these areas impinge 
on the rights and privileges of racial and linguistic minorities; that 
this department translate and interpret the desires and aspirations 
of racial and ethnic minorities to all other agencies of the Federal 
government; that it develop and submit legislation to the Congress of 
the United States representing the requirements and demands of 
its client groups; that it incorporate into its organization a legal 
staff which will represent minorities in class actions on all levels of 
the judicial system; that this department be charged with the 
implementation of the .^commendations of the Race and Minority 
Group Relations Task Force of the White House Conference on Youth 
as its first priority. 



Euro-American and 
White Ethnic 
Workshop 



National Youth 
Cultural Exchange 
Program 



Apprenticeship 

Opportunities 



9.4 The goal of our workshop is to explore the basic cause of racism 
and to determine what this group can do to encourage its 
elimination. In accordance with the Kerner Report we believe that 
a basic problem is white racist attitudes and institutional income. 
Many recommendations are made and will be proposed; however, we 
believe that recommendations will not be implemented effectively 
as long as white racist attitudes exist. 

With the belief that we need to re-educate our white people and 
ourselves, we have come up with the following suggestions for 
re-education and awareness of racism: 

Part of the reason for racism is the use of oppressed minority groups 
as scape goats for frustration that racist whites experience if. their 
lives and especially their work situation. 

One way to give white people an understanding of what it is to be 
discriminated against, is role playing exercises. 

We recommend that these exercises be studied and carried out in 
the context of, for instance, education and employment. 

9.4a We support the concept of the National Youth Cultural 
Exchange Program. Each year and especially in the summer, 
community groups, and community agencies hire groups of youth 
from their communities. This nation has racial and ethnic groups 
which have similar problems and are knowledgeable in their own 
problems and are not communicating as organizations as part of a 
national forum. If we could have a National Cultural Exchange 
Program the youth themselves. Blacks, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, 
Italians, Indians, Asians and youth from other ethnic and economic 
groups could go to other sites of community action with leaders and 
work in other organizations in other states and see the basic unity 
and common problems and common solutions shared by the entire 
community of youth, black, brown, white or yellow, red, rich and poor. 

9.4b One institution where white ethnic groups have gained and 
held power is the labor union. We deplore the racism in these 
unions which have denied 3rd world people admission to the unions. 
Apprenticeship positions should be opened to minority groups in 
proportion to their representation in the community. 



Police Reforms 9.4c (The Fred Hampton Memorial Resolution) Police harassment 

of minority communities is a continous form of institutional racism. 
This must end. We therefore propose: (1) Community-elected 
citizen review boards to handle complaints from the community 
and to sensitize police departments to the needs and problems of 
the community. (2) Minority groups represented in number and in 
rank on the police force in proportion to their number in the city. 
These representatives should be organized and be allowed to work 
in the community which they represent. (3) White police should be 
better educated to cope with minority groups. (4) On-going 
sociological and psychological consultation should be available to 
aid in handling racial problems. 

Role of Churches 9.4d Expansion of Task Force Recommendation #1 that American 

institutions must actively oppose racism. 

1. Denunciation of racism must come from leaders in the white 
ethnic communities— rabbis, ministers, priests, and community 
leado^s have the power to influence their groups. 

2. Church facilities should be opened to community groups — 
especially those churches in the central city — for day care centers, 
tutoring projects, and community group meetings. 

3. If the churches do not vocally support and act on these 
suggestions, then their real property should lose their tax exempt 
status. 



Judicial Reform; 
Presidential Leadership 



Housing 



Neighborhood Youth 
Corps 



0 

ERIC 



9.4e The President must realize his responsibility to use his 
appointive and directive powers to put a higher caliber of judges with 
stronger social conscience into the judicial system and appoint in 
other bureaucratic positions dedicated people with attitudes , 
empathetic to the oppressed situation of many of this country’s 
people. 

9.4f In the area of housing some of the current inequities would be 
changed by the following: (1) A larger program of home loan 
underwriting must be instituted. (2) Strong fair trade commissions 
with direct powers must be set up to police the area of real estate 
sales and rentals. (3) The concept of scattering small units of public 
housing throughout a community from center city to suburbs 
should be instituted. (4) The construction of public housing projects 
and renovation of buildings for use as public housing might easily 
provide an area for youth training and employment. 

9.4g The Neighborhood Youth Corps program of the United States 
Department of Labor is an appropriate means to broaden meaningful 
job opportunities for minority youth. However, due to limited 
funding, the N.Y.C. has not been allowed to develop to its fullest 
capacity and has therefore been limited in its effectiveness in youth 
development. To the end of making a better N.Y.C. for minority 
youth, the following points are proposed: 

1. That additional funds be appropriated for the N.Y.C. in these 
areas: (a) the establishment of a youth development planning 
department to help local N.Y.C. 's cultivate and design meaningful 
programs; (b) additional counselors and enrollers hired at the 
current minimum wage standard; (c) monies earmarked specifically 
for educational equipment and programs; and (d) a raise in the 
hourly week for all programs. 




223 



2. Substitution of the current Labor Department standards 
designating “poor” for the national $3600 for a family of four to 
separate regional standards. 

3. Dropping the current guidelines pertaining to job site 
qualifications (i.e. municipal, governmental, non-profit agencies) to 
include private businesses and industries and providing these 
private firms will provide a designated degree of enrollee training. 
This would greatly enlarge the N.Y.C.’s capacity to provide the 
enrollee with more meaningful and productive work experience. 

School Desegregation 9.4h In the area of desegregation the law must be applied with equal 

force to all school system s. When desegregation is ordered and 
implemented, Federal and state aid must be given to the aifected 
systems to expedite and enrich this mixing. This aid takes the form 
of appropriations for items such as buses, multi-cultural educational 
material, new buildings and more teachers. 



Italo-American 

Caucus 



Education System 
Needs Revision 



9.5 We must redefine American society, not in terms of a melting 
pot, but as the most ethnically and culturally pluralistic nation in the 
world. We admire the growing self-awareness, self-respect, and 
new-found pride of our minority brothers. American national 
identity and national purpose must be found in the cultural value 
systems, heritages, and sources of strength of its culturally diverse 
people. 

If we are to develop a new agenda for the seventies: 

we must go beyond the civil rights struggle of the sixties; 

we must stop exploiting the fear of the ethnic Americans; 

we must bring together a new coalition to press for new goals 
and new priorities for all the poor and near-poor, including the 
Blacks, the Appalachians, the Indians, the Spanish-speaking, 
and the white urban ethnic groups. 

Then we can develop a true cultural pluralism in this country and 
reduce the inevitable group conflict. 

We want a statistical study done of the Italo-American population of 
the United States. 

In many of the major urban cities the Italo-Americans are 
plagued by lack of education, decent housing and drug addiction and 
many of the problems that confront our black, brown, red, yellow 
and poor white brothers and sisters from other ethnic groups. We 
recognize our needs and position of oppression and we want our 
statistical position defined on every level and locality — education, 
health, housing, income and race relations and attitudes. 

9.5a We note that the system of education of Italo-American youth 
and other white ethnic groups give a distorted view of the history of 
the white ethnic groups in America and we feel this has contributed 
to distorted racist actions and attitudes on the part of all whites in 
general. We see, in the history of the United States, the pitting of 
working class ethnic and racial groups against each other on the 
part of the economic system which has worked to divide all the 
oppressed peoples of the U. S. and the world. We demand that this 
be exposed in the American educational system so that all oppressed 




224 



National Training 
Program 



Non-Ethnic Workshop 



President Denounce 
Racism 



Institutions 
Eliminate Racism 



Enforcement of Civil 
Rights Laws 



Aid for Desegregation 



Candidates For 
Office 



minorities of all colors may recognize who their oppressors are 
and work toward recognizing those areas of unity between all 
oppressed peoples, black, brown, yellow, red, and white. 

9.5b The schools in the United States are becoming overcrowded 

custodial institutions. We support the concept of a National I raining 
Program conducted on a local basis whereby the youth can learn 
how to fulfill themselves as human beings as well as providing them 
with a rewarding way to make a living. We support the concept of 
the work-study program whereby, starting in the junior high, a 
youngster could pick a vocation or profession they might be 
interested in, and with the cooperation of the labor unions, 
professional organizations and school systems, work in these jobs 
as aides and/or apprentices. This system would militate against 
racist and discriminatory practices and traditions by existing trades 
and professions since they will have to relate to the students as 
they are referred to them by the school system. This would open the 
trades and professions up to all minorities and would give 
tradesmen and professionals a much needed line of communication 
with all young people on a one-to-one basis, as well as opening 
the doors to youth who have been systematically excluded from t ese 

fields. 



9.6 Racism is the fundamental cancer of American society and its 
eradication should be the paramount objective of all Americans. 

To this end we make the following recommendations: 

9.6a We recommend that the President of the United States, by 
means of a major television address, within the next six (6) months, 
officially denounce racism as the cancer of this society and call for 
action across the country by community groups, civic and fraternal 
organizations, businesses, churches and other religious bodies, 
county, municipal and state governments, and the Federal 
government, for the immediate confrontation with this problem. 

9.6b And be it further stated that it is not only the responsibility of 
the President of the United States, as previously stated, but there 
must be action by every agency, public and private, social and 
religious, including churches of all faiths, to establish priority 
programs supported by the allocation of substantial human and 
material resources. 

9.6c We recommend a more vigorous enforcement of Federal laws 
in the area of civil rights, and to this end there should be increased 
budgetry appropriations to permit substantial increases in the staff 
of the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice and other 
agencies responsible in the area of civil rights. 

9.6d We urge Congress to enact without further delay proposed 
legislation to provide financial aid to those schools charged with 
carrying out plans designed to cure both de jure and de facto 
segregation to the amount of not less than 1.5 billion dollars in the 

fiscal year 1972. 

9.6e We strongly recommend that each voting citizen thoroughly 
investigate and make public the background and affiliations of each 
candidate in regard to racism. Furthermore, the voters should seek 
from each candidate a statement of his positions with regard to 
racism. 



Textbooks 


9.6f We recommend those American history text books which are 
used in elementary and secondary schools and colleges must 
more clearly and honestly reflect the diverse racial and ethnic 
heritage of this country. And further, that up to date pamphlets 
containing information regarding such textbooks be made available 
and distributed to faculties and school board members by the 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 


Multi-Ethnic Studies 


9,6g There should be incorporated in school curricula at all levels, 
studies which lead to the understanding of the multi-ethnic nature 
of our society. In order to facilitate this, workshop type courses 
concerning learning of different cultures be made available and be 
required of all teachers returning to universities for required 
additional credits. 


Testing Standards 


9.6h We recommend the revision of I.Q., admission and other tests 
which are discriminatory. We demand there be reasonable 
alternatives taking into account language, cultural, ethnic and 
economic environment of persons being tested according to 
evaluation objectives. 


Student Loans 


9.6i We recommend that a student loan program be established to 
provide higher education to all students in America. Financial 
institutions will make the loans and a secondary market will be 
created at the Federal level. No repayment should be required until 
graduation. The term of repayment should be graduated and 
depend on individual circumstances. 


Bilingual-Bi-cultural 

Programs 


9.6j We recommend that every school with at least 10 percent of its 
students for whom English is not a “first language”, establish a 
free, bilingual-bi-cultural program. We particularly recommend 
special programs to teach the English language to the non-English 
speaking students in their own native tongue. 


Meaningful 

Employment 


9.6k We recommend that the President and Congress initiate 
programs to either create or generate meaningful employment 
opportunities for minority youth 16 to 24, in school and out, 
enlisting full support by both management and labor, or give youth 
some opportunity to see the wide variety of jobs which are available. 

We endorse the executive order directing building trade unions to 
open up opportunities for apprenticeship for minority groups and 
the proposed regulations requiring compliance if necessary. We 
recommend extension of this order to include all industry. 


New Jobs 


9.61 We endorse the Accelerated Public Works Bill pending in the 
United States Senate which would provide funds to help local 
governments to create new jobs in such areas as environment. This 
is complementary to the Economic Development Act, 


Counseling Centers 

> 


\V- ’ ’ * 

9.6m We recommend that youth themselves begin the initial 
investigation to determine if coordinated recreational, educational 
and counseling centers can be established in their neighborhood, 
town, or city. Comprehensive lists of all organizations involving 
youth should be compiled and distributed in these communities. We 
also feel that these bodies that have youth programs be responsive 
to the needs of all minority youth groups and explore the possibility 
of joining with other organizations with similar interest to establish 
such a center. Funds should be made available by Federal, state, 
local, and private agencies. 



Minority 

Counselors 



Mass Media 



Inter-Racial 

Families 



Bi-Centennial 



9.6n We recommend that schools provide minority counselors 
when there is at least 10 percent of a minority group of students 
within the student body. 

9.6o The radio and television media which is licensed by the public 
tc use the air waves must begin to better serve their entire listening 
and viewing audience in a manner which represents the pluralistic 
nature of this audience. 

To this end, we recommend: 



1. The President of the United States should appoint able, involved 
minority group members to the Federal Communications Commission 
and encourage ti ' dy to concern itself with the complaints of 
inadequate representation of community interests. 

2. The mass media urged to correct the kind of stereotyped 
reporting which portrays einnic groups and working class people in 
an unrealistic and negative light and provide regular, prime time, 
high-quality programs on llie rura ! suburban, racial, ethnic and 
social aspects of American society. In this regard, we recommend that 
the television media seek*.) include inter-racial families in their 
regular programming. 

3. We endorse the ideology of this programming on National 
Educational Television (NET) and we urge the greater use of 
educational television in combating social injustices, furthering the 
interests of local communities, and generally in bringing people 
closer together. 

9.6p We recognize that parties to inter-racial marriage face prejudice 
from many directions, including their own racial groups. We 
recommend that efforts be made to eliminate the severe pressures 
these couples and their families encounter in most of the United 
States. In fulfilling this objective, we recommend that when the 
President makes his statement against racism that he asks the 
American people to extend to inter-racial families the same respect 
of personal liberties as any other American family. 

9.6q We charge the National Commission which has been chartered 
to celebrate the Bi-Centennial of the Declaration of the American 
Independence that it establish as one of its primary goals for 
presentation to the nation the establishment of a truly pluralistic 
society and the elimination of racism and discrimination in any form. 



La Raza Coalition; 9.7 Por Cuanto: Esta sumamente claro las agencies que aplican 

Recommendaciones* la ley a diferentes mveles y especificamente las de nivel local, 

no estan cumpliendo trabajo satisfactory; es m3s, en muchos 
casos estas agencies obstaculizan el proceso por el cual se 
remedian las numerosas injusticias sufridas por las personas de 
hable hispaha en los ultimos anos. Se necesitan representantes 
ante las cutidades publicas que provengen de la comunidad y 
que protejen a esas comunidades del abuso y discriminacfon 
por agencies publicas que no tienen escrupuios. 

Demandamos: Que el ipresidente prepare a inicie un plan a dos 
anos en cual representantes de hable hispana, segun nombrados 
agentes del orden federal y que al volver a dichas comumiidades, 

* Translation begins 232. 



Escueias 



Publicidad por 
Radio y Television 



Ayuda Federal a 
Puerto Rico 



0 




apliquen que al presente no se est&n aplicando por nuestras 
supuestas agencias publicas en las comunidades de hable 
hispana que estos nuevos agentes del orden identificuen a 
aquellos agentes que en el pasado no han cumplido con su deber 
correctamente. Este programa entrenaria a estos nuevos agentes 
en las diferentes &reas de ley con la cual trabajar&n, como 
Derechos Civiles, Brutalidad Policial, etc. 

9.7a Por Cuanto: No hay necesidad de repetir los problemas que 
la comunidad de hable hispana ha sufrido bajo esta sociendad. 
Nuestros hijos conocen la falta de la ensefianza de nuestra 
cultura en las instituciones de este pa : onocemos el racismo 

en los libros de las escueias. Que hemos tenido muchos 
problemas tratando de establecer nuestras escueias, problemas 
legates y financieros, hasta con las ley< 3 locales sobre educacion. 
Tambien reconocemos que el present oncepto de integracion 
no sirve su proposit*; al contrario, la integracion de la 
problacion de habla hispana con los g&bachos, en este 
tiempo, resultard en la opresion de nuestra cultura. Puede que 
estos comentarios. estimulen dudas; que algunos nos acusen de 
racistas de nacionalistas, y hasta de amenazar el sistema 
educacional de gabacho. Pero tenemos que decir que nosotros 
creemos en la Raza Cosmica y su ideal, y que la gentes de hable 
hispana pueden construir su propio sistema de educacion. 

9.7b Por Cuanto: Las cadenas de radio y television han permitido 
a las agencias de publicidad explotar, ridiculizar y abousar del 
sentido de decencia de las personas de habla hispana. 

Han causado mucho resentimiento entre los grupos minoritarios, 
especialmente entre los grupos de habla hispana. Ejemplos de 
este tipo de publicidad son demasiadas numerosas. Creemos que 
la Primera Enmienda de la Constitucion (Libertad de Expresion 
y de Palabra) no es aplicable cuando se usa para reprimir a la 
gente, cualquiera que esta sea; esto se hace con respecto a la 
actitud mental y fisica de las gentes de habla hispana. Este tipo 
de publicidad solamente puede lograr la perpetuacion del racismo 
y consecuentemente debe ser eliminada de los rnedios de 
comunicacion. 

Demandamos: Que la Autoridad Federal de Comunicaciones 
suspenda, revoque o adjudiaue multas no menores de $5,000 ni 
mayores de $10,000 a cualquier radioemisora o estacion 
televisora que transmita publicidad racista de cualquier clase. 

9.7c Por Cuanto: Tradicionaimente, los programas de ayudas 
federates a Puerto Rico han sido en proporcion menor a los 
Estados de la Union. En una sociedad donde la mayoria consiste 
de ninos y jovenes y en periodo donde la imagen de la juventud 
puertorrigueha es una de individuos preocupados por el tvJturo 
de la comunidad; es esencial que la mayor ayuda federal sea 
dada a Puerto Rico. 

Recomendamos: Gue se considere al Estado Libre Asociado de 
Puerto Rico en un piano igual a los 50 Estados de la Union, con 
respecto al presupuesto Federal para actividades de la juventOd. 



Demandamos: 

(1) Todos los tribienales deben proveer servicios de traducion 
adecuada y consistente cuando haya personas de hable hispana 
en dichos tribunales. 

2S5 



228 



Contratos con 
Uniones de 
Construccion 



Educacion Hispana 



Salario Minimo 



El Empleo de 
Personas de Habla 
Hispana 



(2) Deben proveer fondos federales para instrucion bilingue en 
todos distritos escolares donde la poblacidn de habla hisDaha 
este presente. 

(3) Todas estadfsticas del censo deben incluir categorias 
indicando el numero de Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, y otros grupos 
de habla hispana en cada area. 

(4) El gobierno federal debe poner suma importancia en la 
rnejora de la educacion, salubridad y Welfare y sistemas de 
justicia para trabajadores rnigratorios. 

(5) El gobierno de los Estados Unidos debe poner suma 
importancia en las relaciones firmes con el Latino America. 

9.7d Por la presente: Demandamos que el Gobierno Federal 
termine inmediatamente todos los contratos con las Uniones 
de la industria de constuccion que no tienen representaciam 
proporcional de la minorias del area donde operan. Demandamos 
tambien que estos contratos sean adjudicados a las uniones^de 
la industria de construccion que tienen una representacion 
proporcional de negros, chicanos, puertorriquenos y otros grupos 
minoritarios. 

9.7e Demandamos: Que el Presidente cree una agencia de 
Educacion Hispana; que dicha organizacion sea operada por 
personas de habla hispana. Esta agencia tendrd el siguente 
proposito: 

a. La utilizacion efectiva de los fondos asignados para el uso en 
instituciones educacionales de habla hispana. 

b. El reconocimiento academico a las instituciones bajo su 
jurisdicion. 

c. La proteccion de los derechos de estas escuelas y sus 
estudiantes. 

d. La fiscal izacion de los fondos para ayudar a los profesores, 
administradores y estudiantes de dichas instituciones y para 
remunerarlos a un nivel aceptable. 

9.7f Demandamos: Que la ley de salario minimo se suba al nivel 
de $4.00 la hora para los anos 1971-72 y que cada ano despuds 
se presenten resoluciones de acuerdo con el costo de vida. 

Que todos los trabajadores rnigratorios y domesticos en los 
Estados Unidos deben estar cubiertos por la ley de salario minimo 
y que estas leyes se apliquen tambidn a los trabajadores 
rnigratorios de tarjeta verde, etc. 

9.7g Por cuanto: Todas las agendas federales que no contienen 
como parte de su personal la prcoorcion de personas de hable 
hispana en relacion a su proporcion con el total de la poblacion 
son raoistas y discriminatorias, 

Por lo tanto: Se demanda que el Presidente por orden ejecutiva 
estienda un mandato por el cual cada departamento federal 
implemente inmediatamente un programs de adiestramiento que 
ponga en posiciones de responsabilidad en todos los niveles 
federal administrativos a personas de habla hispana con relacion 
a su proporcion en la problacibn total. 



0 icinas Federale? 



Cupones de 
Alimentos 

Programa Bilingue 



Examenes de Estudios 



9.7h Por Cuanto: El Comite de Habla Hispana d&i Taller de 
Trabajo de Flacismo y Grupos Minoritarios, despues de revisar 
las recomendaciones pertinentes, cree y declara que dichas 
recomendaciones son ambiguas y que detraen dieil verdadero 
problema del Racismo. 



Consequentemente, hemos rechazado dichas r: amendtciones 
y en consideracion de los 12 milliones de pers *^as de habla 
hispana presentamos a esta Honorable Asam^.. a, las 
siguientes recomendaciones: 

Recomendacidn: Que las tres agencias federate ? se organizen 
a responder a las necesidades de las personas d^ habla hispana. 

a. El gabinete Y Comitd para las personas habla hispana 
y sus negocios. 

b. Oficinas para las personas de habla hispana y negocios, 
HEW. 



c. Oficinas para las personas de habla hispan y negocios, 
U. 3. Oficina de Educacion. 

Que se responda inmediatamente a lo siguientrt: 



1. Que active sus respectivos comites de const os. 

2. Incluir estudiantes y otros jovenes en la, comunidad. 

9.7i Por cuantos: Que de los 40 millones de personas pobres en 
este pafs, donde circulan cupones de alimentos, solo un 
porcentaje minimo es incluido. 

9.7j Recomendamos: Que en orden de dar una oportunidad 
adecuada a todos los cuidadanos nacionales de habla hispana, 
nosotros pedimos al CongrtiSo de los E. U. de Norteamerica la 
implementacion de un programa bilingue, largamentepropuesto, 
Un programa que debe de ser implementado en todas las 
comunidades urbanes y rurales de esta Nacion para que se le 
cree al nino una conciencia bilingue, una temprana edad, 
por ejemplo: en el area del desarrollo humano. El objeto de este 
programa es de proveer al participante la base de continuidad 
en relacion en la comunidad integrada. Asf la implementacion 
del programa eliminara las oportunidades de discriminacion 
en nuestras escuelas. Agregando programas proponemos 
el empleo de maestros de habla hispana, acreditados en una 
forma adecuada. Por ejemplo, el ayudante de maestro, maestro 
profesional bilingue, y personas que sirvieron como asistentes. 
Tambien personas que serein preparadas y que eventualmente 
seran maestros practicos acreditados. 

9.7k Demandamos; Que el Presidente cree un fondo federal con 
el proposito de establecer un programa para estudiar ia validez 
y efectividad de los examenes que sirven para determinar 
que estudiantes estan capacitados para entrar en las universi- 
dades y colegios de este pafs. Los examerass que ser£n 
revisados son los de SAT, GRE, y ACT. Los rondos federales 
serein distribuidos a una asociacion nacionaf reconocida como 
el “College Entrance Examination Board.’’ 




230 



La Sociedad Hispana 



Cambics en la Sociedad 



Requisitos 
de Empleo 



Estos fondos seran adjudicados a esos programas que como 
el “College Entrance Examination Board” quieran estudiar 
hondamente la validez de dichos examenes. Un ejemplo de dichas 
organizaciones es la "Mexican-American Youth Organization 
de Austin, Texas.” 

9,71 Demaridamos: Que por los cambios generales en esta 
sociedad, hacen necesario abrir el razonamiento nacional, 
especialmente del gobierno que sirve a la sociedad de habla 
hispana. 



Empezando con agendas y fondos asignados por el Congreso 
para las mejores y cambios necesarios de estas minorias con 
gran entasis en grupos de gentes envueltas en empleos 
temporales de la agricultura (con interes especial para ayudar a 
los trabajadores emigrantes inter-estatales). 



Las razones son las siguientes: La falta de entendimiento 
cultural- la falta de entendimiento economico y la falta de 
entendimiento de idiomas. El objecto es de crear sensibil.dad 
en las personas empleadas para servir y proveer servicios. 

El plan sera que la agenda o programa debe reclutar o pagar 
persona que reciba entrenamiento “sensitivo en relacion a 
minorias”. Punto esencia! para las funciones necesarias, si estas 
agencias reciben fondos federales, o estatles para lo ya 
mencionado. 



Como ejemplo podemos citar la falta de personal de habla 
hispana en esta, la Conference de la Casa Blanca sobre la 
Juventud, demostrando a si /a falta de consideracidn con 
las minorias. 

9.7m Dirigida al gobierno federal de los Estados Unidos 
de America. 

La Task Force en pobreza declara: 

Educacion— Empleos en General: Por los cambios generales en 
esta sociedad, es necesario iluminar el razonamiento de 
comunidad, especialmente la del govierno que sirve a esta 
sociedad, empezando con aquellas agencias y fondos propor- 
cionados por el congreso para iluminar los problemas de las 
minorias de habla Hispana que se encuentran en zonas 
rurales, en grupos de trabajadores migratorios mter-estateles 

y en la agricultura temporal. 

Presente privacion economica. 

Presente privacion social. 

Presente falta de representacion politica. 

Presente falta de representacion total. 

9.7n Pedimos Lo Sip-iente: 

Que el sistema del servicio civil, nacional, estatal y en general. 

Elimine los requisitos de empleo en todas las agencias 
responsables de dar servicios, generales a la sociedad de 
habla hispana. 



La Raza 

Recommendations 



Schools 



i 



Radio & Television 
Publicity 



0 




232 



Inmediatamente dirigidos a agencias como: A todo nivel Civil 
Service, International, Federal, Estatal y de ciudad. 

Ejemplos: Prisiones, Hospitales, Clinicas, Policia. Servicios 
Informativos y Beneficencia Publica y etc. 



Translation of 

Recommendations of the La Raza Delegation 



9.7 Because: 

It is clear that the agencies which apply the law at different 
levels, and specifically at the local level, are not performing 
satisfactorily; further, in many cases these agencies form an obstacle 
to the process in which the many injustices suffered by our 
people in past years can be rectified. Community repre: entatives 
who can protect the people from the abuse and discrimination 
practices by these unscrupulous public agencies are needed. 

We Demand: 

That the President initiate a two-year plan in which Spanish speaking 
representatives be named from among candidates suggested by 
the community to serve as federal agents who, upon returning to 
their communities, will apply what is not presently being applied by 
the public agencies in these communities and will further identify 
those federal officials who have not been complying with their 
responsibilities in the past. This program would train these new 
officials in the different areas of the law that they would be working 
with, such as Civil Rights, Police Brutality, etc. 

9.7a Because: 

It is not necessary to repeat the problems which the Spanish 
speaking community has suffered in this society. Our children 
recognize the lack of teaching of our culture in public institutions in 
this country; we know the racism which exists in the textbooks of 
our schools. We have had many problems in trying to establish our 
own schools, legal and financial troubles, even conflicts with local 
education laws. We also realize that the present concept of 
integration does not fulfill its proposed objective; on the contrary, 
the integration of the Spanish speaking population with the anglos 
would, at this time, result in the oppresion of our culture. These 
comments may stimulate doubts; some will accuse us of being 
racists, nationalists, and even of threatening the educational system 
of the anglo. But we say that we believe in the Universal Race 
and its ideals, and that Spanish speaking people can construct their 
own educational system. 



9.7b Because: 



The radio and television networks have permitted advertising 
agencies to exploit, ridicule and abuse the sense of decency of 
the Spanish speaking. 



They have caused a lot of resentment among minority groups, 
especially among Spanish speaking groups. The examples of this type 
of publicity are too numerous. We believe that the First Amendment 



229 




Federal Aid 
to Puerto Rico 



Contracts with 
Construction Unions 



Spanish Eolation 



to the Constitution (freedom of speech) does not apply when it is 
used to repress people, whoever they may be; this is done with 
respect to the mental and physical attitude of the Spanish speaking. 
This type of publicity can only serve to perpetuate racism and 
consequently it must be eliminated from the communications media. 

We Demand: 

That the Federal Communications Commission suspend, revoke or 
place fines of no less than $5,000 nor more than $10,000 on 
whatever radio or television station that transmits any kind of 
racist publicity. 

9.7c Because: 

Traditionally the programs of federal aid to Puerto Rico have been 
proportionately smaller than that to the states in the Union. In any 
society where the major portion of the population consists of children 
and youth and in a period when the image of Puerto Rican youth is 
one of individuals preocupied with the future of the community, 
it is essential that the greatest federal assistance be given 
to Puerto Rico. 

We Recommend: 

That the Associated Free State of Puerto Rico be considered on an 
equal plane with the 50 States of the Union with respect to Federal 
aid for youth activities. 

We Demand: 

1. All courts must provide adequate and consistent translation 
services when Spanish speaking persons are in the court. 

2. Federal funds must be allocated for bilingual Instruction in all 
school districts where there are Spanish speaking persons. 



3. All census statistics must include categories indicating the 
number of Chicanos, Puerto Ricans and other Spanish speaking 
groups in each area. 

4 The Federal government must put the highest importance on 
improvements in education, health, welfare, and the administration 
of justice for migrant workers. 

5. The U.S. government must place high emphasis on firm 
relations with Latin America. 

9.7d For the Present Time: 

We demand that the Federal Government terminate immediately 
all contracts with construction unions which do not have a 
proportionate representation of minorities in the area w her e they 
operate. We also demand that these contracts be awarded to the 
construction industry unions wh to has a proportionate 
representation of Negroes, Chic? ios, Puerto Ricans and other 
minority groups. 

9.7e We Demand: 

That the President create a Hispanic education agency; at said 



Minimum Salary 



Employment of 
Spanish Speaking 
Persons 



Feedral Offices 



organization be operated by Spanish speaking persons. This agency 
would have the following objectives: 

a. The effective utilization of designated funds for the use of 
Spanish speaking educational institutions. 

b. Jurisdiction over the academic accreditation of 
these institutions. 

c. The protection of the rights of these schools and their 
students. 

d. The allocation of the funds to help teachers, administrators 
and students of said institutions, and to pay them at an 
acceptable level. 

9.7f We Demand: 

That the minimum wage law be raised to $4.00 an hour for 1971-72 
and that every year afterward it be adjusted according to the 
cost of living. 

That all migrant workers and domestics in the U.S. be covered by 
minimum wage laws and that these laws extend also to green 
card workers, etc. 

9.7g Because: 

All agencies of the Federal government which do not employ a 
proportionate number of Spanish speaking people in relation to the 
rest of the population are racist and discriminate. 

For This Reason: 

It is demanded that the President by Executive Order issue a mandate 
by which every Federal department will immediately implement a 
program to remedy this situation; that they will put Spanish 
speaking persons in positions of responsibility at all levels 
according to their percentage of the total population. 

9.7h Because: 

The Spanish Speaking Committee of the Task Force on Race and 
Minority Group Relations, after reviewing the pertinent recom- 
mendations, believes and declares that said recommendations are 
ambigious and that they detract from the true problem of racism. 

Consequently, we have rejected said recommendations and in 
consideration of the 12 million Spanish speaking persons we present 
to this Honorable Assembly the following recommendations: 

Recommendation: 

That the three Federal agencies listed below organize themselves 
to respond to the needs of Spanish speaking people: 

a. The Cabinet and Committee for Spanish speaking people 
and their affairs. 

b. HEW offices for Spanish speaking affairs. 

c. U.S. Office of Education offices for Spanish speaking affairs. 




234 



That immediate response be given to the following: 

1. That their respective advisory committees be activated 

2. That they include students and other youth from the 
community. 



Food Stamps 9 - 7i Because: 

That of the 40 million persons in this country living in poverty, 
where food stamps are available, only a small percentage are 
included in this program. 



Bilingual Program 9 - 7 J We Recommend: 

A. That in order to give adequate opportunity to all Spanish speaking 
citizens, we ask that the Congress of the United States of America 
implement a bilingual program, long-proposed, a program that should 
be implemented in a!! rural and urban communities of this Nation 
so that children develop a bilingual concept, from an early age, _ 
for example: in the area of human development. The object of this 
program is tc provide the participant a base of continuity in relation 
to the integrated community. In this way the opportunities for 
discrimination in our schools would be eliminated. In putting together 
programs, we propose the employment of Spanish speaking teachers, 
accredited in an appropriate form. For example, the teacher’s aide, 
professional bilingual teacher, and persons who would serve as 
assistants. Also persons who would be prepared and who would 
eventually be licensed practical teachers. 

Educational Testing 9-7k We Demand: 

That the President create a Federal fund to establish a program 
to study the validity and effectiveness of the examinations that 
are used to determine whether students are qualified to enter 
colleges and universities in this country. The examinations which 
will be reviewed are the SAT, GRE and ACT. The Federal funds 
will be distributed to an association known as the “College 
Entrance Examination Board.’’ 

These funds will be distributed to those programs which, like 
the “College Entrance Examination Board," wish to study in depth the 
validity of said examinations. An example of said organizations is 
the Mexican American Youth Organization of Austin, Texas. 






ERIC 



Spanish Speaking Society 9.71 We Demand: 

That in order for general change to take place in this society, it is 
necessary to open up the national awareness, especially that of the 
government which should serve the Spanish speaking society. 

Beginning with agencies and funds designated by Congress to 
change tncf better these minority groups, with great emphasis on 
groups of people engaged in seasonal agriculture tasks (with 
special interest in helping migrant workers who go from state 
to state). _ . 



The reasons are the following: the lack of cultural understanding: 
the lack of economic knowledge and the language barrier. The object 
is to sensitize the employers to the need for providing services. The 
plan will be such that the agency or program will compensate or 






235 



A 



Changes in Society 



Employment Requirements 



pay the person who receives training to sensitize in relation to 
minorities. This is an essential point for the necessary functions, 
if these agencies receive Federal funds or State funds for what has 
been covered already. 

For sxampie we might cite the lack of Spanish speaking persons 
participating in this White House Conference on Youth, demonstrating 
thusly the lack of consideration for minorities. 

9.7m Directed to the Federal Government of the United States 
of America. 

The Task Force on Poverty declares: 

Education — Employment in General: For the changes that are 
necessary in this society, it is necessary to enlighten the thinking 
of the community, especially that of the government which serves 
this society, beginning with those agencies and funds set aside by 
Congress for the purpose of bringing to light the problems of the 
Spanish speaking who are located in rural zones, in groups of 
interstate migrant workers and seasonal farm workers. 

The Reasons: 

Present economic deprivation. 

Present social deprivation. 

Present lack of political representation. 

Present lack of total representation. 

9.7n We Ask the Following: 

That the civil service system, national, state and in general: 
Eliminate the employment requirements in all the agencies which 
are responsible for rendering general services to the Spanish 
speaking society. 

Immediately directed to agencies such as: All levels of Civil Service, 
international, Federal, State and city. 



Examples: Prisons, Hospitals, Clinics, Police Forces, Information 
Services and Public Welfare, etc. 



We dedicate this Values , Ethics and Culture Task Force report to Boone Hammond. Boone believed in us 
as young people and as human beings. His spirit of generosity and understanding is woven through our 
report and we present it as a tribute of our love and respect for him. 



o 

ERIC 




t 



238 





All recommendations were drafted by the workshops and voted on 
by the entire Task Force. Two discussion groups, Political Action and 
Citizen Effectiveness and Society's Responsibility to the Individual, 
did not formulate specific recommendations. The Preamble was 
outlined by a committee of discussion group leaders, drafted by 
four of these and revised and approved by the entire lask Force. 


Artistic and Cultural 
Expressions 


10.1 We agree with the findings of the 1970 White House Conference 
on Children that the effects of racism represent the greatest threat 
to the nation, and we assert that the arts constitute the most 
immediate and powerful force working towards the elimination 
of racism. 

The communion among people who share an artistic expression 
makes prejudice base and elevates the quality of being human. 

Art, being essential to the spirit of man, is a creative experience 
between the giving artist and the giving audience. 

We strongly support the diverse cultures and their artistic 
expressions which collectively are the Nation. 

The well being of the United States demands a firm commitment 
to the arts to reverse the perilous decline in the sense of what it 
means to be an American. Massive financial assistance will be 
required to acco mpt.sh this goal. 


Funding for the 
Arts 


10.1a Reso/ved: (1) The National Foundation for the Arts and 
Humanities become a permanent, independent agency of the 
government. (2) That a post of Director of the National! Foundation 
for Arts and Humanities be created at the cabinet level. (3) That the 
National Endowment for the Arts receive its full appropriation 
within the limits of the existing legislative authorization for fiscal 
1972 and 1973. (4) That by fiscal 1974 the appropriation for the 
National Endowment for the Arts be increased to no less than $1.00 
per person. (5) That 40 percent of all program funds of the 
National Endowment for the Arts be placed into the Developing Arts 
Program as of fiscal year 1972. (6) That no less than h 0 a ^ 
Arts Council Program funding from all levels be applied to ethnic and 
poverty art programs. Further, that these allocations be enforced 
by the National Endowment for the Arts and no Federal arts 
funding be allocated to any state or territory violating this 
requirement. 


Office of Education 


10.1b Resolved: (1) The Office of Education implement the 
recommendations of the report prepared by the Communications 
Foundation for the Office of Arts and Humanities of the Office of 
Education. (2) The Office of Education Arts and Humanities program 
institute a grants program-to discover and develop young talent with 
priority given to the urgent needs of the culturally ignored. (3) The 
needs of the solitary artist should also be considered within the 
context of this program. 



Kennedy Center Pro- 
grams 



Apprenticeship in 
the Arts 

American Bi-Centen- 
nial 



State and Local 
Support 



Youth Representation 



Arts Crafts Union 



Implementation Com- 
mittee 



Arts as Societal 
Priority 



Family 



O 

ERIC 



10.1c Resolved: (1) The Congress appropriate funds to the Kennedy 
Center for the Performing Arts to develop an annua! National Youth 
Festival in all forms of the arts with particular attention to the 
contribution of ethnic groups. (2) Further, that the Kennedy Center 
for the Performing Arts — at its present level of funding — proceed 
with these programs. 

10. Id Reso/ved: The Department of Labor develop and support 
youth apprenticeships in every arts category. 

lO.le Resolved: (1) That the American Bi-Centennial Commission 
reevaluate its aims for the 1976 celebration in order that it be 
dedicated to the redefinition, discovery and affirmation of the roots 
of the nation to effect a spiritual rebirth of all our people. (2) The 
Bi-Centennial Commission establish a Task Force to provide 
programs of youth in arts with specific support for expression of 
the diverse cultures that have created the nation. (3) Young people 
representing these cultures be a part of decision-making bodies to 
rededicate efforts to accomplish our high goals. 

lO.lf Resolved: Acknowledging the importance of all the arts at all 
levels, state and local governments assume responsibility for 
material assistance to the arts through technical and financial 
support. 

10. Ig Resolved: (1) The President appoint youth members to the 
National Arts Council with representation from the ethnic groups and 
reflective of the several arts fields. Those appointments should 
reach a level of ten positions by 1974. (2) The National Endowment 
for the Arts place one youth member on each of the seven Art 
Advisory Panels. (3) The Office of Education, Arts and Humanities 
Branch establish an Advisory Board with significant youth 
representation. (4) The State Department Office of Education and 
Cultural Affairs immediately establish a Youth Advisory Board with 
the same duties and responsibilities as the existing Advisory Board. 
(5) All state and local arts councils appoint a significant 
representation of youth members. 

lO.lh Resolved: The AFL-CIO and all professional guilds facilitate 
means for all young artists to become members of Arts Crafts 
unions with particular attention to artists of minority groups. 

10. li Resolved: The Implementation Committee of the White House 
Conference on Youth present and publicize these recommendations 
to the Council of Governors, the AFL-CIO, the Department of Labor, 
the related Senate and Congressional committees and any other 
group important to the implementation of these recommendations. 

10. lj Be it resolved by the 1971 Whit' 1 House Conference on Youth 
that: Recommendations of the Artistic and Cultural Expressions 
Subdivision of the Task Force on Values, Ethics and Culture be 
considered as a priority because the arts have been sorely neglected 
in our society in spite of the fact that they are basic to our 
human existence. 



10.2 We realize that we have not addressed ourselves to several 
areas of major concern such as responsibilities of parenthood, 
population growth and control, sex education and the framework of 
values within the family, and the right to abortion and birth control. 
These areas were not treated due to lack of time, not to lack 
of concern. 




240 



Economic Security 
for the Family 


10.2a Resolved: That Congress address itself to the need tor 

economic security for the family, including: (1) . H g ur U f n nds with 
care centers should be made available throug pu ic 
the dual purpose of enriching child development and g 

parents for development of their own potential. (2) A parent in a 
single-headed family should have the choice of going 
staying home to care for his or her children. In a two-parent home 
the non-breadwinner has the same choice. (3) Educational an 
vocational opportunities should be especially available, 
public funds, for both mothers and fathers whose incomes _ are 
below the adequate family income standard. (4) Every fairly should 
be guaranteed a minimum adequate income with built-in 
work incentives. 


Acceptance of Alter- 
native Life Styles 


10.2b Resolved: There be an acceptance of a wide variety individual 
and family lifestyles. When children are involved in the relationship, 
the favorable child-rearing environment is that of the stable ' 
long-lasting relationship of a man and a twoman. This does n t 
mean that this standard shall be imposed on people who are living 
in other arrangements. Individual freedoms are limited by the 
responsibility of child-rearing* 


Minority Resolution 


10.2c A minority resolution is that the purpose of marriage should 
be to bear and tae responsible for children. 


Mass Media and Its 
Uses 


10.3 One of men’s most basic needs is the need to communicate 
Youth and adult alike wish to be heard, to communicate from their - 
hearts and minds to others. But with this most natural c fes ire c :omes 
an equally important obligation, the need to listen— with both heart 
and mind — to what the other individual has to say. 

We believe a two-way process of communication to be of deep 
s/gn/ficance to the evolution of an ideal society . and we 0 3 

the mass media must become increasingly responsive to this process. 

We live in an atmosphere saturated with messages transmitted by 
the media. The dominating influence on us all is infinite. With 
sometimes frightening ease, they can move us to vote, to buy and 
to form attitudes and opinions. 

In a decade in which change will become routine, the mass media 
must accept growing responsibility for their role as communications 
intermediaries in a diverse and pluralistic society. Increasingly 
they must provide us with the basic facts upon which rational 
decisions can be made ; and when they elect to express judgments 
of their own, these must be overtly labelled so that the reader, the 
viewer, or the listener can identify opinion, as opposed to tact. 

At all times, the media should be judged on their ability to illuminate 
and generate an understanding to their audiences. Their failure to 
light the darkened corners will only accelerate the search of youth 
for alternative means for satisfying their need and right to 
communicate. 


Congressional Sup- 
port for Public 
Broadcasting 

O 


10.3a Resolved: The Task Force recognizes that the system of 
public supported (non-commercial) radio and television represents 
a most useful, effective, and stimulating alternative to commercial 
broadcasting. Therefore, the Task Force strongly urges the Congress 
to provide full and systematic support for the Corporation for 



Local Cable Tele- 
vision 



Pilot Multi-Media 
Programs 



Libraries as Multi- 
Media Learning 
Centers 



Responsibility of 
Media 



Youth Councils to 
Monitor Media 



O 

ERIC 



Public Broadcasting and other public supported broadcasting 
agencies. It will be most desirable to develop a method for long-range 
financing of the system of public broadcasting. 

10.3b Resolved: There should be Federal support of the development 
of local cable television systems which would be subject to local 
community control and local community ownership. 

10.3c Resolved: The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 
and other appropriate agencies support pilot multi-media centers 
in selected urban communities for the purpose of training community 
residents in the production of films and television programs 
reflective of community issues and interests. These fsroductions and 
other appropriate media would be available to residents through local 
cable outlets or at the very least through the multi-media centers. 

10.3d Resolved: A concerted effort be made to builcs the libraries 
of the country into dynamic mu'ti-media learning cen®:s, locally 
oriented and offering a range of services for youth. 

These newly defined centers will be alive and vibrant. They will be 
expected, in the first instance, to heighten the citizen’s interest in 
reading books and periodicals. But, in addition, the canters will 
become key locations for artistic displays. They wiill provide study 
carrels for the application of video and audio casettEs, 8 MM film, 
and slide projectors to the processes of individual teaming. 

Further, discussion and film-viewing rooms will be provided at times 
of maximum use to youth. Appropriate seminars, responsive to the 
interest -jf young men and women, will be scheduled. Tutors will 
be employed and assigned to the centers at critical times for 
studying. 

We recommend to H.E.W. and to appropriate private institutions 
and organizations that coordinated support, both financial and 
philosophical, be provided for this program of change. 

10.3e Resolved: There is a deep-seated concern among youth about 
the credibility of the media. A restoration of their faith is a most 
worthy objective for all of the forms of communication. { 

We charge broadcasters, journalists, publishers, and film producers 
to accept fully a responsibility that is commensurate with their 
power in the nation. This responsibility is to conduct an unrelenting 
search for quality and excellence in all of their output. The 
effectiveness of their products is to be measured by the degree to 
which they communicate a true understanding of the total 
human experience. 

10.3f Resolved: We are concerned about the incredible strength of 
the media in all phases of our lives. We recognize the potential for 
danger that lies in this widespread penetration. 

We recommend, therefore, that each State Council on Youth deriving 
from the White House Conference establish local councils to 
monitor the media for fairness, fullness, integrity and competence. 
These councils will be set up including youth from various ethnic 
and social backgrounds. They will share the tasks of observing the 
practice and performance of local newspapers, periodicals, and 
broadcasters. In addition, they will join with the State Council ir. 
assessing the continuing performance of the national media. 




242 



Community Involve- 
ment 


10. 3g Resolved: There is real concern that television programs 
create and perpetuate a passive society. Therefore, we applaud and 
encourage the efforts of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting 
to strengthen the development of programming that stresses iocal 
community involvement. 




We believe that the viewer who has actively participated in this public 
broadcasting service, and who has been able to take advantage of 
new communications opportunities in community-oriented cable 
systems and community program centers, will be far better able 
to evaluate and then influence commercial television programming. 


MeeSia Dissemination 


10.3h Reso/ved; The publishing and recording industries be 
commended for their success in '.he dissemination of a wide variety 
of excellent and low cost books and musical recordings. We wish 
also to commend National Education?! Television for its creative 
innovations in programming. We hope this beginning will serve 
only as a beginning. 


Audio-Visual Com- 
munication Courses 


10.3i We recommend development of courses in audio-visual 
communication at the high school and undergraduate level to 
educate young people in effective, creative and responsible use 
of the media. 


Alternative Life 
Styles and Cultural 
Pluralism 


10.4 Genuine democracy is the power to choose an individual life 
style — a goal for which the whole life of tha person is involved in all 
that is necessary to achieve this goal. 




An individual has the right to continue his personal growth-building 
toward the goal of his life style, as long as this goal allows all 
people's right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. 

We feel that these rights as listed in the Declaration of Independence 
should be treated in order, with life having the highest priority. 
Where law has ceased to express a balanced set of values, a personal 
moral code is necessary. 


Endorsement of 
People’s Peace 
Treaty 


10.4a Resolved; The Task Force feels that in order to fulfill the 
right of life, the total Conference should endorse the People’s 
Peace Treaty. 


Guarantee Rights to 
Alternative Life- 
Styles 


10.4b Resolved: The American Civil Liberties Union be 
commissioned to make a review of all laws in order to guarantee 
alternative life styles. 


Review Foreign 
Policy 


10.4c Resolved; The State Department make a review of foreign 
policy so that it reflects our domestic policies in order that other 
nations be allowed their own growth of cultures, life styles and 
economic independence. 


Cross Cultural 
Studies 


I0.4d Resolved: The Office of Education and state school boards 
set up programs for all high school students, before graduation, to 
study and/or live in another ethnic or sub-culture so that they may 
better understand and accept different life styles. 


Preparation of Law 
Enforcement Officers 


10.4e Resolved: The Department of Justice through the Attorney 
General’s Office assure that law enforcement officers be better paid 
and be required to live in the neighborhood of the people they 
serve in order that they be better prepared to perceive the problems 
of those people. 



240 . 

•JJi' 



243 



10.5 In developing its recommendations this Discussion Group 
identified the following points which outline a general approach to 
religion and provide a framework for our specific recommendations: 

1. The Values, Ethics and Culture Task Force feels that this country’s 
young people firmly support and desire diversity and freedom of 
religions in the United States of America and respect for ail the 
religions and cultures of the world’s peoples. Youth feels that 
every person has the right to worship and believe in any transcendent 
being, beings or force(s) in any manner not detrimental to others, 
without tear of suffering in any way whatsoever, be it social, 
economic, or physical. We believe that a concensus of the most 
fundamental ethical values is indispensable to a viable society. 
Without this, society becomes fragmented and chaotic, and herein 
lies a clear and present danger. 

2. We believe that religion — which we define as the patterns of 
thought and the way of life stemming from faith and belief in a 
transcendent being(s) or force(s) — tends to nurture, enrich and 
strengthen ethical values, and therefore is urgently necessary to 
social progress and national welfare. 

3. We believe a concensus does exist on the ideal level in this 
country's society on the deepest fundamentals taught by the great 
religious traditions known in this country's life: commitment to 
human brotherhood, the integrity and dignity of the individual, the 
fundamental worth and equality of all men, compassion for and a 
sharing with those in need, and freedom for the individual to work 
out his self-realization so long as he does not harm others. These 
values urgently need reawakening, clarification, and strengthening. 
They must not be lost or undermined in the further development of 
our crowded and technological society. We call upon religious leaders, 
decision makers, and every individual to make this ideal concensus 

a living reality. 

4. We believe that youth seeks the following values in religion 
but too often finds them lacking in our religious institutions and 
teachings: 

a. Leadership and guidance in coping with the problems youth 
faces, such as the draft, drugs, destruction of the 
environment, racism and a sense of identity. 

b. Relevance of religious teachings to the problems of present 
day society. 

c. Realism in religious teachings so as to provide teachings 
free of meaningless dogma and credible for the individual 
in the modern world. 

d. An influence that brings men together instead of separating 
them; fosters unity and brotherhood instead of division 
and prejudice. 

e. Action that really offers solutions to our national problems 
and a clear sense of national priorities, instead of adherence 
to outworn parochialism. 

5. We believe that failures and negative influences traceable to 
religion stem not from the religious values themselves, but from 
failures to put these teachings into practice, and the hypocrisy that 
would use them to justify self-interest and prejudice. 



Renew Spiritual 
Health for the 
Nation 



Responsibilities of 
Religious Institu- 
tions 



Endorse Immediate 
Withdrawal from 
Southeast Asia 



6. We believe that too much institutional self-interest is a danger 
to religion; that religion, in order to retain its integrity, must be 
thought of not just as an institution but as a spiritual force offering 
the individual a lasting value structure that will meet his personal 
needs. These needs include a sense of identity, a sense of worth, 
a sense of direction, a way of relating, to others, and a standard of 
conduct. Religion must also prove itself as an influence helping to 
steer our society away from immoral acts and policies, or lack of 
policies. We commend and support those people within religious 
institutions who are working for the betterment of all society, and 
regret that many of these dedicated people are the objects of both 
church and political repression. 

10.5a We are convinced that social programs will be more effective 
when people are spiritually alive and awake, because spiritual 
awakeness encourages love for one's neighbor and caring for the 
disadvantaged. We call upon the religious institutions to foster more 
vigorously the spiritual health of the people, and to encourage 
their members to commit themselves and their resources more fully 
to meeting the total needs of the people. 

Resolved: The President, members of Congress, the leaders of 
religious organizations, decision-makers at all levels of government, 
business and education, as well as individual citizens are called on 
to vigorously pursue compassionate, practical, living religion in 
American life. This should include a keener respect for individual 
conscience, a strengthening of the worship of God and of other forms 
of religious experience, and stronger adherence to the c ’•iginal ideals 
set forth for this nation. It should augment the sense of brotherhood, 
compassion, equality, and dignity that will harmonize human 
relationships and restore the quality of American life. 

10.5b The Task Force indicts organized religion because it has too 
often lacked the courage to take the leadership in effecting 
societal change. By its silence, it has condoned and is continuing to 
condone such evils as racism, war, poverty, sexism, and 
discrimination. Such hypocrisy cannot be supported by the you th 
of America. 

Therefore, we, while acknowledging the commitments of individuals 
and single religious institutions to improve the quality of human 
life, believe this effort is minimal in view of the vast resources, 
financial and personnel, of the religious institutions. 

Resolved: (1) The American religious institutions seriously rearrange 
their priorities; (2) money not be spent on property and buildings 
or be kept stagnant; that is, invested to provide a continual source 
of security for churches; (3) money be freed up and spent in 
programs which benefit the poor of the United States of America and 
especially minority groups; (4) money which is invested should be 
invested responsibiy in companies whose ideas are in accord with 
religious principles such as the elimination of poverty, war, racism, 
pollution, etc.; and (5) buildings, facilities, and personnel of 
religious institutions be made available to community groups and 
the total community for such programs as clothing distribution, 
breakfast programs, recreation, education, political action groups, 
drug programs, etc. 

10.5c The hypocrisy of organized religion to profess love, 
brotherhood; and the celebration of life, yet by their too frequent 
silence having condoned the atrocities, incidents of racial prejudice, 



Representation on 
Governing Boards 



Courses in Religious 
and Cultural Diver- 
sity 



Sectarian Restric- 
tions 



Technology 




Meaningful Work 



and slaughter of Southeast Asian peoples has not gone unnoticed by 
the youth of the United States of America. 

Resolved: In order to correct this overwhelming paradox, the Task 
Force calls upon all organized religions to officially demand 
immediate and total withdrawal of all American troops from 
Southeast Asia. 

lG.5d Resolved: In the belief that religious institutions and the 
people are synonymous, the Task Force strongly urges that the 
governing boards of religious institutions be comprised of all 
segments of the membership. In particular, youth must have equal 
voice in all decisions. 

10.5e Ignorance and misunderstanding of different religions and 
cultures has often led to persecution and suffering in our society. 

Resolved: In order to create better understanding among all members 
of our society, the Values, Ethics, and Culture Task Force 
recommends that optional courses in Diversity of Religion and Culture 
be offered at all high schools, and that programs of education in 
Diversity of Religion and Culture be made available for the media to 
reach large segments of the population. 

10.5f Religious institutions must avoid imposing their sectarian 
restrictions or beliefs in a compulsory way on those of other 
persuasions. 

Resolved: The Task Force recommends that the religious institutions 
re-evaluate their stands on civil legislation in order to avoid 
imposition of sectarian beliefs on people of other persuasions. 



10.6 Technology, defined, is the practical use of scientific 
knowledge. In the discussion of technology, we must also realize 
its ultimate goal, that of giving man increased control over his 
environment in order to improve the quality of his existence. 

The quality of technology is affected by man. Technology itself has 
no inherent ethical values; all values perceived to be a part of 
technology are in actuality culturally determined. In man’s hands the 
uses of technology can be twisted in indiscriminate ways for cultural 
or personal benefit, for good or evil, often with no regard for the 
rights of others. 

Man’s role in the process of technology lies in hi s ability to integrate 
the human factor within the materialization of an end product. The 
consequences of a new product must be considered before marketing 
is permitted. There must be checks and balances within research 
and development procedures, for we cannot a/ways legislate 
technology into a prescribed channel. 

We must also be aware of social implications of technological 
applications. Can our society develop the capability to change as fast 
as technology changes? Or can society direct and accept technolgical 
change because of society's desire for a better life? 

With these factors in mind, we draft these resolutions. 

10.6a Resolved: Management and labor make efforts to give man 



246 



i 



Ethical Responsibility 
of Producers of Technology 



Technological 

Improvements 



Educational Efforts 
of Media 



Conservation of 
Resources 



Sex Roles and 
Relationships 



meaningful work so that he is not a mindless cog, but an individual 
who uses his innate and acquired abilities. 

Implementation: (1) Rotation of workers on assembly lines; (2) 
Management and labor uses of research in this area, (3) Government 
efforts directed toward an amendment of the Occupational Safety 
and Health Act to include factors that may endanger the mental 
health of the worker; (4) Consideration and possible use by business 
of the four-day work week in order to provide the flexibility necessary 
to facilitate the realization of cultural and other aspirations; and 
(5) Sponsorship by management and labor of cultural activities for 
workers and their families. 

10.6b Resolved: Those who make the products of technology 
available to the peoples of the world have an ethical responsibility 
for the conditions they impose and the consequences their 
developments produce. 

Implementation: (1) Technical improvements must not be permitted 
to destroy, degrade, or corrupt the various cultures of the world. 
Rather, these improvements should be compatible with these 
cultures. (2) This also includes extensive testing programs to 
determine any adverse effect on the consumer or damage to his 
psychological well-being. 

10.6c Resolved: We recognize the contributions that technology has 
made and the contributions that it can make in the future, if 
properly used. Therefore, we recommend an increase in support for 
technological housing construction, and rapid-transit systems. 

10.6d Resolved: If a re-establishment of priorities is to come about 
with regard to technology, it can be realized only through education 
and restructured efforts of mass media. We advise that an educational 
approach to news events and social problems be pursued rather 
than the traditional factual or speculative reporting. 

The publication of a report of this Conference and follow-up 
committees are the implementation we ask. 

10.6e Resolved: Tec/inolgy be held accountable to make all efforts 
to conserve and/or replace resources that are being exploited. 

This is an area that can be legislated by city ordinances and state 
laws, as well as by the Federal government. Along with technology’s 
efforts, we recognize that a value change must come in society 
to use recycling processes effectively. 



10.7 Relationships: Human beings are sexual persons. Ideal sexual 
relationships are sensitive, concerned and responsible expressions 
of human feeling. Every person has the right to fully express his c' 
her individual sexuality. Furthermore, any sexual behavior, when 
occurring between consenting, responsible individuals, must be 
recognized and tolerated by society as an acceptable life-style. 

Such ideal relationships do not often exist because of three major 
factors: sex role channeling, social oppressions, and subsequent 
legal restrictions. 

Sex Role Channeling: Children, from the moment of birth are 
directed into sex role patterns that restrict their emotional expression, 



o 

ERLC 



248 



schools, and other special institutions must be made aware of the 
restrictive sex role stereotypes they impose, often unwittingly. 
Traditional concepts of femininity and masculinity are not adequate 
if men and women are to become fulfilled human beings, capable 
of a great variety of roles. 

In a humanizing society that seeks to promote the individial 
fulfillment of every person as a unique being, efforts must be made 
to open the options for individuals to make their own decisions about 
life styles without becoming objects of ridicule, guilt, or legal 
structures. 

Social Oppression: Any person in our society who, as a matter of 
personal choice, engages in any form of sexual behavior or activity 
which is outside the institution of heterosexual marriage is subjected 
to pressure, gossip, suspicion, and social ostracism. Even those 
whose sexual behavior within marriage differs from “acceptable” or 
“proper” standards are subject to criticism. Men and women who 
try to find work in areas traditionally reserved for the opposite sex 
are ridiculed and opposed. 

Thus, at some point in the life of nearly every citizen of this country 
he or she becomes the object of a form of subtle, yet vicious, 
psychological repression. Examples of this are widespread: women 
who are seen as inferior in our society, anyone who has engaged 
in a homosexual or lesbian relationship, who has become pregnant 
outside of wedlock, who has cohabited with a person of the opposite 
sex to whom he or she is not legally married, who has sought an 
abortion, who has engaged in prostitution or engaged the services 
of a prostitute, or who has in any other ways challenged sexual 
stereotypes or participated in sexual activities which are 
“unacceptable” to others. In each of these situations the reaction 
of many members of our society is to stereotype end ostracize these 
individuals by imposing severe judgmental standards. 

The effect of such sexual repression through social customs, norms, 
and prejudices is extremely harmful to supposed “offenders”. 
Guilt feelings, illness, suicide, psychological withdrawal, occupational 
discrimination and an entire spectrum of other problems are 
traceable to this sort of repression. There is good reason to 
assert that the major problems facing the so-called sexual “deviant” 
are not connected with his own behavior at all. Rather, they more 
likely stem from the effects of social repression brought to bear by 
persons adhering to “conforming” standards of “normal” behavior. 
Such activity denies many people their rights to freedom of decision 
and action. We recognize that many people are forced by economic 
and social pressure to assume sexual roles in which they are 
exploited. Any sexual role which has not been freely chosen is wrong, 
whether we speak of the prostitute, the truckdriver, or the housewife. 

Legal Restriction: Social repression and sex role channeling are 
manifested in our legal statutes. Laws, as those forbidding 
fornication, adultery, homosexuality, lesbianism, and so-called 
“unnatural acts”, restrict the right of individual expression. Laws 
restricting or prohibiting abortion or distribution of contraceptives 
inhibit individual expression and attempt to legislate sexual morality. 
Sexual morality cannot and must not be legislated. 

We can facilitate ideal sexual relationships by repealing sexually 
restrictive laws and changing attitudes through comprehensive 
education , which seeks out and annihilates all, ignorance leading to 




the misinterpretation of sexuality. Many people in this society grow 
up with little or no understanding of sex — either in terms of the 
facts concerning human anatomy and reproduction or the 
psychological and sociological aspects of human sexuality. Most sex 
education still remains ineffective, unrecognized, and for the most 
part non-existent. Education in this area should include not only 
human anatomy, but should enable the participants to understand 
what it means to be a sexual being and to understand the process 
for making decisions about sex which are consistent with one s 
own values. Specific information about ;uch related matters as 
venereal disease, homosexuality and lesbianism, abortion, and birth 
control should also be included. 



Sex Roles in 
Advertising 



Sex Roles in 
Children’s Books 



Alternative Family 
Styles 



Rights of 
Homosexuals 



Standards for 
Sexual Responsibilities 



Institutional Response 
to Changing 
Sexual Behavior 



Equal Rights 



10.7a Resolved: We condemn the deliberate use of female and male 
models as sex objects in advertising playthings to be exploited in 
the pretense of selling products to a society. 

10.7b Resolved: Editors, textbook writers, and children’s authors 
must present in their characters a far wider range of models for , 
mothers, fathers, career patterns, and family life styles in children's 
books. Roles of women other than mother-homemaker 
particularly need expansion. 

10.7c Resolved: The nuclear family of mother, father and children, 
while the predominate pattern in United States society, is not the 
only option available. Alternatives must be recognized and sanctioned 
as legitimate and fulfilling choices. Examples include childless 
marriages, single-state, communal families. 

10.7d Resolved: The homosexual is the object of ridicule and 
oppression. As with other minority groups, the homosexual or lesbian 
has a right to all privileges of citizenship, which should in no way be 
circumscribed solely as a result of his or her preference for a 
sex partner. 

10. 7e We recognize these three understandings as practical, 
realistic standards for sexual responsibility in our society: 

(1) Sex is natural and normal in every person’s life. There is nothing 
shameful or degrading about it. (2) Sexual relationships involve 
concern and responsibility for others. They should not be used in a 
way that exploits or harms anyone else. (3) The responsibility for 
knowing about and practicing contraception should be a mutual 
decision, shared equally by both men anci women. 

Resolved: We call upon representatives of all institutions (families, 
religious bodies, schools, businesses and government) to make them 
a part of their own understanding and to work at sharing them with 
their members, clients or constituencies. 

10.7f Resolved: All institutions of our society (religious bodies, 
schools, businesses and government) must review their attitudes 
and religious practices toward what constitutes normal behavior. 
Institutions especially have been and continue to be the source of 
negative and narrow-minded attitudes. By tagging certain people as 
“sinners” they contribute to individual difficulties, making individuals 
the object of considerable gossip and ostracism. High schools still 
turn away students who become pregnant before graduation. 
Businesses and government fire the homosexual who is “found out.” 
Such practices must be ended. 

10.7g Resolved: We must encourage and support those who have 



Repeal of Sexually 
Restrictive Legisla- 
tion 



Prohibit Sex 
Discrimination 



Federal Funds for 
Sex Education 



Minority Resolution 



been the object of social sexual oppression (e.g. homosexuals, 
divorced persons and women) and demand for them equal rights and 
treatment in our society. We support their legitimate needs to 
organize and to work for freedom to choose behavior. 

10.7h Resolved: We demand sweeping repeal of legislation which 
restricts and represses individual freedoms. Laws, as those 
forbidding fornication, adultery, homosexuality, lesbianism and 
so-called "unnatural acts ” restrict such freedom. Furthermore, laws 
restricting or prohibiting abortion or distribution of contraceptives 
affect this right. Contraception and education must be available to 
every person and abortion is an individual right and choice, a matter 
to be solely decided by the woman and her physician. We demand that 
the state take the responsibility to provide and make easily 
accessible such services to any individual where services are not 
readily available. This does not imply that the state be vested with 
the power to force in any way such services on any individual or 
group of individuals, as has been the practice of some state welfare 
and family planning agencies. We demand that all other sexual 
legislation be repealed. Existing laws pertaining to aggression and 
exploitation are sufficient to protect individuals from sexual behavior 
such as assault and kidnapping which leads to physical or 
psychological harm, as in child molestation. 

10. 7i Resolved: Acts of discrimination related to sex and sexual 
behavior, i.e., job discrimination (governments and businesses which 
refuse to hire homosexuals); tax exemptions (unmarried couples 
cannot file joint income tax returns); marital contracts (homosexuals 
and lesbians are not allowed the right to marriage); and housing 
(denial to unmarried couples, communal living groups, homosexuals 
and lesbians) must be prohibited by law. 

10.7j Resolved: We demand that the Federal government make 

funds available through the National Institute of Mental Health to 
set up national guidelines on uniformity, in regard to curriculum and 
teachers, so that each state, community or school district can 
establish programs of education for human sexuality. Such programs 
will undertake the education of parents, teachers, professionals, and 
the community at large, as well as youth. The context of these 
programs should include not only human anatomy, but should enable 
the participants to understand what it means to be a sexual being 
and the process for making decisions about sex which are consistent 
with one's own values. Specific information about sex-related matters 
as venereal disease, homosexuality, abortion and birth control should 
also be included. We demand that the Office of Education cooperate 
in this effort. 

Through programs of sex education, the misconceptions of sex and 
sexuality will be eliminated and the sexual behavior of each 
individual will be governed by personal values rather than ignorance. 

Record of Vote on Resolutions: Because of the controversy of the 
above recommendations, the Task Force decided to record the vote: 
40 in favor; 27 opposed; 6 abstentions. 

10.7k The following minority resolution was submitted for the 
record: 

We members of the Task Force on Values, Ethics and Culture assert 
that the development of the individual is derived largely from the 
family which is the primary unit of society. The individual and the 

' *- 



family draw their strength from the mutual love of parent(s)* and 
child (or children). The recognition of the family as the primary unit 
of society is vitally important to healthy social living. Legal 
approbation of sexual relationships contrary to the present legal 
and moral position of the family are harmful to the welfare of the 
family and society. 

We also believe that our country should view with compassion and 
concern the individuals involved in sex relationships considered 
legally abnormal. 



* The word “parent(s)” means any person or persons considered as parent(s) 
or in loco parentis according to » '-V. 



About the Caucus The delegate committee to plan the final plenary session made no 

Statements requirement as to membership number required for forming a 

caucus or to qualify for including a statement in the proceedings- 
Some of the caucuses were large; others were made up of one or two 
individuals. Some prepared statements for inclusion in the final 
report; others read a statement at the closing session. 

Like the Task Forces, caucuses were given the option of bringing 
recommendations to the final plenary session for a vote. The results 
of voting on caucus recommendations at the final session are 
presented on page 285. 






OtZA 



Asian-Pacific 

Caucus 



Emergency Detention 
Law Should be 
Repealed 



11.1 Because of the Education Act approved in 1970 by the Congress 
and administered by the Office of Education under HEW, Asians 
were excluded as a disadvantaged group. Many Asian students will 
continue to suffer from the inequities of our society, primarily 
within the Asian ghettos in New York, San Francisco, and Los 
Angeles and in rural areas. 

Therefore be it resolved, this White House Conference on Youth 
communicate directly with the President of the United States about 
this blatant discriminatory practice. 

Be it further resolved the Education Act approved in 1970 be 
amended to include persons of Asian ancestry. 

Be it further resolved that those persons of Asian descent qualifying 
under poverty standards receive the appropriate services of the 
government. 

11.1a During World War II, thousands of American citizens of 
Japanese ancestry were forcibly evacuated from their homes, and 
relocated in isolated detention camps as prisoners in various parts 
of the country. These people were incarcerated, not because of any 
crime committed, but because their ancestry caused suspicion of 
being a danger to the security of our nation. These fears proved 
foundless as not one case of espionage or sabotage was committed 
by any persons of Japanese ancestry in America according to FBI 
files. The incarceration resulted in high loss of property and cost 
of the self-respect of a people. 

The legal precedence of the incarceration led to the adoption of the 
Internal Security Act of 1950. The act gives the President of the 
United States the power to declare a state of national emergency 
at his own discretion without consulting Congress. At this time all 
constitutional rights for all citizens are suspended, including the 
freedoms of speech, press, and assembly. 

This resolution is aimed directly at Title II, the emergency detention 
provision of the Internal Security Act. This section of the act 
empowers the President to incarcerate any persons he deems 
dangerous to national security, and to imprison the individuals 
for any length of time while depriving the individuals of their 
constitutions! rights to indictment, trial, and appeal. 

We, the Asian-Pacific Caucus, feel that the emergency detention 
authority gives too much power to a single individual while failing to 
provide proper checks and balances for its enforcement. Further, 
we feel that the law is unconstitutional and is an arbitrary tool 
of oppression. 

Therefore: The Asian-Pacific Caucus, along with the unanimous 
support of the Black, Chicano, and Indian caucuses and the Race 
Relations Task Force, demand the immediate repeal of Title II, 
the emergency detention provision of the Internal Security Act of 
1950. We further demand that Congress shall not enact legislation 
with the intent of oppressing an individual due to his race, color, 
or political ideology. (Submitted by Asian-Pacific Caucus.) 




255 



t 

Minority Report 


11.1b We, the members of the Asian- Pacific Caucus, recommend 
that: 

The United States Government and the citizens of the continental 
United States recognize the right of Pacific and Asian peoples 
( including Asian Americans, Hawaiians, Guamanians, Micronesians, 
and Samoans), to self-determination and preservation of cultures. We 
further recommend that all means cf self-determination and 
preservation of cultures be afforded to Pacific and Asian peoples 
even to the preservation of land and natural resources that are held 
sacred by the different cultures and peoples of the Pacific. 


Black Caucus 


11.2 We, the Black Caucus of £he 1971 White House Conference on 
Youth, strongly back our black Congressmen. We will make plans to 
organize a National Black Conference to deal with the needs and 
concerns of black people. We feel that we were not invited here to 
express our views, be heard, or have our views considered, but only 
to lend credibility to this conference. Therefore, we say to the 
administration of the White House Conference on Youth, especially 
to the President of the United States, business is business and 
bullshit is bullshit. , 


Indian Council 


11.3 We, the Native American Indian Youth delegates to the White 
House Conference on Youth, concerned to insure a better tomorrow 
for our people, as well as to correct the tragedies visited upon us in 
the past — a past which has resulted in the Native American being 
the poorest, most under-educated, ill-housed, short-lived, and 
neglected of all Americans — do hereby make the following 
recommendations: 


Indian Education 


1 1.3a (a) That adequate Federal funds be made available for the 
publications of tribal textbooks upon request of tribal governing 
bodies or Indian communities; 

(b) That the image of the American Indian be changed through 
presentation of his true history to this nation; 

(c) That the Federal government establish Indian junior colleges 
in strategic locations with respect to Indian population; 

(d) That remedial reading programs be established in high schools. 

(e) That BIA schools be completely controlled by Indian people 
and financed by the governr. lent; 

(f) That Head Start programs be turned over to the Indian people 
with classes taught in the native language. The subject content must 
be directly related to Indian life on respective reservations. Indian 
history and language courses may be supplemented with instruction 
by older Indians versed in Indian culture; 

(g) That elementary teachers be allowed to teach Indian students 
only after taking part in a concentrated orientation program, taught 
by qualified Indian people; 

(h) That competent Indian counselors, selected by Indian parents 
and students, be made available on the elementary through 
college levels; 

2S3 : 



Legal Rights 



(j) That it be understood that a native Indian person need not have 

a degree in order to teach Indian courses in Indian controlled schools; 

(k) That adequate financial aid to scholarships, fellowships, and 
grants be appropriated. Funds appropriated by Congress shall be 
channeled through Indian Tribal Councils; 

(l) That tutorial programs, as well as Federal funding for Indians 
attending schools (elementary through college levels), be established. 

(m) That summer programs be established for Indian college 
students in order to provide exposure to professional fields and the 
experience involved therein. Such programs shall be federally funded; 

(n) That Indian student residents, whose tribes have contributed 
land for educational institutions, shall not pay that state’s tuition, 
and non-resident Indians shall pay in-state tuition; 

(o) That adequate Federal funding and facilities be provided for 
the educational needs of Indian students who cannot benefit from 
reguiar BIA schools or state public schools, such as drop-outs, 
slow learners, and the physically or mentally handicapped, 

(p) That schools be located throughout reservations to allow 
children to attend school from home, rather than being removed 
to boarding schools. 

1 1.3b (a) That each state and Federal probation board have Indian 
members; 

(b) That the Indians have their own federally-funded rehabilitation 
programs; 

(c) That legal education be provided to inform Indians of their legal 
rights; 

(d) That Indians be tried by all-Indian juries; 

(e) That the House Concurrent Resolution 95 be passed by Congress; 

(f) Thai ell national televised programs concerning Indians be 
reviewed and edited by the Indians concerned; 

(g) That we encourage and support involvement of Indian students 
in the formulation of school policies; 



(h) That we endorse tribal jurisdiction over Indian land, water, and 
treaty rights; 

(i) That Indian parents have the right to determine where their 
children attend school; 



(j) That funds be provided for Indians to retain legal counsel of their 
choice for the protection of their individual rights, 



25 #- 





Poverty 



The Draft 



Drugs 



Ethics, Values 
and Cultures 



La Raza Caucus 



Ad Hoc WHCY 

Implementation 

Committee 



0 




(k) That a Cabinet level Agency be created to have exclusive 
responsibility over all relations between the Federal government and 
the American Indians and Alaskan Natives, to be headed by a 
person called the Secretary of Indian Affairs; 

(l) That we support an Indian Trust Counsel Authority; 

(m) That we endorse the establishment of the National Indian 
Chairman’s Associations. 

2.1.3c That the root causes of Indian poverty must be attacked at 
all levels, therefore: 

(1) We request the acceleration of Indian resource development 
by funding. 

(2) We support Indian development of the resources of then 
reservations. 

(3) We support adequate funding for up-grading and re-training 
of reservation manpower through vocational schools. 

(4) We support Federal programs that would provide 
adequate housing and encourage home ownership among 
American Indians. 

(5) We request adequate funding for community facilities for 
the entire Indian community (i.e.; hospitals, schools, offices, 
recreation centers, public libraries and educational television). 

(6) We endorse the National Welfare Rights Organization's 
Bill of a guaranteed annual income. 

(7) We support tribally-owned, tribally-based industry. 

11.3d That Indians be exempt from the draft and other forms of 
mandatory national service. 

11.3e That drug education be included in the curriculum of all 
schools attended by Indian students. 

11 . 3f (a) That the public media explicitly recognize the Indian 
contribution to the American cultural heritage; 

(b) That we demand a halt to any attempts by any form of public 
media to demean Indian cultures and to perpetuate harmful stero- 
types of the American Indian; 

(c) That we support the democracy thai allows all people to pursue 
their own goals and their own visions of life; 

(d) That we ren .nd the American people that the American 
nation is a state of mind. Only the land endures, you can have the 
country — the land is ours. 



11.4 (The La Raza Caucus statement appeared previously as the 
statement of the Spanish-speaking Caucus of the Task Force 
on Race and Minority Group Relations; See Section 9.7) 



11.5 Background: This Conference has succeeded in bringing 
together a vast number of youth who represent a diverse cross- 
section of attitudes, political ideologies, life-styles, ethnic/racial 
background, and ages. This has been accomplished at one time 
in one place. It would indeed be tragic if the discussion, dialogue, 
fears, awareness and consciousness which has emerged during 
this Conference are lost through our failure to initiate action 



APA 



at the grass roots in an attempt to bring our recommendations into 
being. This discussion, dialogue, fear, awareness and consciousness 
must be shared by large numbers of the American populace 
if we are to succeed. Clearly, then, we must establish and fund 
some means by which interested delegates who are committed 
and dedicated to trying to bring about this change, through 
the system, by working at the grass roots level may have some 
chance at success. Our recommendations will fall on deaf ears 
and enjoy only lip service in response unless we can bring 
meaningful pressure to bear upon the policy-makers and decision- 
makers in our society. 

Implementation: As a means of creating the funding and machinery 
for such grass-roots pressure, it is recommended that a 
Committee of Correspondence be established to maintain com- 
munication among interested delegates and keep them apprised 
of developments with regard to the impact our Conference report 
has made and the status of implementation of all recommendations 
at all levels of government and society. 

In addition, regional follow-up Task Force listening posts must be 
established to facilitate input to the Committees of Correspondence. 

Finally, we must implement some means of publishing for all 
delegates a “State of the 1571 Youth Conference Report” on an 
annual basis so that all delegates may judge the progress made and 
gear community action groups accordingly. 

We, as youth, are told time and time again how important it 
is to work at the grass roots level for change. Surely, then, this 
attempt to establish machinery to that end will be met favorably 
by those in government and other social institutions who hold the 
purse strings and favor work “through the system. It is 
further recommended that this proposal be presented to a plenary 
session of the Conference for approval. We must not lose this 
opportunity for effective persuasion and implementation of our 
Conference report. 



Appalachian Youth 
Caucus 




11.6 In September CBS began its new television season with the 
theme “We’re putting it all together.” If you watch television 
on Tuesday nights, you know that what came together, back-to-back, 
were the stars of three of America's most popular T.V. programs: 

“The Beverly Hillbillies,” “Green Acres,” and Hee-Haw. 

Each week millions of Americans gather around their sets to watch 
this combination, which has to be the most intensive effort 
ever exerted by a nation to belittle, demean, and otherwise destroy 
a minority people within its boundaries. Within the three shows 
on one night, hillbillies are shown being conned into buying 
the White House, coddling a talking pig, and rising from a corn 
patch to crack the sickest jokes on T.V. If similar programs 
even approaching the maliciousness of these were broadcast today 
on Blacks, Indians, or Chicanos, there would be an immediate 
public outcry from every liberal organization and politician 
in the country. The now culture people would organize marches 
and prime-time boycotts. America is allowed to continue laughing 

at this minority group. 

Not only is the nation apathetic toward Appalachians, but 
President Nixon has shown the degree of concern he has when he 



259 



announced that he would have visited the Hyden disaster if it had 
not been for "the bad weather,” 

The nation and the President continue through their programs 
to tell Appalachians that for them to live, their culture must 
die. For Appalachians to live, not only must the Appalachian culture 
die but part of America must die. The American dream will be 
tainted with one more IF. 

In this decade, only one positive force has been exerted for 
Appalachia. That force, the Appalachian Regional Commission, was 
severely restricted from its beginning. The ARC was given one- 
twentieth of the amount of money it ta>\cs to fight the Vietnam War 
for one year and told to use that amount over a six year period 
to correct almost 200 years of abuse to an area of 13 states. 

This area has been described ‘‘as an island of poverty in a sea 
of affluence.” 

President Nixon has decided that this island of neglected and 
exploited Appalachia should continue to exist as an example to the 
world of America’s concern for the poor by announcing that he 
will not ask for the extension of the ARC. 

We ask that this conference join us in rejecting the President's 
actions toward Appalachia, and that the Conference support us in 
demanding the following actions by the President and Congress: 

(a) Continuance of the ARC with a minimum of a doubled 
budget. 

(b) The removal of the administration of safety regulations 
in the mines from political control groups. 

(c) An end to strip-mining on land which cannot be 
restored completely to a usable state. 

(d) Guaranteeing constructive and non-demeaning jobs to all 
Appalachians, including the more than three million who 
have been forced into an economic refuge in northern 
industrial cities. 

(e) Agreeing with the Appalachians that the historical and 
ever present assumption that academic education is superior 
to practical or vocational education is a farce. Also vocational 
education should be an integral part of elementary, secondary 
and even higher education instead of a secondary role in 
Appalachia. 

(f) Require that all schools and colleges in Appalachia teach 
Appalachian studies and recognize the cultural uniqueness 

of the Appalachian people. Also, that the Federal government 
fund Appalachian studies as it funds other minority group 
studies. 

(g) Urge prosecution of the United Mine Workers for 

their failure to fairly represent coal miners in matters of health 
and safety. 

(h) Urge that the Federal government and the Federal 
court system sanction legal recourse without regard to fault 
toward mine owners when their mines are not in accordance 
with the mine safety regulations and an accident results. 

(i) That the Congress should require that V 2 of all college 
work-study monies be spent for service-learning within 
Appalachia. 

(j) Finally, allow the Appalachian people the right of 
self-determination in . deciding their future. 



Catholic 

Coordinating 

Committee 



Basic Income Floor 



Family Life 




11.7 The White House Conference on Youth has been assembled 
to enable a select group of persons, youths and adults, to 
exchange views, express convictions, debate issues and make 
recommendations for the guidance of our nation during the 
next decade. Basic to the achievement to these goals are 
certain intangible but very real qualities to which all must be 

committed: . 

(a) Respect for the person, the opinions and the convictions 

of everyone present, especially of those sharing common 
assignments. 

(b) Commitment to truth, which brings an openness to 
new insights and an honesty in dialogue. 

(c) Desire for justice, a justice which permeates society, 
governs our systems and directs the relationship of group to 
group and individual to individual. 

(d) Spirit of love, both in attitudes and action, which engenders 
a warmth, a generosity and a compassion between all 
persons and groups. 

All of these are spiritual qualities and reinforce the fact that 
man is a spiritual being, endowed by God with marvelous faculties 
to achieve personal fulfillment and a spiritual destiny. Man's 
spiritual nature and his ultimate destiny must be the background 
for all considerations pertaining to his welfare, as well as the 
underlying directive force for ali his actions. Recognition of, and 
respect for, this spiritual dimension of the human person must 
permeate all social relations, and indeed the very fabric of 
society itself. 

Against this background, we emphasize the following propositions, 
limited in number, pertaining to some of the deliberations of 
the White House Conference on Youth: 

11.7a For any proper functioning, as an individual or as a member 

-vf a society, a person must have the basic necessities of life food, 
clothing, health care and education. Therefore, every person ^ 
must be assured of a basic income floor below which no one's 
income should fall. This should be sufficient to supply these 
basic necessities. It should be supplied through employment or 
social insurances, but where these are unavailable, through an 
income maintenance program of public assistance which is 
financed and administered by the Federal government, and 
administered in a manner which respects the human dignity of 
the recipient. 

11.7b The development of the individual is derived from the family 
which is the primary unit of society. The individual and the 
family draw their strength from the mutual love of parent(s) and 
child (or children). The recognition of the family as the primary 
unit of society is vitally important to health social living. Legal 
approbation of sexual relationships contrary to the present 
legal and moral position of the family are harmful to the welfare 
of the family and society. Alternative life styles (e.g. tribal life, 
kibbutz and certain forms of communal life) are possible within the 
framework of present law. Where legislative changes are needed to 
provide additional life styles that do not threaten the family 
unit they can be provided. 

We also believe that our country should view with compassion 
and concern . the individuals involved in sex relationships 




261 



Quality of Life 



Old Age Assistance 



Abortion 



Aid to Non-Public 
Schools 







considered legally abnormal. Legislative review and amelioration, 
where needed, of laws governing so-called “victimless crime’’ 

(e.g. alcoholism, drug addiction, homosexuality, etc.) should 
be provided. 

11.7c The quality of life in our country must enhance every 
individual’s potential for personal fulfillment, social contribution 
and achievement of spiritual destiny. This means an achievement of 
peace, elimination of social conflict and a commitment to 
excellence. Therefore, we join the many voices calling for an end of 
war in Indochina and the Middle East. We urge that all institutions 
and groups, both governmental and non-governmental, respond 
to the aspirations of minority groups and assure them full 
and equal participation in the life of our country. We urge a renewed 
emphasis on and support of the cultural elements of society, 
such as arts. 

1 1.7d We make a special plea for the aged, that they might 
experience the same quality of life. Many of our senior citizens 
are poor, most are lonely, and all have special problems of living. 
They should be guaranteed an adequate income, the attention of 
neighbors and other friendly visitors, and the assurance of a life of 
peace and security in their advanced years. 

We urge *hat social security benefits and old age assistance 
payments be increased to provide the assurance of economic se- 
curity. We urge that the Administration on Aging of the Federal 
government receive increased, not decreased, funding and that this 
Administration assume aggressive leadership in assuring a 
high quality of life for the elderly. 

11. 7e Quality of life presumes a respect for the right to life. The 
right to life is guaranteed by our Constitution, respected by 
society, and considered by all as a most precious possession. This, 
if meaningful at all, must apply not oniy to the strong and 
affluent, but also to the weak, the poor and the handicapped. It 
must be defended and protected for all, but especially for those 
who are least able to defend and protect themselves. This defense 
must be embodied in the attitudes and actions of everyone 
in our society. But above all, it must receive the protection of 
our laws. 

Among the weakest and most in need of protection is the unborn 
child. This child has the right to be born, which ri^ht must 
be respected and protected. Its existence cannot be left to the 
private determination or whim of other individuals. It cannot 
protect itself, but deserves the defense and protection of a society 
which cares for its weakest members. This protection must 
find expression in laws which prohibit abortion. 

Moreover, the ill-effects of illegal abortion must be overcome, not 
by legalizing abortion, but by education programs, service and 
action programs, and by enforcement of those aws which prohibit 
the killing of the unborn child. 

11. 7f One of the paramount challenges of our time is to recreate 
in our important institutions an environment congenial to the 
genuine pluralism that is indispensible to quality human 
development. Specifically, this nation needs a legal and educational 
system which will foster the truly human development of the 

'•<r>CsQ if 



262 



person through cultural, ethnic, religious and intellectual diversity. 

We do not reject the collectivization of many human activities, 
but we doubt its application to the education of the mind and spirit. 

A fundamental question is: can the law provide for educational 
diversity in our country or are we doomed to the establishment of 
an educational monolith? If pluralism dies in education, its 
ultimate survival in the cultural and intellectual areas of American 
life is threatened. Pluralism on the cultural and deeper personal-value 
levels is a fundamental good; from diversity on these levels come 
strength, creative option, and — more important — the strongest 
practical foundation for personal freedom. 



But apart from this general societal problem, we wish to 
express our concern for making plurality of educational choice 
available to all citizens regardless of race, economic class or 
creed. For the poor, America has provided no such choice. They 
can neither reside in the attendance area of their preferred 
school nor employ a non-public school to replace it. They have, 
in short, no option other than to attend the compulsory public 
school in the neighborhood they are forced by circumstances 
to inhabit. If the school is in a poo; ;• iborhood, there is no 
access to the social culture that sets t>- ; ..entral themes of modern 
life; if the neighborhood is black, there is little opportunity 
for social or racial integration. 

In recent years a serious search at least has begun for solutions 
to the basic question of how can society provide freedom of 
choice for all classes, but particularly the poor. Many different 
proposals have been proffered: tax credits, tuition grants, purchase 
of services, auxiliary services, vouchers and categorical aid. 

We maintain that every existing and proposed form of state or 
Federal aid to education should be evaluated. In seeking such aid 
neither the non-public nor the public sectors should be viewed 
as competing for scarce educational dollars but as cooperating to 
attract increased community support for education and to 
make the most efficient use of available funds. On the practical 
level this means that legislation extending any degree of puohc 
support to educational services offered in non-public schools must 
include the provision for adequate funding sources which do not 
diminish or divert funds already committed to and needed by 
the public sector. Citizens, educators, and legislators should be 
fully informed of the importance of the non-public sector in 
maintaining and improving community educational services at a 
unit cost lower tnan that required sn public institutions. At 
present non-pubiic schools save the taxpayers billions of dollars each 
year in the states. Models of financial aid should permit families, 
including the poor, to choose among educations of varying styles. 

Such assistance would necessarily demand assurance of fairness 
in the application of funds, safeguards against discrimination, 
and accounting systems to restrict tax monies to secular 
purposes in accord with the Schempp ^nd Allen criteria. 

The achievement of church-related schcc.s in educating Americans 
through a quality of professional se>'vic .1 that has enriched 
American education was acknowledge;' -vy Justice White in the 
Board of Education v. Allen J.S. 236): 

Private education has played and is piaying a significant and 
valuable role in raising national levels of knowledge, compe- 
tence and experience. Americans care about the quality of 



the secular education available to their children. They have 
considered high quality education to be an indispensable 
ingredient for achieving the kind of nation and the kind of 
citizenry that they have desired to create. Considering 
this attitude, the continued willingness to rely on non-public 
school systems, including parochial systems, strongly 
suggests that a wide segment of informed opinion, 
legislative and otherwise, has found that those schools 
do an acceptable job of providing secular education to 
their students. This judgment is further evidence that 
parochial schools are performing, in addition to their 
sectarian function, the task of secular education. 

Properly fashioned financial aid to education according to the 
above criteria could — for the first time in our history — provide 
variety, freedom of c>- >' ' countability, integration and 
equality of opportunity w- h tax financed education. 

We urge the states and the Federal government to undertake 
serious experimentation with all of these systems of aid. It 
is time that the rhetoric of freedom, equality and plurality of choice 
be given substance for all income classes in American society. 



Caucus for 11.8 Every delegate at the White House Conference on Youth is a 

Implementation of participant in the caucus for implementation. This is because 

White House no one made this trip to one of the nation's most isolated 

Conference on Youth spots without expectation that there would be implementation 

of the proposals put forth at the Conference. 

Most delegates have expressed some despair at the thought 
of implementation of many proposals on the Federal level. Without 
a drastic reordering of the present priorities, implementation 
is impossible. 

Therefore implementation must be largely left to the community 
level, to action by the nation's voluntary youth-serving 
organizations. President Nixon early in his administration recognized 
the strength of the nation’s voluntary activities. These organi- 
zations operate at the grass roots level, they are not moved 
by political considerations, they are problem oriented rather 
than political oriented. 

Implementation: The Caucus for Implementation recommends 
that the implementation of the recommendations of the White House 
Conference on Youth be made a number one priority by the 
national youth-serving agencies. 




That the.a voluntary organizations attack the problem of white 
racism, poverty, reordering of priorities, legal and civil rights 
within their own organizations and that they act as the conscience 
of the nation with freedom to criticize agencies of government 
which fail to implement their own laws, rules and regulations. 

These voluntary organizations hope that the gap between government 
and people can be narrowed — that the government will no 
longer fear its own people. This can be shown by scheduling 
conferences at places such as Washington whici; is the nation’s 
and the peoples’ capital. 




264 



The National Conference of Christians and Jews obligates 
itself to a series of regional conferences of voluntary organizations 
which will work out specific plans for implementation of the 
White House Conference on Youth at the community and state 
level. We urge these voluntary organizations and the Governor’s 
Committees on Children and Youth to work together for the 
implementation of these proposals. We welcome any cooperation of 
agencies on the Federal and state level. 

It is our opinion that the resources of these organizations are 
vast but largely untapped. We hope that every participant at 
the conference will take advantage of this offer to implement the 
recommendations of the White House Conference on Youth. 

Only through this kind of voluntary effort can our democracy 
survive. 



Caucus on Catholic 
Charities 



Civil Liberties 
Caucus 




11.9 Resolved: We, members of the Task Force on Values, Ethics 
and Culture, assert that the development of the individual is 
derived largely from the family which is the primary unit of society. 
The individual and the family draw their strength from the 
mutual love of parent(s) and child (or children). The recognition 
of the family as the primary unit of society is vitally important 
to healthy social living. Legal approbation of sexual relationships 
contrary to the present legal and moral position of the family 
are harmful to the we/ fare of the family and society. Alternate 
life styles (e.g. tribal life, kibbutz, and certain forms of communal 
life) are possible within the framework of the present law. 

Where legislative changes are needed to provide additional life 
styles that do not threaten the family unit they can be provided. 

We also believe that our country should view with compassion 
and concern the individuals involved in sex relationships considered 
'"gaily abnormal. Legislative review and amelioration, where 
needed, of laws governing so-called “victimless crime (e.g. 
alcoholism, drug addiction, homosexuality, etc.) should be 
provided. 



11.10 The Civil Liberties Caucus, composed of members of the 
Legal Rights and Justice Task Force, believe it is necessary 
for this Conference to address itself to current national issues 
in addition to making many worthwhile recommendations. 

Although the Conference is proposing making excellent recom- 
mendations, it is not expressing to our nation the degree of 
alienation and frustration of many youth. 

We feel this Conference should express its complete abhorrence 
and repulsion with the unwarranted political surveillance now 
being carried out by the FBI on American citizens, and that we 
demand the immediate resignation of J. Edgar Hoover as Director 

of the FBI. 

Although Mr. Hoover has built an effective crime-fighting 
organization, his arrogance and his intimidation of dissident youth 
groups has dearly made him a symbol of repression. We feel 
that over 45 years of service is long enough. 

A resolution, as outlined in paragraph 2, was presented to the 
Legal Rights Task Force. The resolution was the last on 



265 



the agenda, the vote was held at 1:30 a.m., and only 51 members 
were present. A large portion of those voting we re adult delegates 
and did not represent the young viewpoint on this vital concern. 
Because the vote was very close, we feel this issue should 
be brought before the entire Conference. 

11.10a We move that the 1971 White House Conference on Youth 
declare its complete abhorrence and repulsion with the unwarranted 
political surveillance now being carried out by the FBI on 
American citizens, and that we demand the immediate resignation 
of J. Edgar Hoover as Director of the FBI. 



Commitment to 11.11 The United States of America, the nation with the largest 

Education Caucus gross national product in the world, should offer an educational 

system which equips her people to live meaningfully in a 
rapidly changing society. Yet our nation hasn’t met this goal 
because misplaced priorities have diverted both human and 
financial resources. 

Federal, state, and local governments must support the 
recommendations outlined by the 1971 White House Task Force 
on Education. The Federal government must reorder national 
spending priorities so that the Federal contribution to primary, 
secondary, and higher education will total 25 percent of the 
national budget (the current Federal contribution to education is 
3.67 percent). In addition, state and local governments must 
also re-examine their spending proprieties and determine ways 
in which more funds can be channeled into education. 

1. Defense spending must be reduced. The Federal government 
currently spends 46.45 percent of the Federal tax dollar on 
defense. These funds must be redirected so that a large proportion 
will be spent on education — to establish new, more effective 
educational systems, including programs to serve individuals from 
low income backgrounds and those with nonacademic interests. 

2. The United States must set a specific date to withdraw 

all troops from the Indochina conflict. American tax dollars must 
be redirected from this expenditure to people’s problems, 
including education, housing, the environment, poverty, drug 
education, etc. The Federal government must not revert American 
tax dollars from his conflict to military research and development. 

3. Special priority for the distribution of these new funds must 
include funding black colleges, small private institutions, and other 
institutions which serve a significant number of mino, ity students. 

4. With the reallocation of Federal tax dollars we propose that 
methods should be developed that rely less on personal property 
taxes as the single means of financing education at the 

local level. 

5. A system of accountability must be developed for duties of 
states in the use of this increased share of Federal monies 
for education. 



The Conservative 
Caucus 




11.12 In view of whai has transpired at the White House Conference 
on Youth, we, as concerned delegates, deem it necessary 

to submit this minority report. 

• 



266 



Foreign Policy 



Student Rights 



Environment 



0 




We have witnessed the alienation of a large number of delegates 
due to: 

1. The politically biased staff, Task Force members and prelimina.y 
Task Force reports; 

2. The rampant emotionalism which has dominated the Conference 
hindering rational discussion of the issues. 

3. The selection process which resulted in an inadequate 
representation of the political cross-section of American youth. 

These have produced a Conference which in no way represents 
the opinion of American youth. The American people must 
realize that youth does not speak with one voic.:. We are as diverse 
in our views as the nation itself. To view youth as monolithic 
is an insult to members of our generation, for it implies that 
individual members do not have minds of their own, but merely 
follow the mouthings "of self-appointed “leaders” whose only 
qualification for leadership is their ability to seize a microphone. 

11.12a In the area of foreign policy in particular we have witnessed 
an abundance of emotionalism, a lack of understanding of the 
true nature of Communism and a failure to accept just national 
interests in foreign policy. It is not immoral to be concerned 
with the defense of the American people. 

We have witnessed at this Conference a new isolationism — an 
isolationism even more dangerous than that of the 1930’s. 

This is an outlook which has produced conflicts and/inconsistencies 
while still adhering to general principles. ' 

On the one hand the delegates condemn the imposition of American 
standards on foreign nations, while at the same time calling 
for the overthrow of the legal government of South Vietnam and 
interference in the internal affairs of other nations such as 
Pakistan and the Sudan. 

America cannot shirk its rightful role in the community of nations. 
The delegates have shown themselves to be shallow in their 
understanding of the complexities of foreign policy and the realities 
of American involvement in world affairs. 

11.12b We are distressed at the lack of real concern toward 
campus issues and student rights, There have been no 
innovations in the areas of free speech on campus, the presentation 
of diverse viewpoints, the unfair mandatory student fees and 
alternative paths to financing such as the voucher system and 
deferred tuition. We call for the exploration of new concepts and 
outiooks to preserve the individual rights of the student, to 
ensure his or her ability to obtain a quality education and to 
provide new methods of promoting the continuance and growth 
of private schools. 

11.12c Grieved at missing Earth Day back home, the delegates 
to the Environment Task Force contented themselves with 
pushing their pet projects in Colorado at the taxpayers’ expense. 
Rather than representing average Americans, these delegates; — both 
youth and adult — were the activist olite of the ecology 
movement. They expressed a near unanimous feeling that over- 



267 



population is the major cause of environmental problems. They 
recommended that the government promote extended and 
extensive birth control practices and the right of the mother to 
destroy the fetus. 

Few delegates viewed the problems of environmental quality in 
a rational manner. Many of the delegates would have the average 
American believe that he has little more than ten hours to live. 

Such emotionalism carried into the question of Appalachian coal- 
mining. The delegates voted to remove the “blood-stained money 
of the capitalists” — as one delegate stated it — into the hands 
of a nationalized coal industry owned by “The people of Appalachia.” 
In so acting, most delegates showed a callous disregard of 
individual rights (including those of the unborn), ignorance of 
the American economic system, and a near-totalitarian desire for 
government enforcement of their particular views. 

We believe that realistic solutions to the problems of ecology 
depend greatly on individual initiatives and a personal commitment 
to improving our environment. Environmentalists must not 
disregard the existing economic system, but rather use the free 
enterprise system to help solve these problems. Laissez faire 
capitalism and individual commitment are the keys to solving 
environmental problems. 

ll,12d In terms of economic policy, we strongly condemn the 
Conference recommendation of a guaranteed annual income 
of sixty-five hundred dollars fur a family of four. As with many other 
proposals, we concur in the observation of the Denver Post that 
“the delegates indicated ... a lack of understanding of the 
American economic system.” 

We deplore the trend towards enslaved dependency on government 
for more and more millions of Americans. The American 
nation cannot exist with millions continually living off a government 
dole. Our policy should move towards the elevation from welfare 
to active participation in the American economy. To this end, 
we call for increased job training, hiring policies bas’d on merit 
and ability, and the availability of more capital minority 
groups in particular. We would remind the Conference that we 
are living in a society which erroneously forces individuals 
to seek a collegiate education while at the same time confronting a 
dire shortage of trained and skilled craftsmen. 

We must rededicate ouiselves towards providing income and 
occupational opportunities for all Amercians. 

Implementation: Throughout the Conference, delegates have 
attacked the performance of government in solving our nation's 
ills in one breath while in the next breath calling for more 
government intervention and expenditure. But the solution is not 
more government involvement. It is apparent that new answers 
must be sought. 



We therefore oppose the proposals for the Family Assistance 
Plan and a Federal Health Insurance Program as a return 
to the mistaken and ineffective policies of the thirties. We ask 
for new directions, new perspectives, new approaches to our 
nation's social problems. We call for a reinvigoration of the 
private and independent sectors and a re-evaluation of the 



Council of National 
Organizations for 
Children and Youth 



The District of 
Columbia Colonial 
People’s Caucus 



Free Enterprise 
Caucus 



Friends of the 
Dollar; Alaska Pipeline 



responsibilities of individual citizens, confronting our problems on a 
person-to-person basis. A truly just society can be achieved 
only when individual citizens accept the responsibilities of 
alleviating social ills-— rather than passing them on to an impersonal 
and bureaucratic government. 

To this end, we call for a new approach to the complexities 
of modern society and a rejection of excessive dependence on 
government — a dependence which worsens our nation's problems 
and deprives our citizens of essential individual freedom. 



11.13 We ask the President to appoint a National Citizens 
Committee, representing youth and non-governmental organi- 
zations, to direct and monitor the follow-up and implementation 
of the recommendations of the 1971 White House Conference 
on Youth. 



11.14 There are 850,000 citizens of Washington, D C-, who are 
without political rights and the power of self government. 

We wish to obtain for the District of Columbia the full sovereign rights 
of statehood as guaranteed by the Constitution. 

Implementation: To pressure Congress to make the District of 
Columbia s state and to yield full political rights to the people of 
the nation’s capital. 



11.15 Whereas no economic system has ever been perfect; and 

Whereas the least imoerfect and most productive system ever 
devised by men is private competitive enterprise; and 

Whereas free enterprise is the economic system where the tools 
of production are owned by private individuals and used by others 
who produce and sell their products in competition with each other 
within the framework of legally enforced ethical business practices: 

Now therefore be it resolved, That although there may be abuses 
and misuses as there are in other areas of man's endeavors, that 
we reaffirm our belief in a system of free enterprise economics. 
Adapted unanimously. 



11.16 Whereas there is a definite need to solve the social-economic 
problems of Alaska by Alaskans without reliance on Federal 
treasuries; and 

Whereas the natural energy requirement in the immediately 
foreseeable future requires new and substantial domestic oil reserves 
capable of being marketed; and 

Whereas the lack of domestic petroleum reserves will compel 
continuing and increasingly greater reliance on foreign sources 
of crude oil, resulting in a weakening in the U.S. position in foreign 
relations and increasing the danger of involvement in foreign 
conflicts: and 



Whereas substantial evidence has been furnished by the State of 
Alaska and by the technologists which eliminates any reasonable 
doubt as to the capability of environmental safety in the transmission 
of crude oil in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline; and 

Whereas there has been a substantial emotional environmental 
overstatement primarily from those who are uninformed and have 
no direct concern with the pipeline; and 

Whereas Alaskans should be masters of their own social, economic 
and environmental destiny: 

Therefore be it Resolved, That the Secretary of Interior of the United 
States immediately issue a permit for the construction of the 
Trans-Alaska Pipeline between Prudhoe Bay and Valdez, Alaska. 

Alternatives: Therefore be it Resolved, That the Secretary of Interior 
immediately issue a Final Environmental Impact Statement in 
support of construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and a permit 
for construction of the same; provided, however, that said impact 
statement provides for appropriate safeguards for the environment 
of Alaska, ocean shipping lanes and gateway harbors. 



Indochina Caucus 



People’s Peace 
T reaty 




11.17 Below are listed the resolutions proposed at an open meeting 
on Indochina. The balloting on these, distinguishing youth and adult 
delegates, is recorded at the end of the Indochina Caucus 
on page 276. 



11.17a Be it resolved that the White House Conference on Youth 
adopt the People's Peace Treaty between the people of the U.S. and 
the people of North and South Vietnam, and commits itself to take 
steps toward achieving its implementation. 

Introduction: Be it known that the American and Vietnamese people 
are not enemies. The war is carried out in the name of the people 
of the United States, but without our consent. It destroys the land 
and the people of Vietnam. It drains America of her resources, her 
youth and her honor. 

We hereby agree to end the war on the following terms, so that 
both peoples can live under the joy of independence and can devote 
then, selves to building a society based on human equality and 
respect for the earth. In rejecting the war we also reject all forms 
of racism and discrimination against people based on color, class, 
sex, national origin and ethnic grouping which form a basis of the 
war policies, present and past, of the United States. 

Principles of the Joint Treaty of Peace: Americans agree to immediate 
and total withdrawal from Vietnam, and publicly to set the date by 
which all U.S. military forces will be removed. 

Vietnamese agree to participate in an immediate cease-fire, 
and will enter discussions on the procedures to guarantee the 
safety of all withdrawing troops, and to secure release of ail 
military prisoners. 



Americans pledge to stop imposing Thieu, Ky and Khiem on the 
people of Vietnam in order to ensure their right to self-determination, 
and to ensure that all political prisoners are released. 

Vietnamese pledge to form a provisional coalition government 
, to organize democratic elections, in which all South Vietnamese 
can participate freely without the presence of any foreign 

9K? 



Vietnamization 

Proposals 



Ground Cessation 

Bombing Cessation 

December 31, 1971 
Withdrawal 




troops, and to enter discussions of procedures to guarantee 
the safety and political freedom of persons who cooperated 
with either side in the war. 

Americans and Vietnamese agree to respect the independence, 
peace and neutrality of Laos and Cambodia. 

Upon these points of agreement, we pledge to end the war. 

We will resolve all other questions in mutual respect for the 
rights of self-determination of the people of Vietnam and 
of the United States. 

11.17b We support the continued and accelerated withdrawal of 
American combat troops from Southeast Asia. We believe in the 
Vietnamization process on the grounds that nations should develop 
the capability to defend themselves. 

Withdrawal of American troops must be based on factors including 
the safety of American troops and ari agreement of the safe return 
of prisoners of war once the American combat involvement has ended. 

We call for the increased diplomatic efforts to encourage the early 
exchange of prisoners of war between the United States, South 
Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the Viet Cong. We further call for the 
release of information on the names of prisoners now held by North 
Vietnam and the Viet Cong, the flow of correspondence, and the 
inspection of such POW camps by the International Red Cross. 

The government of the United States and its citizens must realize 
that we should have a continued interest in the development of 
the nations and peoples of Indochina. We encourage increased 
economic assistance to these nations over the next ten years. 

We believe that America cannot once again return to a policy of 
isolationism, especially in Indochina, but must involve itself through 
cultural and economic assistance to aid these people throughout 
the 1970’s. 

11.17c The Indochina Caucus endorses total and immediate 
cessation of U.S. ground operations in Indochina. 

11.17d The Indochina Caucus endorses total and immediate 
cessation of U.S. bombing in Indochina. 

11.17e The White House Conference on Youth endorses the 
Vietnam Disengagement Act of 1971, and strongly urges its adoption 
and enactment by Congress and the President. 

1. Congress finds and declares that under the Constitution of the 
United States the President and the Congress share responsibility for 
establishing, defining authority for, and concluding foreign military 
commitments; that the repeal of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 
raises new uncertainties about the source of authority for American 
involvement in Vietnam; that both the domestic and foreign policy 
interests of the United States require an expeditious end to the war 
in Vietnam; that the conflict can best be resolved through a political 
settlement among the parties concerned; that in light of all 
considerations, the solution which offers the greatest safety, the 
highest measure of honor, the best liklihood for the return of 
United States prisoners and the most meaningful opportunity for 
political settlements would be the establishment of a date certain 
for the orderly withdrawal of all United States Armed Forces 
from Vietnam. 



Economic Assistance 



Prisoners of War 



Ecocide: Proposal 




2. Chapter I of Part III of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 is 
amended by adding at the end thereof the following: 

Section 620A. In accordance with public statements of policy 
by the President, no funds authorized to be appropriated under 
this or any other act may be obligated or expended to maintain 
a troop level of more than 284,000 armed forces of the 
United States in Vietnam after May 1, 1971. 

Section 620B. After May 1, 1971, funds authorized or 
appropriated under this or any other act may be expended in 
connection with activities of American Armed Forces in and 
over Vietnam oniy to accomplish the following objectives: 

(1) To bring about the orderly termination of military 
operations there and the safe and systematic withdrawal 

of remaining American Armed Forces by December 31, 1971; 

(2) To insure the release of prisoners of war; 

(3) To arrange asylum or other means to assure the safety 
of South Vietnamese who might be physically endangered 
by withdrawal of American forces; and 

(4) To provide assistance to the Republic of Vietnam 
consistent with the foregoing objectives. 

11.17f Whereas the United States has a continuing responsibility 
to the people of Indochina; and 

Whereas it has consistently been an ideal of the United States to 
provide economic assistance towards social development of 
foreign nations; and 

Whereas the United States has been directly responsible for 
destruction of people, agricultural lands and hospital facilities in 
Indochina; and 

Whereas the United Nations has been ari effective channel for 
administration of foreign assistance problems: 

Therefore be it Resolved, That the Vietnam caucus of the White House 
Conference on Youth recommends agricultural support, development 
rehabilitation, and relief in the form of a two billion dollar grant 
to the people of Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos. 

Be it further resolved that these funds be administered by the 
United Nations. 

11.17g Understanding that the present prisoner of war situation in 
Southeast Asia and in other areas of the world is not presently in 
accordance with the Geneva Convention of 1954, and ratification by 
the United States in 1955 and South Vietnam in 1965, we propose 
that the White House Conference on Youth adopt a resolution Which 
calls upon all parties to any armed conflict to comply with the terms 
and provisions of the 1949 Geneva Convention relative to the 
treatment of prisoners of war in order to insure humane treatment of 
all persons entitled to the protection of the convention and to permit 
regular inspection in accordance with the convention of all places of 
detention of prisoners of war by a protecting power or humanitarian 
organizations, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross. 

11.17H “The time has come to recognize the war in Southeast Asia 
for what it really is — an ecological disaster that ultimately destroys 
both the land and the peopled purports to protect. . . . The great 
danger to the nation today lies not in our ideological or political 

269 ' . 



272 



differences but rather in our uncontrolled ability to destroy our 
common support system, the plant. . . 

In this light, the vast majority of the Environment Task Force urges 
that the Indochina Caucus demand that the United States cease 
its policy of ecocide in Indochina. 

Specifically, we urge that the following tactics be totally abandoned 
immediately: 

1. All use of chlorophenoxy herbicides (2,4,5-T; 2,4-D, etc.) These 
defoliating agents have resulted in the direct destruction of food 
crops and in the destruction of natural mangrove ecosystems which 
are essential for the production of other foods such as fish, The 
herbicides have also been shown to cause birth defects in laboratory 
tests, and appear to be one of the major factors in the rapid increase 
in stillbirths and defective children born to Vietnamese women 
since massive defoliation was instigated. Destruction of forests has 
resulted in the elimination of niches for many species of animals, 
including man, and drastic decline in the production of rubber 

and rice, formerly the foundation of the Vietnamese economy. 

2. Saturation bombing, which has resulted in significant nutritional 
and health hazards to noncombatants. This bombing policy has 
caused destruction of irrigation systems, Destruction of peasant 
croplands, destruction of housing and sanitation facilities and 
massive relocation of peasant families. 

3. All uses of persistent herbicidal agents such as picloram and 
cacodylic acid. These agents persist in the environment, leaving 
highly toxic residues, such as arsenic and preventing ecological 
restoration of the landscape for years. 

4. All fire bombing, which destroys human Site and property and 
which causes severe damage to natural life support systems. 

5. All policies which have resulted in the traumatic urbanization of 
Vietnam. The massive migration of the peasants to the cities has not 
been accompanied by significant increases in services or employment 
required to provide a decent standard of living. The pacification 
programs” have resulted in increased urban crime, prostitution, 
pollution, disease, malnutrition, and housing shortages. 

Furthermore, the United States should not merely cease these 
destructive activities; rather, it must also instigate a comprehensive 
program for the restoration of the ecological balance of Indochina, 
relying largely on existing scientific expertise of the Indochinese 
themselves. 

We believe that ecology, the study of the interdependent relationship 
of all things on earth, indicates the increasing penalty that will 
result from the needless destruction of life in any form. Now is the 
time to create the true ecological harmony of peace, human 
dignity and environmental quality. Therefore, we call upon the 
Administration, the Congress and the people of the United States 
to do whatever is necessary to bring about the withdrawal of all U.S. 
troops and a quick end to the war in Southeast Asia. 

We cannot widen the war, in order to end it. We cannot destroy 
Vietnam, or the world, in order to save it. 



Amnesty for 
Draft Violations 



Provisional 

Revolutionary 

Government 



Resignation of 
President Nixon 



Human Rights 



United Nations and 
Geneva Conference 




11.17i Whereas many thousands of young Americans of good 
conscience have been compelled by the nature of the draft, by the 
nature of the United States involvement in Indochina, and by the 
courage of their convictions to live in exile or in prison, let this 
meeting recommend: 

That the White House Conference on Youth request President Nixon 
to grant amnesty to all Americans either exiled or incarcerated 
because of their moral beliefs. 

11.17| A Resolution calling for the White House Conference to 
support the Provisional Revolutionary Government of Vietnam. 

We, the delegates to the White House Conference on Youth, want 
peace in Indochina and America. But we also want justice in Indochina 
and America. And, most of all, we want human liberation and 
self-determination in Indochina and America. 

Although we cannot even imagine the horrors of war and repression 
suffered by the Indochinese people, we identify with the aspirations 
of the vast majority of the Indochinese peoples for peace, justice, 
independence, and neutrality. We must face squarely the fact that 
the Provisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam 
represents the leadership of the legitimate Vietnamese liberation 
movement. Thus, despite the fact that our government defines the 
P.R.G. as our “enemy”, we the delegates to the White House 
Conference on Youth hereby express our solidarity with and 
support for the P.R.G. 

We call for our government to immediately withdraw from Indochina 
militarily. We ask that vast resources be made available by our 
government according to the program of the P .R.G. 

We dedicate ourselves as individuals to the vast, but beautiful task 
of creating a liberation movement within America that expresses its 
solidarity with the Indochinese liberation movement by being true 
to the highest of human values. 

11.17k In view of the abominable and destructive policies against 
human life, men, women and children in Vietnam, Laos, and 
Cambodia; 

In view of the fact we the people are supposed to be responsible 
for the government practices; 

In view of the fact that the government hss repeatedly lied to us; 

We recommend the White House C inference on Youth delegates 
demand the immediate resignation of President Nixon and 
Vice President Agnew and ail their staff. 

11.171 It is proposed that: (a) The United States Senate ratify the 
Universal Declaration of Human Rights; and (b) Allow it to be 
legitimately cited in litigation. 

11.17m In light of the continued deadlock in the Vietnamese peace 
negotiations we call on the United States government to: 

1. Ask the Soviet Union and United Kingdom to reconvene the 
Geneva Conference of 1954 and also to consider expanding 
Asian membership. 



271 



274 



Abolish SEATO 



World Court and 
National Sovereignty 



international 

Recognition 



China Policy 



ERIC 



2. Request the United Nations and its members, especially the 
Asian ones, to mediate and supervise a peace conference for 
Southeast Asia and the withdrawal of all foreign troops. 

11.17n The Indochina Caucus proposes: 

1. The South East Asian Treaty Organization be abandoned and 
replaced by a regional co-operative peaceful alliance for development 
and resource management. 

2. A portion cf the vast expenditure on the Indochinese war be 
returned to the co-operative alliance for all sorts of repairs which 
are necessary, though nevertheless inadequate to make up for the 
incalculably great damages. 

11.17o It is proposed that the Caucus on Indochina, and the 
entire Conference as a unit: 

1. Call upon the United States Congress to abrogate the Connally 
Amendment, thereby giving the International Court of Justice 
jurisdiction over the affairs of the United States without its 
government’s specific approval. 

2. Call upon all other nations, especially the Soviet Union and the 
People’s Republic of Chi na, to take the reciprocal steps necessary to 
reduce national sovereignty in matters of international law. 

11.17p Be it Resolved that Cuba, North Korea, North Vietnam and 
the People's Republic of China be: 

1. Granted admittance into the United Nations and all of its 
“family” of agencies. 

2. Given diplomatic recognition by the governments of all nations 
especially the United Stales. 

3. Contacted non-politically in cultural exchi ^es between private 
citizens and non-governmental organization. 

4. Be invited to assist United States citizens .epairing reparable 
environmental and human damage in Indoch la once the conflict 
there is ended and U.S. presence of all sorts eliminated. 

11.17q Whereas the promotion of a lasting peace in Asia, including 
a stable resolution of the conflicts in Indochina requires a 
normalization of relations between the United States and the 
People’s Republic of China; and 

Whereas the Nixon Administration has responded promptly and 
constructively to the recent initiatives of the People’s Republic of 
China to promote freer contact between citizens of the two countries; 

Be it Resolved, That it is the sense of the White House Conference 
on Youth that the United States Government be commended for its 
rapid and positive response to initial Communist Chinese 
overtures; and 

Be it further Resolved, That the Conference urges the United States 
Government to seize every possible opportunity to promote better 
relations with the People’s Republic of China, culminating in 
recognition and the establishment of full diplomatic relations. We 



275 



International 
Delegates’ Caucus 



Legal Rights 
and Assistance 



agree with 


the 


President that “there 


is no place 


on this 


small 


planet for 


a billion of its potentially most able people to 


live in 


angry isolation 


i ’ 










RESULTS 


OF 


BALLOTING- 


—YOUTH 


DELEGATES 






Proposal 




Total 


Number 


Percentage Number 


Percentage 


Number 




Votes 

Cast 


"Yes” 


•Yes” 


•‘No" 


"No” 


11.17a 




203 


137 


69 


66 


31 


11.17b 




186 


57 


31 


129 


69 


11.17c 




189 


129 


68 


60 


32 


1 1.17d 




191 


163 


85 


28 


15 


1 1.17e 




193 


145 


75 


48 


25 


1 1 . 17f 




178 


131 


74 


47 


26 


1 1 . 17g 




180 


167 


93 


13 


7 


1 1.17h 




179 


163 


91 


16 


9 


1 1 . 1 7 i 




187 


154 


82 


33 


18 


11.17j 




156 


58 


40 


98 


60 


11.17k 




162 


59 


37 


103 


63 


11.171 




152 


126 


83 


26 


17 


11.17m 




164 


133 


81 


31 


19 


11.17n 




150 


85 


57 


65 


43 


11.170 




147 


95 


64 


52 


36 


11.17p 




1 CA 

A W—t- 


138 


80 


26 


20 


11.17q 




168 


146 


86 


22 


14 


RESULTS 


OF 


BALLOTING- 


—ADULT 


DELEGATES 






Proposal 




Total 


Number 


Percentage Number 


Percentage 


Number 




Votes 

Cast 


•Yes” 


•‘Yes” 


•‘No” 


“No" 


11.17a 




58 


28 


48 


30 


52 


11.17b 




53 


24 


45 


29 


55 


11.17c 




58 


36 


62 


22 


38 


1 1.17d 




58 


41 


71 


17 


29 


1 1.17e 




60 


46 


77 


14 


23 


1 1.17f 




53 


39 


74 


14 


26 


1 1.17g 




45 


39 


87 


6 


13 


11.17h 




50 


38 


76 


12 


24 


1 1 . 1 7 i 




49 


28 


57 


21 


43 


11.17j 




40 


10 


25 


30 


75 


11.17k 




48 


10 


21 


38 


79 


11.171 




48 


41 


85 


7 


15 


11.17m 




42 


32 


76 


10 


24 


1 1.17n 




44 


23 


52 


21 


48 


11.170 




43 


20 


46 


23 


54 


11.17p 




45 


27 


60 


18 


40 


1 1.17q 




53 


50 


94 


3 


6 



11.18 We recommend that the various institutions in the U.S. 
concerned with international student affairs coordinate their 
activities to create a central data bank to collect and disseminate 
information about summer employment and available financial aid. 
This should be done within regional areas and could be conducted 
through monthly newsletters. 

11.18a We request that the U,S. government make a formal 
statement of the legal rights of and guidelines for international 
students in the U.S. and make this statement available to each 
foreign student entering this country. 



Draft, 

Citizenship 



International Youth 
Center 

Education 

Endorsement 



Non-Public 
Education Caucus 



We recommend that legal assistance be given in the case of alleged 
transgressions of the'legal rights of those international students who 
lack the necessary means to defend themselves. 

IX. 18b At the present time, foreign citizens who are permanent 
residents on immigrant visas are liable for military induction. We 
recommend that until such a time as the draft is abolished, induction 
into the armed forces should constitute the option of immediate 
American citizenship for the foreign citizen. 

The White House Conference on Youth condemns the action of the 
House of Representatives in amending the Selective Service Act so as 
to make subject to the draft full-time foreign students who have been 
in the United States more than four years, urges the Senate to 
defeat the amendment, and requests that Conference Chairman, 
Stephen Hess, communicate this message immediately to the 
Senate Armed Services Committee. 

11.18c We, the International Delegation, endorse the Internationa! 
Youth Center proposal. 

11.18d We, the International Delegation, endorse the recommenda- 
tions of the Task Force on Education concerning the international 
student. 



11.19 One of the paramount challenges of our time is to recreate 
in our important institutions an environment congenial to the 
genuine pluralism that is indispensable to quality human develop- 
ment. Specifically, this nation needs a legal and educational system 
which will foster the truly human development of the person through 
cultural, ethnic, religious and intellectual diversity. We do not reject 
the collectivization of many human activities, but we doubt its 
application to the education of the mind and spirit. 

A fundamental question is: can the law provide for educational 
diversity in our country or are we doomed to the establishment of 
an educational monolith? If pluralism dies in education, its ultimate 
survival in the cultural and intellectual areas of American life is 
threatened. Pluralism on the cultural and deeper personal-value levels 
is a fundamental good; from diversity on these levels come strength, 
creative option, and more important, the strongest practical 
foundation for personal freedom. 

But apart from this general societal problem, we wish to express 
our concern for meking plurality of educational choice available to 
ali citizens regardless of race, economic class or creed. For the 
poor, America has provided no such choice. They can neither reside 
in the attendance area of their preferred school nor employ a 
non-public school to replace it. They have, in short, no option other 
than to attend the compulsory public school in the neighborhood 
they are forced by circumstances to inhabit. If the school is in a 
poor neighborhood, there is no access to the social culture that 
sets the central themes of modern life; if the neighborhood is black, 
there is little opportunity for social or racial integration. 

In recent years a serious search at last has begun for solutions to 
the basic question of how can society provide freedom of choice for 
all classes, but particularly the poor. Many different proposals have 
been proferred: tax credits, tuition grants, purchase of services, 
auxiliary services, vouchers and categorical aid. We maintain that 



every existing and proposed form of state or Federal aid to education 
should be evaluated. In seeking such aid neither the non-public nor 
the public sectors should be viewed as competing for scarce 
educational dollars out as cooperating to attract increased community 
support for education and to make the most efficient use of 
available funds. On the practical level this means that legislation 
extending any degree of public support to educational services 
offered in non-public schools must include the provision for adequate 
funding sources which do not diminish or divert funds already 
committed to and needed by the public sector. Citizens, educators, 
and legislators should be fully informed of the importance of the 
non-public sector in maintaining and improving community 
educational services at a unit cost lower than that required in public 
institutions. At present non-public schools save the taxpayers billions 
of dollars each year in the states. Models of financial aid should 
permit families including the poor, to choose among educations of 
varying styles. Such assistance would necessarily demand 
assurance of fairness in the application of funds, safeguards against 
discrimination, and accounting systems to restrict tax monies to 
secular purposes in accord with the Schempp and Alien criteria. 

The achievement of church-related schools in educating Americans 
through a quality of professional service that has enriched American 
education was acknowledged by Justice White in the Board of 
Education v. Allen (392 U.S. £36): 

Private education has played and is playing a significant 
and valuable role in raising national levels of knowledge, 
competence and experience. Americans care about 
the quality of the secular education available to their 
children. They have considered high quality education 
to be an indispensable ingredient of achieving the 
kind of nation and the kind of citizenry that they have 
desired to create. Considering this attitude, the 
continued willingness to rely on non-public school 
systems, including parochial systems, strongly 
suggests that a wide segment of informed opinion, 
legislative and otherwise, has found that those schools 
do an acceptable job of providing secular education 
to their students. This judgment is further evidence 
that parochial schools are performing, in addition to 
their sectarian function, the task of secular education. 

Properly fashioned, financial aid to education according to the 
above criteria could for the first time in our history, provide variety, 
freedom of choice, accountability, integration and equality of 
opportunity within tax financed education. 

We urge the states and the Federal government to undertake serious 
experimentation with all of these systems of aid. It is time that the 
rhetoric of freedom, equality and plurality of choice be given 
substance for all income classes in American society. 



Socialist Caucus 



O 

ERIC 

278 



11.20 The 10 subject areas of the WHCY represent a broad range 
of the problems confronting the U.S, today. The depth and urgency 
of these problems has been a continuing source of despair 
among youth. 

Htowever, it is this very fact which gives us hope of an answer to 
all these problems. The increase in societal troubles is just a 
symptom of the inevitable decay of the imperialist system. Since the 



O 





big capitalist corporations must always expand their markets to 
keep up with competition and improved technology, these viruses 
were a predictable result. 

Of course, no one wants the war in Indochina, bui U.S. investment 
abroad needs to be expanded, not reduced, if the big corporations 
are to keep making their profits. And likewise, no one wants to 
destroy the environment, but industry must exploit resources as well 
as people in order to make the maximum profit. And the drive to make 
the maximum profit is the basis of the capitalist system. 

What this means to the youth of this country (and the world) is that 
these problems can be really solved in only one way. These are not 
the problems of the ruling class that runs the U.S. The destructive 
effects of economic recession, poverty, war, the draft, injustice and 
so on are not problems of the wealthy elite who hold the real power 
in this society. They are the problems of the great mass of people 
who are exploited by the capitalist system. 

Therefore, the only way we we can ever hope to really solve these 
problems rather than modify them is the complete overthrow of the 
ruling class and their capitalist system. The working class must 
substitute a syf ( am of democratic socialism which allows the masses 
to determine th^r own future. We of the Socialist Caucus are certain 
that the people, once free of the capitalist bosses, will create a way 
of life free from imperialism, racism, sexism, poverty, and all the 
other forms of exploitation we now suffer. 

Thus, we conclude that the only possible implementation of solutions 
to the problems we have been discussing here is by international 
socialist revolution. This must inevitably take the form of an armed 
struggle led by the youth of the working class. 


Task Force on 
Foreign Relations 
Caucus 


11.21 The Task Force on Foreign Relations has submitted two 
recommendations for a plenary vote regarding American foreign 
policy in Vietnam. These two recommendations, however significant, 
should not conceal the fact that the Task Force on Foreign Relations 
has taken a variety of important positions on other pressing and 
immediate world problems, as related to American foreign policies. 
We urge the delegates of the White House Conference on Youth 
review and endorse the full context of Task Force recommendations 
which appear in the conference proceedings. 


White House 
Conference 
Proposal Caucus 


'11.22 A resolution proposing a White House Conference on Youth 
each four years. 

Whereas the express purpose of the White House Conference on 
Youth is to offer a platform for the presentation of youth’s viewpoint 
on problems confronting America and their possible solutions to 
those in power; and 

Whereas a conference held each decade does not encounter the 
many generational and attitudinal changes of American society 
within that ten year period; and 

Whereas the nation’s educational institutions also produce several 
generations of different composition and attitudes within a decade, 
whose needs are not met or considered by a conference held every 
ten years; and 



Whereas the governmental administrations of that ten year period 
need a continuous flow of relevant and futuristic ideas, which a 
conference held' every four years would provide, in order to be 
effective in meeting the needs of the people, especially those of youth: 

Be it resolved, The White House administrations, both the present 
and those of the future, establish, finance, and administer a national 
conference on youth in the middle of each presidential term. 



Women's Caucus 



O 

ERIC 



11.23 In an era when the elimination of racism is finally beginning 
to receive some of the attention it deserves, the United States is 
still woefully remiss in combatting sexism. This country is still based 
on the male — the culture, the employment sector, the government; 
the U.S. ethos still does not consider the woman, Iblaek, white, 
brown or red, as a fully participating individual. ,She is a 
sacond-class citizen. 

The White House Conference on Youth has perpetuated this sexist 
attitude. It took a six month battle — still not completely successful — 
to convince the staff that a female leader is a Chairwoman not a 
chairman. This is not semantics, but recognition of the fact that 
women are individuals, not sub-groupings under the generic titie 
“men.’ 1 ' Just as minorities are not subgroups under the classification 
of whites and have the right to be recognized as black, brown, as 
Indians, as Asians, as Chicanos — different and equal to the whites — 
so too does the woman of any race have the right to her existence as 
a female. 

More basic than this, though, is the lack of recognition of women's 
problems which pervades this Conference. 

1. There is no Task Force on Women nor has there been any 
attempt to include women's problems within the purview of the 
other Task Forces. 

2. Statistics on women have not been made available for Task Forces 
or delegates use, despite repeated requests for this. 

3. Demographic representation of delegates regarding race, 
geographic background, age, etc. has been followed diligently for 
this Conference, except as regards women. Female representation at 
the Conference is 5 percent lower than female representation in 
the American population. This discrepancy is greater than for 

any other population factor, despite pre^Conference promises that 
females would be represented proportionately. 

4. Notable, too, is the obvious lack of many feminist leaders, respite 
repeated requests by Task Force members that they be invited. 

5. In the summary of Task Force reports, almost all references are 
specifically directed to the male, the word female being used only 
three times. Only one Task Force — Values, Ethics and Culture — made 
the effort to include both sexes in their references to individuals. 

In all, the White House Conference on Youth has proved to be a 
microcosm of United States sexism. The problems of women have 
not been adequately considered within the Task Forces thus 
necessitating the formation of our Women's Caucus. We would much 
prefer to work side by side with our brothers in solving the problems 



280 



that face the U.S. We are not here in adequate number, nor has the 
White House Conference on Youth staff through the direction of its 
research made this possible. We have tried to use the Task Forro 
structure to make our problems known. In some cases, we have 
succeeded. Because many have not listened and so the Conference 
as a whole may hear our grievances, we are presenting to you 
recommendations by Task Force heading that should be made known. 

We hope you will not see this as an effort to divide men and women. 
Rather we hope to unite us ali — as equals. 

11.23a Counselors, faculty and administrators at all levels of 
education should be required to participate in courses which sensitize 
them towards the female's right of self-actualization. Specifically, 
women should be exposed to the full spectrum of career ^ 
opportunities, without restriction to so-called women s jobs. 



All state education systems, as well as private institutions should 
immediately discontinue use of broadcasts which perpetuate the 
stereotypic role of women. All state text book committees should 
recall and refuse to purchase or use textbooks and other educational 
materials which ignore the role of women in history or undermine 
her potentiality to make unique contributions to society. 



Draft, National 
Service and Alter- 
natives 



Drugs 



Foreign Relations 




f 281 



State school systems should appropriate more funds for the 
expansion and creation of programs for the continuing education 

of women. 

The Office of Federal Contract Compliance (OFCC) and the Office of 
Civil Rights (OCR) should be funded to allow them to insure 
compliance of Title VI! and the affirmative action plan. 

Women’s studies curricula should be developed for all educational 
levels. 

11.23b We endorse immediate withdrawal of American troops from 
Vietnam and until such time as the draft is abolished, of which 
we also approve. 

Standards of entrance and promotion as well as ranks and 
occupations within the armed forces should be equal for both 
women and men. 

11.23c Additional research needs to be conducted regarding the 
effects (long-term) of oral contraceptives. Research needs to be 
sponsored on new methods of contraception. 



Physician prescribing habits need to be determined in regards to 
the types of drugs being prescribed to women (e.g. tranquilizers, 
sleeping medications). If women are being overdrugged, their 
prescribing habits need to be changed and women need to be 
informed of this. 

11.23d We recommend that the United States ratify the recom- 
mendations of the Human Rights Convention of the United Nations 
dealing with the political rights of women. So far 72 countries have 
ratified these recommendations. 

A comparative cross cultural study on the status of women should 
be conducted. 




Economy and 
Employment 



Legal Rights 
and Justice 



Poverty 



Values, Ethics 
and Culture 



Finally, we recommend that A Matter of Simple Justice be distributed 
post-Conference to all delegates and staff of the White House 
Conference on Youth. 

11.23e Management and labor should require their staffs to attend 
courses sensitizing them towards corporate and unionized sexism, 
e.g. r myths about female absenteeism, which is actually lower than 
the male’s, labor turnover, the fallacy of “men’s jobs” for which 
women cannot qualify, the tendency to automatically place women in 
secretarial or other dead end jobs. The underutilization of women 
is the height of economic inefficiency, besides being unjust. 

The Department of Human Resources, when established, should 
assure that a women’s agency be given the authority and status to 
deal with the concerns of women. Until that time, the following 
proposals should be undertaken by either the Women s Bureau or 
the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. 

1. Funds should be appropriated to establish a national clearing- 
house of information on women and to develop a comprehensive 
annotated register of women’s organizations so that pertinent health, 
legal rights and relief, educational and employment information can 
be distributed nation-wide. 

2. The Bureau of Labor Statistics should be required to provide 
statistical information by sex breakdown. 

11.23f All legislation that prohibits dissemination of birth control 
information or devices should be abolished. 

The Equal Rights Amendment be immediately passed, as 
recommended by the Task Force on Economy and Employment. 



Title VI be amended to include “sex". 

Abor ,: ■ ’ ‘ e legalized as the right of every woman to control 

h 



The . government should immediately seek to ‘practice what 

it preaches' and hire more women in top level Federal positions, 
including ambassadorships. 

11.23g Universal child care and free health services should be 
instituted immediately, and should be located first in poverty areas, 
both rural and urban. 

11.23h The mass media perpetuating the stereotypic roles of 
women and portraying females as sex objects should be subjected 
to intense public pressure and their licenses should be challenged. 

All concerned individuals should reassess their purchasing policies 
and write letters of protest to producers or apply boycotts on the 
products of all companies using sexist advertising. 

The feminist movement is not merely for women, but seeks to 
liberate males from their sexual roles as well. As long as a woman 
must be soft and sweet and dumb and stay in the home, the male 
will be required to be hard and strong and smart and “bring home the 
kill”, regardless of individual preferences. All men and women, 
therefore, should attempt to familiarize themselves with the goals 
of the feminist movement, to-liberate themselves as individuals. 

279 



282 



Youth Ombudsman 
Caucus 



11.24 Resolution to establish training of Youth Ombudsmen for 
all institutions dealing with youth problems. 



Whereas institutions are in a state of turmoil bordering on potential 
structural breakdown of our entire system; and 

Whereas many of these problems are a result of a seric. o bottleneck 
in communications networks within and between institutional 
systems; and 

Whereas the rights of Youth are being subtly and unjustly violated 
without adequate machinery for redress of their legitimate 
grievances; and 

Whereas creative and innovative changes sorely needed in our 
society are still not being implemented rapidly enough; and 

Whereas policy makers do not have complete or even adequate access 
to innovative information nor have proper communication channels 
been designed for overcoming this inadequacy; and 

Whereas this inadequate communication results in costly 
obsolescence and waste of manpower; and 

Whereas the resources of our youth are still not being recognized 
or employed; and 

Whereas youth frequently feel the frustration of suppression and a 
disregard in the decision-making processes of institutions causing 
them to feel unnecessarily alienated, hopeless and finally 
rebellious; and 

Whereas the White House Conference on Youth offers a platform for 
young people to speak but does not offer a guarantee that their voices 
will be heard by those who can implement their suggestions and 
proposals; and 

Whereas high schools, colleges, businesses, industry, professional 
organizations and other institutions are now using the ombudsman 
to serve as representative of the little man who is often not 
heard in a bureaucracy: 

Be it Resolved, That the White House Conference on Youth go on 
record as recommending that each Task Force appoint its own 
Ombudsman who will train to insure that the suggestions and voices 
of the young people at this White House Conference will truly be 
heard and implemented in our Nation's Capital. 

Appropriate legislation will be enacted to establish Youth 
Ombudsmen for Drugs, Environment, Education, Poverty and 
Minority Group problems. 



ERIC 




283 



Balloting Results 



Task Forces 



Caucuses 



The ballot in no way indicated priorities of the Conference. 

Task Forces and Caucuses were given the option to place all, some, 



or none of their recommendations on the ballot. 


A total of 675 


ballots were cast: 




YES 


NO 


UNDE- 

CIDED 


2.0 DRUGS 


Recommendation 2.8 


336 


168 


38 


5.0 ENVIRONMENT 


Preamble 


512 


71 


42 


Recommendation 5.1 


505 


106 


37 


Recommendation 5.2 


645 


16 


13 


Recommendation 5.3 


554 


37 


51 


6.0 FOREIGN RELATIONS 


Recommendation 6.2 


452 


157 


39 


Recommendation 6.2a 


243 


340 


33 


7.0 LEGAL RIGHTS & JUSTICE 


Recommendation 7.1 


594 


26 


5 


Recommendation 7.1a 


565 


39 


14 


10.0 VALUES, ETHICS & CULTURE 


Recommendation 10.1 


496 


129 


31 


Recommendation 10.7 


571 


49 


38 


11.1 ASIAN-PACIFIC CAUCUS 


593 


58 


15 


11.5 AD-HOC WHCY IMPLEMENTA- 


TION COMMITTEE 


465 


66 


44 


11.8 CAUCUS FOR IMPLEMENTATION 








OF THE WHITE HOUSE CONFER- 


ENCE ON YOUTH 


503 


75 


28 


11.10 CIVIL LIBERTIES CAUCUS 


448 


130 


81 


11.11 COMMITMENT TO EDUCATION 


CAUCUS 


412 


116 


44 


11.14 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 


COLONIAL PEOPLE'S CAUCUS 


547 


60 


30 


11.18 INTERNATIONAL DELEGATES 
CAUCUS 


Recommendation 11.18 


501 


39 


47 


Recommendation 11.18a 


560 


18 


28 


Recommendation 11.18b 


446 


63 


54 


Recommendation 11.18c 


410 


31 


108 


Recommendation 11.18d . 


434 


32 


77 


11 22 WHITE HOUSE CONFERENCE 


PROPOSAL CAUCUS 


500 


101 


37 


11.24 YOUTH OMBUDSMAN CAUCUS 


248 


155 


122 



*« M 









About the Indexes 



While the recommendations in this report far under subject 
headings, they are normally addressed to specific stitutions or 
organizations. To facilitate the use of the report, recommendations 
and resolutions have been indexed by institution. The ten 



institutional categories utilized 
Arts and Humanities 
Business and Industry 
Education 

Government, Federal 

Government, State and 
Local 



are : 

International Organizations 
Judiciary and Law Enforcement 
Labor 

Private, Non-Profit and Volun- 
teer Organizations 

Religious Organizations 



Note: The numbers used in this index refer to recommendation num- 
bers, and not to page numbers. Bold face index entries refer 
to entire caucus statements which in most instances are not 
indexed in depth. 




284 



^^rnmerications relating \o broadcasting, publishing, advertising 
and related mass media activities are indexed below. 



Advertising, sex roles, 10.7a 
Alternative life styles, 10.4b 
American Revolution 

Bi-Centennial, 9.6g, 10. le 
Appalachian Youth Caucus, 11.6 
Arts 

apprenticeship programs, 

10. Id 

funding, 10.1a 

state and local support, 10. If 
youth representation, lO.lg 
Black Workshop Report, 9.3 
Broadcasting 

cable television, 10.3b 
community involvement, 10.3g 
misrepresentation of minority 
groups, 9.2h, 9.6o 
public, 10.3a 

report WHCY recommenda- 
tions, 9.3e 

Conservative Caucus, 11.12 
Drug advertising, 2.4, 2.11 
ban except in professional 
journals, 2,4d 

eliminate implications, 2.4b 
FCC controls on commer- 
cials, 2.11a 

increase FTC powers, 2.4c 
role of Consumer Affairs 
Bureau, 2«llb 
Drug production, 2.4, 2.11 
enforcement of laws, 2.4a 



Education 

architecture, 4.4e 
audio-visual communications 
program, 10.3i 
foreign affairs, 6.13c 
Family life, 11.7b 
Italo-American Caucus, 9.5 
Kennedy Center for the Perform- 
ing Arts, youth festival, 10.1c 
Libraries as multi-media 
learning centers, 10.3d 
Mass media, 10.3 

commendations, 10.3h 
misrepresentation of minority 
groups, 11. 3f 
monitored by Youth, 10.3f 
responsibilities, 10.3e 
restructure for educational 
purposes, 10. 6d 
sex roles in children's 
books, 10.7b 

Multi media programs, 10.3d 
Office of Education, Arts and 
Humanities program, 10.1b 
Quality of life, 1 1.7c 
measurements, 3.19 
Racism, 9.2, 10.1 

textbook representations, 9.2b 
understanding cultural 
diversity, 9.2c 
Socialist Caucus, 11.20 
Technology, 10.6 
Textbooks, 9.6f 



2H5- •* 



Business and Industry The recommendations outlined below 

and corporate life. 




Advertising, sex roles, 10.7a 
Age of majority, lower to 18, 7.1b 
Alaska Pipeline, 11.16 
Appalachian coal industry, 5.7c 
Apprenticeship programs, 9.4b 
Arctic Alaskan oil, 5.10 
Arms control, 6.4 
Arts, apprenticeship 
programs, lO.ld 
Basic income floor, 11. 7a 
Biocides, alternatives, 5.bd 
Black Workshop Report, 9.3 
Broadcasting 

cable television, 10.3b 
public, 10.3a 
Chemical and biological 
warfare, 5.12 
Child care centers, 3.16 
Citizen participation in 

environmental planning, 5.6a 
Citizen rights of action 

environmental planning, 5.6b 
Citizen suits to protect 
environment, 5.3 
Civil rights of youth, 7.21 
Coal mining, 8.7. 8.9 
Communications in work 
situations, 3,13b 

Community learning centers, 4.5b 
Conservative Caucus, 11.12 
Consumer protection, 3.18 
Consumer research fund, 3.18b 
Cooperative education, 3.1c 
Council on Youth Opportunities, 
reinstatement, 3.9 
Decision-mr.king 

in work situation, 3.13c 
youth participation, 9.2e 
Defense budget, limit, 3.21 
Defense spending, 6.11a 
Dropouts, 4.4b 
Drug advertising, 2.4, 2.11 
ban except in professional 
journals, 2.4d 

eliminate implications of, 2.4b 
FCC controls on commer- 
cials,- 2.11a 

increase FTC powers, 2.4c 
role of Consumer Affairs 
Bureau, 2.11b 

Drug education programs, 2.2 
Drug production, 2.4, 2.11 
enforcement of laws, 2.4a 
Drug research, role of HEW, 2.7a 
Economic incentives to reduce 
pollution, 5.3b 
Economic policy, 11.12d 
Education 

architecture, 4.4e 
employment relevant, 3.1 
financing career relevant, 3.2 
national training 
programs, 9.5b 
pre school, 8.2e 
vocational, 8.2j 
Employment, minority hiring 
practices, 9,3 
Environment, 6.8, 11.12c 
Environmental protection 
priorities, 5.7b 

Equal Employment Opportunity 
Commission, expand powers, 
3.15a 

Extra-terrestial exploration, 5.5g 
Family 

alternative life styles, 10.2b, 
10.4 



economic security, 10.2a 
Foreign aid, 6.1 li 
Foreign investments, 6.12a 
Free Enterprise Caucus, 11.15 
Friends of the Dollar 
Caucus, 11.16 

Guaranteed adequate income. 



3.2, 8.1 

Hickenlooper amendment 
repeal, 6.12b 



relate to business, industry 



Hiring practices, 3.5 
Housing, 8.3, 9.4f 

migrant workers, 8.11 
new towns, 8.11 
rehabilitation of 
community, 8.11 
rural, 8.11 

Individual rights on the job, 3.13d 
Industry 

relocation, 3.15e 
U.S. business operations 
overseas, 5.5e 
inner city environment, 5.2 
Invasion of privacy, 7.7 
Job discrimination, 
eliminate, 3.15 
Job placement centers, 3.8b 
Job opportunities, 9.2f, 9.6k, 9.61 
meaningful work, 10.6a 
Job programs, disadvantaged 
youth, 3.7, 3.9b 
Juvenile records, 
availability, 7.22d 
Land use planners, 
competence, 5.5 
La Raza Caucus, 11.4 
Mid-East, common market, 6.3c 
Minimum wage, 3.14 
Motivation in work environ- 
ment, 3.13a 

National Agency for Adequate 
Housing, 8.3b 

National Educational Oppor- 
tunities Bank, 3.2a 
National Environmental Corps 
establishment, 5.3d 
National Environmental Policy 
Act, expansion, 5.3a 
National Job Information 
Service, 3.8 
Oceans 

peaceful uses, 6.7 
protection, 5.5c 
Office of Federal Contract 

Compliance, expansion, 3.15b 
Panama Canal, 6.10 
Pearson Commission Report, 6.12 
Pollution impact on urban 
areas, 5. 6c 

Power sources, alternative, 5.5f 
Priorities, reorder spending, 4.1 
Public and private lands 
network, 5.7 

Public service employment, 3.12 
Quality of life measure- 
ments, 3.19 

Racial discrimination, 6.1 
Racism 

scientific, 9.2 

textbook representations, 9.2b 
Service learning programs, 8.5 
Sex roles and relationships, 10.7 
equal rights, 10. 7g 
institutional responses, 10.7f 
prohibit discrimination, 10. 7i 
Socialist Caucus, 11.20 
State laws barring employment 
of youth, 3.9c 
Student employment, 3.3 
Supersonic aircraft ban, 5.5h 
Tax deductions for environmental 
pollution cooperative 
costs, 3.20 

Tax exemption for consumer 
organizations, 3.18a 
Technology, 10.6 
conservation of 
resources, 10.6e 
ethical responsibilities of 
producers, 10.6b 
improvements in life, 10.6c 
Trade restrictions, 6.1 2d 
Urban human ecology, 5.6 
Urban transportation, 5.6d 
Vietnam 

ecocide, 11.17g 



Business and Industry 

(Continued) 



economic assis- 
tance, 6.2d, 11.17f 
oil fields, 6,2h 
Welfare, replace current 
system, 3,22a 
White House Conference on 
Youth, implementation, 
6.14, lO.li 

Women’s Caucus, 11.23 
Women’s rights, 3.16, 7.12 
Work environment, 
humanizing, 3.13 



Work opportunities 

automatic expansion tied 
to unemployment, 3.11b 
expand for persons outside 
school system, 3.11 
Work sabbaticals, 3.4c 
Work scheduling, 3.4 
Work Scheduling, Office of, 3.4b 
Work'Study programs, 3.1 
Youth employment, opportunities 
lacking, 3.15d 



O 

tKJC 



287 



Education 



Recommendations directed to teachers, school administrators, 
education researchers, and other education-oriented specialists 
are indexed below. 




Action Corps, endorsement, 1.2b 
Age of majority, lower to 18, 7.1b 
American-Samoan education 
programs, 4.8a 
Black Workshop Report, 9.3 
Blacknamization, 9.3a 
Catholic Coordinating 
Committee, 11.7 
Civil rights of youth, 7.21 
- Commitmeatio Education 
Caucus, ll.ll 
Community involvement 
in education, 4.5 
Community Learning 
centers, 4.5b 

Conscientious objectors, l.ld 
Conservative Caucus, 11.12 
Cooperative education, 3.1c 
Counseling, 3.2, 4.4a, 8.2d, 
9.6m, 9,6n 
career related, 3.6 
Decision making, 

youth participation, 9.2e 
Discrimination against high 
schooi women, 3.17 
Draft, 11.17h 

Draft authority, expiration, 1.1b 
Dropouts, 4- 4b 
Drug abuse, 

education in military, 2. Id 
therapeutic counseling in 
military, 2. Id 

Drug Education, 2.12, 11.3e 
cultural education 
centers, 2.12c 
establish National 
Committee, 2,12g 
expert review of 

training materials, 2.12f 
use of 

paraprofessiorals, 2.12c 
Drug education programs, 2.2 
Drug research, 
role of HEW, 2.7a 
Education 

abolish grades, 4.9 
academic year 

cycle change, 3.3a 
adult basic, 3.2c 
alternatives in student 
evaluation, 4.4c 
alternative systems, 4.4 
architecture, 4.4e 
audio-visual 

communications 
program, 10. 3i 
bi-lingual, 8.2h, 9.2d, 9.6j 
Black studies, 9.3b 
community control of 
schools, 8.2b 

cross cultural studies, 10.4d 
educational alternatives, 8.2a 
employment relevant, 3.1 
equal opportunity, 4.3 
exceptional students, 4.7 
expanded use of 
facilities, 4.5 
experimental and 

innovative systems, 4.1a 
financial aid for 
equal access, 4.3b 
financing career 
relevant, 3.2 
foreign affairs, 6.13c 
higher, 8.2j 

Indian, 8.2g, 9.21, 11.3a 
multi-ethnic studies, 9.6g 
national training 
programs, 9.5b 
pre-school, 8.2e 
relevant curricula, 8.2f 
religious and „ . 

cultural diversity, 10.5e 
school desegregation/ 9.4h 
sex education funds, 10.7j 



sociological analysis 
on future, 4.11 
student loans, 9.6i 
testing standards, 8.2i, 9.6h 
tracking system 
reduction, 3.2 
vocational, S.2j 
veterans benefits, 3.10 
Educational exchange 
programs, 9.2i 
Educational vouchers, 3,2b 
Environmental education 
programs, 4.4d 
Euro-American and White 
Ethnic Workshop 
Report, 9.4 
Foreign students 

coordinate information, 11.18a 
draft and citizenship, 11.18b 
financing study in U.S., 4.8 
legal rights, 11.18a 
Illegitimacy, 7.15 
Indian Council statement, 11.3 
International Delegates 
Caucus, 11.18 
International education, 4.8 
Italo-American Caucus, 9.5 
La Raza Caucus, 11.4 
Legal education 
clinical teaching in 
law schools, 7.17 
for young people, 7.10b 
Libraries as multi-media 
learning centers, 10.3d 
Mass media, restructure for 
educational purposes, 10.6d 
Multi-media programs, 10.3d 
National Educational 

Opportunities Bank, 3.2a 
National policy on 
education, 4.10 
National Service 

service learning program, 1.2 
reject compulsory, 1.2a 
National Youth Cultural 
Exchange Program, 9.4a 
"New Americans' 

Centers", 9.2n 
Non-Public Education 
Caucus, 11.19 

Non-public schools aid, 11. 7f 
Priorities, reorder 
spending, 4.1 
Racism, 10.1 
scientific, 9.2 

textbook representations, 9.2b 
understanding cultural 
diversity, 9.2c 

School lunch programs, 8.2c 
Schools as community 
laboratories, 4.5a 
Selective Service System 
changes, 1.1c 
Service learning 

community involvement, 1.2d 
test programs, 1.2e 
Service learning programs, 8.5 
Sex education, 5.4c 
Sex roles and relationships, 10.7 
j institutional 
; responses, 10.7f 
1 Student employment, 3.3 
/student rights, 11.12b 
* code, 4.2d 

responsibilities, 7.9 
Student role in educational 
governance, 4.2 
Teacher education, 4.6a 
Teachers, revamp tenure 
system, 4.6b 
Technology, ethical 
responsibilities of 
producers, 10.6b 
Textbooks, 9.6f 






Education 

(Continued) 



Venereal disease control, 7.14 
Voting rights 

18-year old vote, 7.1 
White House Conference on 
Youth implementation, lO.li 
Women’s Caucus, 11.23 



Work opportunities, expand 
for persons outside 
school system, 3.11 
Work-study programs, 3.1 
Youth Ombudsman 
Caucus, 11.24 



j 



O 

ERIC 



28S 



Government, Federal 



Recommendations directed to the Congress and Federal Executive 
Branch are listed below. 







294 



Abortion, 11.7e 

Action Corps endorsement, 1.2b 
Advertising, sex roles, 10.7a 
Africa, U.S. policies, 6.1 
Age of majority, lower to 18, 7.1b 
Alaska Pipeline, 11.16 
Alcoholism, 2.17 
All-Volunteer Force, 1.1, l.li 
Alternative family life, 10.7c 
guarantee, 10.4b 
minority report, 10.7k 
American Revolution 
Bi-Centermial 

Commission, 9.6g, lO.le 
America n-Sa moan 

education programs, 4.8a 
Amnesty for draft violation, l.le 
Appalachian coal industry, 5.7c 
Appalachian Youth Caucus, 11.6 
Apprenticeship programs, 9.4b 
Arctic Alaskan oil, 5.10 
Arms control, 6.4 
Arts 

funding, 10.1a 
youth representation, lO.lg 
Asian Caucus Report, 9.1 
Basic income floor, 11.7a 
Biocides, alternatives, 5.5d 
Birth control, 7.6c 
Black Caucus, 11.2 
Black Workshop Report, 9.3 
Blacknamization, 9.3a 
Broadcasting 

cable television, 10.3b 
community involvement, 10.3g 
misrepresentation of 

minority groups, 9.2h, 9.6o 
public, 10.3a 

Capital punishment, abolish, 7.4 
Catholic Charities Caucus, 11.9 
Catholic Coordinating 
Committee, 11.7 
Chemical and biological 
warfare, 5.12 
Child care centers, 3.16 
China, 6.9, 6.9a, 11.17q 
Citizen participation in 

environmental planning, 5.6a 
Citizen rights of action 

environmental planning, 5.6b 
Citizen suits to protect 
environment, 5.3 
Civil Liberties Caucus, 11.10 
Civil rights 

law enforcement, 9.6c 
of youth, 7.21 

Clandestine operations, 6.11b 
Coal mining, 8.7, 8.9 
Coastal zones protection, 5.7 
Commitment to 

Education Caucus, 11.11 
Communications in work 
situations, 3.13b 
Community ecology centers, 5.8 
Community involvement in 
education, 4.5 

Community learning centers, 4.5b 
Congress, Youth liaison, 6.13b 
Conscientious objectors, l.ld 
Consenting adults, 
legal rights, 7.6e 
Conservative Caucus, 11.12 
Consumer protection, 3.18 
Consumer research fund, 3.18b 
Coordinated services, 9.2g 
Correctional authority, 
creation, 7.2a 
Correctional institutions, 
minimum standards, 7.2c 
Corrections, 7.2 
Crimes without victims, 7.6 
Criminal law reform, 7.5 
Council of National 

Organizations for Children 
and Youth, 11.13 . 

Council on Youth 



Opportunities, 

reinstatement, 3.9 
Counseling, 4.4a, 8.2d, 9.6m, 

9.6n 

career related, 3.6 
Court reform, 7.3 
Cultural exchange, 
environmental 
protection, 5.14 
Decision-making 

in work situation, 3.13c 
youth participation, 9.2e 
Defense budget limit, 3.21 
reallocation, 5.9 
Defense spending, 6.11a 
Department of Children and 
Youth, create, 7.20 
Department of Defense 

educational programs, 6.1 Id 
limit forces, 6.11h 
rename, 6.11c 
Department of Racial and 
Linguistic Minority 
Group Affairs, 9.3h 
Desegregation, 9.6d 
Diplomatic recognition, 6.11 
Discrimination against 
high school women, 3.17 
District of Columbia 
Colonial Peoples 
Caucus, 11.14 
Draft, 11.3d, 11.17h 
Draft authority expiration, 1.1b 
Dropouts, 4.4b 
Drug advertising, 2.4, 2.11 
ban except in professional 
journals, 2.4d 

eliminate implications of, 2.4b 
FCC controls on 

commercials, 2.11a 
increase FTC powers, 2.4c 
role of Consumer i 

Affairs Bureau, 2.11b \ 

Drug education, 2.12, 11. 3e j 

cultural educational > 

centers, 2.12c \ 

establish National \ 

Committee, 2.12g \ 

expert review of j 

training materials, 2.12f ; 

in military, 2. Id, 2.15 
revise DOD policy, 2.1a 
role of VA, 2.15a > 

use of paraprofessionals, 2.12c ? 

Drug education programs, 2.2 
Drug prevention, community 

education and action, 2.3d \ 

Drug prevention information, j 

innovative programs, 2.3d l 

Drug production, 2.4, 2.11 } 

enforcement of laws, 2.4a t 

Drug record information, 2.1e l 

Drug research . 

criteria for researchers, 2.7 j 

increase activity, 2.7 .1 

role of HEW, 2.7a } 

Drug treatment ] 

additional funds, 2.3a j 

community organizations, 2.14 ; 

establish "hot-lines, ” ! 

in military, 2.1c 
methadone program 
improvements, 2.3b 
therapeutic counseling ; 

in military, 2. Id j 

unconventional programs, 2.14 \ 

Drug use \ 

alternatives to criminal 5 

law, 2.10 \ 

commitment to inpatient 

facilities, 2.5d ] 

crackdown on ) 

organized crime, 2.5f j 

expunge records of ] 

conviction, 2.5a j 

modes of treatment, 2.5e j 

I 

I 

■ 

t 



Government, Federal 

(Continued) 






I 

I 




no criminal sanctions 
for personal use, 2.5 
seller-user distinction, 2.5b 
treatment in lieu 
of penalty, 2.5c 
Drugs, 7.6b 

Drugs Task Force, Minority 
report, 2.10 
Economic incentives to 
redjjce pollution, 5.3b 
Economic policy, 11. 12d 
Education, 8.2 

abolish grades, 4.9 
academic yeaj cycle 
change, 3.3a 
adult basic, 3.2c 
alternative systems, 4.4 
alternatives in student 
evaluation, 4.4c 
architecture, 4.4e 
audio-visual communications 
program, 10.3i 
bi-lingual programs, 

8.2h, 9.2d, 9.6j 
Black studies, 9.3b 
community control of 
schools, 8.2b 

educational alternatives, 8.2a 
employment relevant, 3.1 
equal opportunity, 4.3 
exceptional students, 4.7 
expanded use of facilities, 4.5 
experimental and 

innovative systems, 4.1a 
financial aid for 
equal access, 4.3b 
financing career relevant, 3.2 
foreign affairs, 6.13c 
higher, 8.2j 

Indian, 8.2g, 9.21, 11.3a 
multi-ethnic studies, 9.6g 
national policy, 4.10 
national training 
programs, 9.5b 
pre-school, 8.2e 
relevant curricula, 8.2f 
school desegregation, 9.4h 
sex education funds, 10. 7j 
sociological analysis 
on future, 4.11 
student loans, 9.6i 
testing standards, 8.2i, 9.6h 
tracking system reduction, 3.2 
veterans benefits, 3.10 
vocational, 8.2j 
Educational exchange 
programs, 9.2i 
Educational vouchers, 3.2b 
Emergency Detention 
Act, repeal, 9.2m, 11.1a 
Employment, minority 
hiring practices, 9.3 
Environment, 6.8, 11.12c 
Environmental education 
programs, 4.4d 
Environmental protection, 
priorities, 5.7b 
Equal Employment 

Opportunity Commission, 
expand powers, 3.15a 
Euro-American and White 

Ethnic Workshop Report, 9.4 
European nuclear free zone, 6.11f 
Extra-terrestial exploration, 5.5g 
Family 

alternative life 

styles, 10.2b, 10.4 
economic security, 10.2a 
Family planning, 5.4a 
Federal Bureau of 

Investigation control by 
independent review 
board, 7.8 

Hoover resignation, 11.10 
Foreign aid, 6. Hi 
Foreign investments, 6.12a 
Foreign policy, 11.12a 
abolish SEATO, 11.1 7n 




guidelines on racism, 9.3c 
international 

recognition, 11.17p 
reflect domestic policies, 10.4c 
Foreign students 

coordinate information, 11.18a 
draft and citizenship, 11.18b 
financing study in U.S., 4.8 
legal rights, 11.18a 
Free Enterprise Caucus, 11.15 
Friends of the Dollar 
Caucus, 11.16 
Guaranteed adequate 
income, 3.22, 8.1 
Hawaiian Islands, 
preservation, 5.7a 
Health care, 8.4 

Federal responsibility, 8.4a 
Health programs for blacks, 9.3h 
Hickenlooper amendment 
repeal, 6.12b 
Hiring practices, 3.5 
Homosexuals, 10.7d 
Housing, 5.6f, 8.3, 9.4f 
migrant workers, 8.11 
new towns, 8.11 
rehabilitation of 
community, 8.11 
rural, 8.11 
Human justice, 7.21 
Human rights, 6.5 
Human rights declaration, U.S. 

sign, 11.171 
Hunger, 8.4c 
Illegitimacy, 7.15 
Indian Council Statement, 11.3 
Indians, legal rights, 11.3b 
Individual rights on the job, 3.13d 
Indochina Caucus, 11.17 
Industry 

relocation, 3.15e 
U.S. business operations 
overseas, 5.5e 
Inner city environment, 5.2 
Internal Revenue code, amend- 
ment to allow tax-exempt 
organizations to influence 
legislation, 5.3c 
International education, 4.8 
International Delegates 
Caucus, 11.18 
International Youth Center 
Project, transfer of Peace 
Corps, 5.5b 

International Youth Conference 
on the Human Environment, 
5.5i 

Inter-racial families, 9.6p 
Invasion of privacy, 7.7 
ItalO'American Caucus, 9.5 
Job discrimination, 
eliminate, 3.15 

Job opportunities, 9.2f, 9.6k, 9.61 
Job placement centers, 3.8b 
Job programs, disadvantaged 
youth, 3.7, 3.9b 
Judicial reforms, 9.4e 
Juvenile advocate system, 7.23 
Juvenile court, review, 7.25 
Juvenile justice system 

improvement of system, 7.22 
personnel upgrading, 7.28 
Juvenile records, 
availability, 7.22d 
Kennedy Center for the Perform- 
ing Arts, youth festival, 10.1c 
Land and resources policy, 
adoption, 5.7 

Land use classification system 
development, 5.7 
Land use planners, 
competence, 5.6e 
La Raza Caucus, 11.4 
Law enforcement, better training 
of officers, 10.4e 
Legal rights, minority, 9.3g 
Libraries, multi-media learning 
centers, 10.3d 



295 



Government, Federal 

(Continued) 




Marijuana 

evaluation by Armed 
Forces, 2.1b 
legalization, 2.8 
prohibit legalization, 2.16 
Mass media, 10.3 

misrepresentation of minority 
groups, 11. 3f 
monitored by youth, 10.3f 
responsibilities, 10.3e 
Medical consent, 7.13 
Mid-East 

arms build up, 6.3b 
common market, 6.3c 
international guarantees, 6.3a 
people-to-people program, 6.3e 
terrorist tactics, 6.3f 
U.N. Conference on Human 
Rights, 6.3g 
Military alliances, 6.11k 
Military justice, 7.11 
Military life, improving 
quality, 1.1 j 

Military pay provisions, l.lh 
Military operations, effect on 
environment, 5.13 
Minimum wage, 3.14 
Motivation in work 
environment, 3.13a 
Multi-media programs, 10.3d 
National Advisory Board on 
Corrections, 7.2a 
National Agency for Adequate 
Housing, 8.3b 

National Council for Responsive 
Action, establish, 2.6 
National Educational Opportuni- 
ties Bank, 3.2a 

National Environmental Corps 
establish, 5.3d 

National Environmental Policy 
Act, expansion, 5.3a 
National Job Information 
Service, 3.8 

National Minority Youth 
Foundation, 9.2k 
National Service 

service learning program, 1.2 
reject compulsory, 1.2a 
National Youth Cultural 
Exchange Program, 9.4a 
Natural systems inventory, 5.7 
Neighborhood Youth Corps, 9.4g 
"New Americans’' Centers, 9.2n 
Non-Public Education 
Caucus, 11.19 

Non-public schools aid, il.7f 
Non-renewable resources, 
identify total reserves, 5.7 
Oceans 

peaceful uses, 6.7 
protection, 5.5c 
Office of Economic Oppor- 
tunity, 8.8 

Office of Education, Arts and 
Humanities program, 10.1b 
Office of Federal Contract 

Compliance, expansion, 3.15b 
Old Age Assistance, 11. 7d 
Open space, preservation and 
expansion, 5.6e 
Pakistan, conduct of 
military, 6. lie, 6.111 
Palestine refugees, 6.3, 6.3d 
Panama Canal, 6.10 
Peace Corps, transfer to U.N, 
Volunteer Corps, 5.5b 
Pearson Commission report, 6.12 
Police 

reforms, 9.4c 

relationship with youth, 7.10 
Pollution impact on urban 
areas, 5.6c 

Poverty, Indian, 11.3c 
Power sources, alternative, 5.5f 
Priorities, reorder spending, 4.1 
Priorities, restructuring, 

6.1 IS, 6.1 lj 



Public and private lands 
network, 5.7 

Public lands acquisition, 5.7 
Public service employment, 3.12 
Puerto Rico, Federal appropri- 
ations, 9.2j 
Quality of life, 11.7c 
measurements, 3.19 
Racial discrimination, 6.1 
Racism, 9.2, 9.4d, 9.6a, 9.6b, 

10.1 

scientific, 9,2 

textbook representations, 9.2b 
understanding cultural 
diversity, 9.2c 
Recreation, 8.5 

Reserve forces activation, l.lg 
Residence, right to emigrate, 7.16 
Resignation of President, 11.17k 
Right to life, 8.10 
School lunch programs, 8.2c 
Schools as community 
laboratories, 4.5a 
Selective Service System, 
changes, 1.1c 
Service learning, test 
programs, 1.2e 

Service learning programs, 8.5 
Sex education, 5.4c 
Sex roles 

equal rights, 10. 7g 
institutional responses, 10. 7f 
prohibit discrimination, 10. 7i 
Sexual responsibilities, 
standards, 10. 7e 
Sexually restrictive legislation, 
repeal, 10.7h 
Socialist Caucus, 11.20 
Standby draft and registration 
authority, l.lf 
Statehood for District of 
Columbia, 11.14 
Student rights and responsi- 
bilities, 7.9, 11.12b 
code, 4.2d 

Student role in educational 
governance, 4.2 
Sudan, 6.11g, 6.11m 
Supersonic aircraft ban, 5.5h 
Tax deductions for environmental 
pollution cooperative 
costs, 3.20 

Tax exemption for consumer 
organizations, 3.18a 
Technology, 10.6 
conservation of 
resources, 10. 6e 
ethical responsibilities of 
producers, 10.6b 
improvements in life, 10,6c 
Teacher education, 4.6a 
Teachers, revamp tenure 
system, 4.6b 
Textbooks, 9.6f 
Trade restrictions, 6.12d 
United Nations 

associate membership, 6.6e 
finances, 6.6f 

peacekeeping functions, 6.6c 
reform procedures, 6.6 
role of Security Council, 6.6a 
universal membership, 6.6d 
Volunteer Corps, transfer of 
Peace Corps, 5.5b 
World Court decisions, 6.6g 
Urban human ecology, 5.6 
Urban transportation, 5.6d 
Venereal disease control, 7.14 
Vietnam, 6.2 
ecocide, ll,!7g 
economic assistance, 

6. 2d, 11.17f 
Geneva Conference, 

6.2c, 11.17m 
oii fields, 6.2h 
People's Peace 

Treaty, 6.2b, 10.4a, 11.17a 
protests, 6.2g 




296 



Government, Federal 

(Continued) 



Provisional Revolutionary 
Government, ll,17j 
release of prisoners, 6.2e, 6. 
Vietnamization program, 
6.2a, 11.17b 
withdrawal by December 
31, 1971, 11.17e 
World Court 

jurisdiction, 11.17o 
Voter registration, 9.3f 
Voting rights, 18*year-old 
vote, 6.15, 7.1 
Welfare, replace current 
system, 3.22 a 
White House Conference on 
Youth 

Ad-Hoc Implementation 
Committee, 11.5 



i 

\ 

\ 

| 

i 



O 

ERIC 

297 



every 4-years, 4.12, 7.18, 11.22 
follow-up activities, 7.19 
implementation, 6.14, 10.1 i, 
11.8 

Women's Caucus, 11.23 
Woman's rights, 3.16, 7.12 
Work environment, 
humanizing, 3.13 
Work opportunities 

automatic expansion tied to 
unemployment, 3.11b 
expand for persons outside 
school system, 3.11 
Work sabbaticals, 3.4c 
Work scheduling, 3.4 
Work Scheduling, Office of, 3.4b 
Youth employment, opportunities 
lacking, 3.15d 

Youth Ombudsman Caucus, 11.24 



2S3 



Recommendations directed to state governors, mayors, city 
managers, state and local legislators, and appointed public officials 
are listed below. 



Age of majority, lower 
to 18, 7.1b 

Alaska Pipeline, 11.16 
Alcoholism, 2.17 
Alternative family life, 10.7c 
guarantee, 10.4b 
minority report, 10.7k 
Appalachian Youth Caucus, 11.6 
Apprenticeship programs, 9.4b 
Arts, state and local 
support, 10. If 
Basic income floor, ll.7a 
Birth control, 7.6c 
Black Workshop Report, 9.3 
Blacknamization, 9.3a 
Broadcasting, public, 10.3a 
Capital punishment, abolish, 7.4 
Child care centers, 3.16 
Citizen participation in environ- 
mental planning, 5.6a 
Citizen rights of action in 

environmental planning, 5.6b 
Citizen suits to protect 
environment, 5.3 
Civil rights 

law enforcement, 9.6c 
of Youth, 7.21 
Coal mining, 8./, S.9 
Coastal zones protection, 5.7 
Commitment to Education 
Caucus, 11.11 
Communications in work 
situations, 3.13b 
Community ecology centers, 5.8 
Community involvement in 
education, 4.5 

Community learning centers, 4.5b 
Consenting adults, legal 
rights, 7.6e 

Conservative Caucus, 11.12 
Consumer protection, 3.18 
Consumer research fund, 3.18b 
Coordinated services, 9.2g 
Correctional authority, 
creation, 7.2a 
Correctional institutions, 
minimum standards, 7.2c 
Corrections, 7.2 

Council of National Organizations 
for Children and Youth, 11.13 
Counseling, 4.4a, 8.2d, 9.6m, 

9.6n 

career related, 3.6 
Court reform, 7.3 
Crimes without victims, 7.6 
Criminal law reform, 7.5 
Decisionmaking 

in work situation, 3.13c 
1 youth participation, 9.2e 
Discrimination against high 
school women, 3.17 
Draft, 11.17h 
Dropouts, 4.4b 
Drug education, Il.3e 
cultural educational 
centers, 2.12c 
establish National 
Committee, 2.12g 
expert review of training 
materials, 2.12f 
use of paraprofessionals, 2.12c 
Drug education programs, 2.2 
Drug prevention 

community education and 
action, 2.3d 

Drug prevention information, 
innovative£programs, 2'.3d 
Drug research 

criteria for researchers, 2.7 
increase activity, 2.7 
Drug treatment 

community oyj^^gfions, 2.14 



methadone program 
improvements, 2.3b 
unconventional programs, 2.14 
Drug use 

alternatives to criminal 
law, 2.10 

commitment to inpatient 
facilities, 2.5d 
crackdown on organized 
crime, 2.5f 
expunge records of 
conviction, 2.5a 
modes of treatment, 2.5e 
no criminal sanctions for 
personal use, 2.5 
r use distinction, 2.5b 
tr*. tr» ertt in lieu of 
penalty, 2.5c 
Drugs, 7.6b 

Economic incentives to reduce 
pollteron, 5u3b 
Education, 8.2 

abolish gradfes, 4.9 
academic year cycle 
change, J.3a 
adult bas'tfi, 3.2c 
alternative systems, 4.4 
alternatives in student 
evaluation, 4.4c 
architecture, 4.4e 
audio-visual communications 
progran l0.3i 

bi lingual & ograms,,3.2h, 9.2d 
9.6j 

Black stuGiSr 9.3b 
community control of 
schools, 8.2b 

educational alternatives, 8.2a 
employment relevant, 3.1 
equal opportunity, 4.3 
exceptional students, 4.7 
expanded use of facilities, 4.5 
experimental and innovative 
systems, 4.1a 
financial aid for equal 
access, 4.3b 

financing career relevant, 3.2 
higher, 8.2j 

Indian, 8.2g, 9.21, 11.3a 
multi-ethnic studies, 9.6g 
national policy, 4.10 
national training 
programs, 9.5b 
pre-school, 8.2e 
relevant curricula, 8.2f 
school desegregation, 9.4h 
sex education funds, 10.7j 
sociological analysis on 
future, 4.11 
student loans, 9.6i 
testing standards, 8.2i, 9.6h 
tracking system reduction, 3.2 
vocational, 8.2j 
Educational exchange 
programs, 9.2i 
Educational vouchers, 3.2b 
Employment, minority hiring 
practices, 9.3 
Environmental education 
programs, 4.4d 
Environmental protection, 
priorities, 5.7b 

Equal Employment Opportunity 
Commission, expand powers, 
3.15a 

Euro-American and White Ethnic 
Workshop Report, 9.4 
Famiiy. alternative life 
styles, IiH2b, 10.4 
Foreign stedents 

coordinate information, 11.18a 
financingstudymi U.S., 4.8 
legalmgftfe, 113:8a 
Friendteoff&ae Do I far 
Camas* 13. 16 



Government, 
State and Local 

(Continued) 





Guaranteed annual income, 3.22 
Hawaiian Islands, 
preservation, 5.7a 
Health care, 8.4 

state and local responsi- 
bility, 8Ab 

Health programs for blacks, 9.3h 
Hiring practices, 3.5 
Homosexuals, 10.7d 
Housing, 5.6f ( 8.3, 9.4f 
migrant workers, 8.11 
new towns, 8.11 
rehabilitation of community, 
8.11 

rural, 8.11 
Human justice, 7.21 
Hunger, 8.4c 
Illegitimacy, 7.15 
Indian Counci! statement, 11.3 
Indians, legal rights, 11.3b 
Individual rights on the job, 3.13d 
Industry relocation, 3.15e 
Inner city environment, 5.2 
Inter-racial families, 9.6p 
International Education, 4.8 
Invasion of privacy, 7.7 
Italo-American Caucus, 9.5 
Job discrimination, 
eliminate, 3.15 

Job opportunities, 9.2f, 9.6k, 9.61 
Job placement centers, 3.8b 
Job programs, disadvantaged 
youth, 3.7, 3.9b 
Judicial reforms, 9.4e 
Juvenile advocate system, 7.23 
Juvenile court, review, 7.25 
Juvenile justice system 

improvement of system, 7.22 
personnel upgrading, 7.28 
Juvenile records, 
availability, 7.22d 
Land and resources policy, 
adoption, 5.7 

Land use classification system, 
development, 5.7 
Land use planners, 
competence, 5.6e 
La Raza Caucus, 11.4 
Law enforcement, better training 
of officers, 10.4e 
Legal rights, minority, 9.3g 
Libraries as multi-media 
learning centers, 10.3d 
Marijuana 

legalization, 2.8 
prohibit legalization, 2.16 
Mass media, 10.3 

monitored by Youth, 10.3f 
Medical consent, 7.13 
Minimum wage, 3.14 
Motivation in work 
environment, 3.13a 
Multi-media programs, 10.3d 
National Council for Responsive 
Action, establish, 2.6 
National Job Information 
Service, 3.8 
National Youth Cultural 
Exchange Program, 9.4a 
Neighborhood Youth Corps, 9.4g 
Non-Public Education 
Caucus, 11.19 

Non-public schools aid, 11. 7f 
Office of Federal Contract 

Compliance, expansion, 3.15b 
Open space, preservation and 
expansion, 5.6e 
Police 

reforms, 9.4c 

relationship with Youth, 7.10 



Pollution impact ort urban 
areas, 5.6c 
Poverty, Indian, 11.3c 
Priorities, reorder spending, 4.1 
Public and private lands 
network, 5.7 

Public lands acquisition, 5.7 
Public service employment, 3.12 
Quality of life measure- 
ments, 3.19 
Racism, 9.2, 9.4d 
scientific, 9.2 

textbook repres; -tions, 9.2b 
understanding cultural 
diversity, 9.2c 
Recreation, 8.5 
Right to life, 8.10 
School lunch prop tis, 8.2c 
Schools as comm.. . :y 
laboratories, 4.5s 
Service learning, community 
involvement, 1.2d 
Service learning programs, 8.5 
Sex roles 

equal rights, 10.7g 
institutional responses, 10.7f 
prohibit discrimination, 10.7i 
Sexual responsibilities, 
standards, 10.7e 
Sexually restrictive legislation, 
repeal, 10.7h 
Socialist Caucus, 11.20 
State laws barring employment 
of youth, 3.9c 
Student rights and 

responsibilities, 7.9, 11.12b 
code, 4. 2d 

Student role in educational 



governance, 4.2 

Tax deductions for environmental 
pollution cooperative 
costs, 3.20 

Tax exemption for consumer 
organizations, 3.18a 
Teacher education, 4.6a 
Teachers, revamp tenure 
system, 4.6b 
Technology, 10.6 

ethical responsibilities of 
producers, 10.6b 
improvements in life, 10.6c 
Textbooks, 9.6f 
Urban transportation, 5.6d 
Venereal disease control, 7.14 
Voter registration, 9.3f 
Voting rights, 18-year old 
vote, 6.15, 7.1 
Welfare, replace current 
system, 3.22a 

White House Conference on Youth 
Ad-Hoc Implementation 
Committee, 11.5 
every 4-years, 4.12, 7.18, 11.22 

imnlntnontatinn ^ 1 ^ 1H 11 



11.8 



Women's Caucus, 11.23 
Women's rights, 3.16, 7-12 



Work environment, 
humanizing, 3.13 
Work opportunities 

automatic expansion tied to 
unemployment, 3.11b 
expand for persons outside 
school systems, 3.11 
Work sabbaticals, 3.4c 
Work scheduling, 3.4 
Work Scheduling, Office of, 3.4b 
Youth employment, opportunities 
lacking, 3.15d 
Youth model courts, 
establish, 7.27a 
Youth observer corps, 7.27b 
Youth Ombudsman Caucus, 11.24 



299 



International Organizations The recommendations outlined below 

organizations. 



Africa, U.S. policies, 6.1 
American-Samoan education 
programs, 4.8a 
Arms control, 6.4 
Asian-Pacific Caucus, 11.1 
China, 6.9, 6.9a, 11.17q 
Clandestine operations, 6.11b 
Cultural exchange for environ- 
mental protection, 5.14 
Diplomatic recognition, 6.11 
Draft authority, expiration, 1.1b 
Drug use, crackdown on 
organized crime, 2.5f 
Education 

foreign affairs, 6.13c 
sociological analysis on 
future, 4.11 

Emergency Detention Act, 
repeal, 9.2m, 11.1a 
Environment, 6.8 
European nuclear free zone, 6.1 If 
Extra-terrestial exploration, 5.5g 
Foreign Aid, 6. Hi 
Foreign investments, 6.12a 
Foreign policy, 11.12a 
abolish SEATO, 11.17n 
guidelines on racism, 9.3c 
international recognition, 

1 1.17p 

reflect domestic policies, 10.4c 
Foreign students 

coordinate information, 11.18a 
draft and citizenship, 11.18b 
financing study in U.S., 4.8 
legal rights, 11.18a 
Hickenlooper amendment 
repeal, 6.12b 
Human rights, 6.5 
Human rights declaration, 

U.S. sign, 11.171 
Indochina Caucus, 11.17 
Industry, U.S. business opera- 
tions abroad, 5.5e 
International Delegates 
Caucus, 11.18 
International education, 4.8 
International Youth Center 
Project, transfer of Peace 
Corps, 5.5b 

International Youth Conference 
on the Human Environ- 
ment, 5.5i 
Mid-East 

arms build up, 6.3b 
common market, 6.3c 



2S6 



relate to international 



international guarantees, 6.3a 
people-to-people program, 6.3e 
terrorist tactics, 6.3f 
U.N. Conference on Human 
Rights, 6.3g 
Military alliances, 6.11k 
Natural systems inventory, 5.7 
Non-renewable resources, identify 
total reserves, 5.7 
Oceans, 

peaceful uses, 6.7 
protection, 5.5c 
Pakistan, conduct of 
military, 6.11e, 6,111 
Palestine refugees, 6.3, 6.3d 
Panama Canal, 6.10 
Peace Corps, transfer to U.N. 

Volunteer Corps, 5.5b 
Pearson Commission report, 6.12 
Population stabilization, 5.1, 5.4 
Racial discrimination, 6.1 
Residence, right to emigrate, 7.16 
Sudan, 6.11g, 6.11m 
Supersonic aircraft ban, 5.5h 
Trade restrictions, 6.12d 
United Nations 

associate membership, 6.6e 
finances, 6.6f 

peacekeeping functions, 6.6c 
reform procedures, 6.6 
role of Security Council, 6.6a 
universal membership, 6.6d 
Volunteer Corps, transfer of 
Peace Corps, 5.5b 
World Court decisions, 6.6g 
Vietnam, 6.2 
ecocide, 11.17g 
economic assistance, 6.2d, 

1 1.17f 

Geneva Conference, 6.2c, 

oil fields, 6.2h 
People's Peace Treaty, 6.2b 
10.4a, 11.17a 
protests, 6.2g 
Provisional Revolutionary 
Government, 11.17J 
release of prisoners, 6.2e, 6.2f 
Vietnamization program, 6.2a, 
11.17b 

withdrawal by December 31, 
1971, 11.17e 
World Court jurisdiction, 

11.17c 

World Environmental Organi- 
zation, creation, 5.5a 



Judiciary and 
Law Enforcement 



Recommendations directed to judges, police officials, correctional 
o-ficer o. lawyers and law-enforcement activities are listed below . 



Abortion, 11. 7e 

Age*<f majority, lower to 18, 7. ID 
Alter native family life, 10.7c 
guarantee, 10.4b 
minority viewpoint, 10.7k 
American Bar Association, 7-6f 
Amnesty fur draft violation, l.le 
Asian Caucus, 9.1 
Asian-Pacific Caucus, 11.1 
Birth control, 7.6c 
Capital punishment, abolish, 7.4 
Citizen rights of action, environ- 
mental planning, 5.6b 
Citizen suits to protect 
environment, 5.3 
Civil Liberties Caucus, 11.10 
Civil rights, law enforcement, 9.6c 
Civil rights of youth, 7.21 
Conscientious objectors, l.ld 
Consenting adults, legal 
rights, 7.6e 
Correctional authority 
creation, 7.2a 
Correctional institutions, 
minimum standards, 7.2c 
Corrections, 7.2 
Court reform, 7.3 
Crimes without victims, 7.6 
Criminal law reform, 7.5 
Drug abuse, revise DOD 
policy, 2.1a 
Drug education, 2.12 
Drug education programs, 2.2 
Drug production, 2.4 

enforcement of laws, 2.4a 
Drug record information, 2.1e 
Drug treatment, additional 
funds, 2.3a 
Drug use 

alternatives to criminal 
law, 2.10 

commitment to inpatient 
facilities, 2.5d 
crackdown on organized 
crime, 2.5f 
expunge records of 
conviction, 2.5a 
modes of treatment, 2.5e 
no criminal sanctions for 
personal use, 2.5 
seller-user distinction, 2.5b 
treatment in lieu of 
penalty, 2.5c 
Drugs, 7.6b 

Drugs Task Force, minority 
report, 2.10 

Education, equal opportunity, 4.3 
Family, alternative life 
styles, 10.2b, 10.4 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
control by independent — 
review board, 7.8 
Hoover resignation, 11.10 



.3.1 



Foreign students, legal 
rights, 11.18a 
Homosexuals, 10. 7d 
Human justice, 7.21 
Illegitimacy, 7.15 
Indians, legal rights, 11. ^b 
Individual rights on the job, 
Inter-racial families, 9.6p 
Invasion of privacy, 7.7 
Judicial reforms, 9.4e 
Juvenile advocate system, 1.^ 
Juvenile court, review, 7.25 
Juvenile justice system, 

improvement of system, 7.22 
personnel upgrading, 7.28 
Juvenile records, 
availability, 7.22d 
La Raza Caucus, 11.4 
Law enforcement, better 
training of officers, 10.4e 
Legal education 

clinical teaching in law 
schools, 7.17 
for young people, 7.10b 



Marijuana 

evaluation by Armed 
Forces, 2.1b 
legalization, 2.8 
prohibit legalization, 2.16 
Medical consent, 7.13 
Military justice, 7.11 
National Advisory Board on 
Corrections, 7.2a 



Police 

reforms, 9.4c 

relationship with Youth, 7. 1C 
training and education, 7.10c 
Racism, scientific, 9.2 
Residence, right to emigrate, 7.1 o 
Sex roles and relationships, 10.7 
equal rights, 10.7g 
institutional responses, x0.7f 
Sexual responsibilities, 
standards, I0.7e 
Sexually restrictive legislation, 
repeal, 10.7h 
Socialist Caucus, 11 .20 
Student rights, 11.12b 
responsibilities, 7.9 
Tax exemption for consumer 
organizations, 3.18a 
United Nations, World Court 
decisions, 6.6g 
Voter registration, 9.3f 
Voting rights, 18-year-old 
vote, 6.1l r ., 7.1 
Women's Caucus, 11.23 
Women's rights, 7.12 
Youth model courts, 
establish, 7.27a 
Youth Observer Corns, 7.27b 
Youth Ombudsman Caucus, 11.24 



aas 

2B7 



Recommendations directed to union officials, labor-relations 
specialists, and others concerned with employment and the work 
environment are indexed below. 



Age of majority, lower to 13, 7.1b 
Alaska pipeline, 11.16 
Apprenticeship programs, 9.4b 
Arctic Alaskan oil, 5.10 
Arts, apprenticeship 
programs, 10. Id 
Arts craft union, lO.lh 
Basic income floor, 11.7a 
Black Workshop Report, 9.3 
Child care centers, 3.16 
Coal mining, 8.7, 8.9 
Communications in work 
situations, 3.13b 
Consumer protection, 3.18 
Consumer research fund, 3.18b 
Cooperative education, 3.1c 
Council on Youth Opportunities, 
reinstatement, 3.9 
Decision-making in work 
situation, 3.13c 
Defense budget, limit, 3.21 
Dropouts, 4.4b 
Drug production, 2.4 
Education 

financing career relevant, 3.2 
national training 
programs, 9.5b 
pre-school, 8.2e 
vocational, 8.2j 
Employment, minority hiring 
practices, 9.3 

Equal Employment Opportunity 
Commission expand powers, 
3.15a 
Family 

alternative life 

styles, 10.2b, 10.4 
economic security, 10.2a 
Guaranteed adequate income, 8.1 
Guaranteed annual income, 3.22 
Hiring practices, 3.5 
Housing, 8.3, 9.4f 

migrant workers, 8.11 
new towns, 8.11 
rehabilitation of 
community, 8.11 
rural, 8.11 

Individual rights on the job, 3.13d 
Industry relocation, 3.l5e 
Italo-American Caucus, 9.5 
Job discrimination, 
eliminate, 3.15 

Job opportunities. 9.2f, 9.6k, 9.61 
meaningful work, 10.6a 



Job placement centers, 3.8b 
Job programs, disadvantaged 
youth, 3.7, 3.9b 
Minimum wage, 3.14 
Motivation in work 
environment, 3.13a 
National Agency for Adequate 
Housing, 8.3b 
National Job Information 
Service, 3.8 

Office of Federal Contract 

Compliance, expansion, 3.15b 
Public service employment, 3.12 
Quality of life measure- 
ments, 3.19 

Racial discrimination, 6.1 
Racism, scientific, 9.2 
Service learning programs, 8.5 
Sex roles and relationships, 10.7 
institutional responses, 10.7f 
prohibit discrimination, 10. 7i 
State laws barring employment 
of youth, 3.9c 

Tax deductions for environmental 
pollution cooperative costs, 
3.20 

Tax exemption for consumer 
organizations, 3.18a 
Teachers, revamp tenure 
system, 4.6b 
Trade restrictions, 6.12d 
Urban transportation, 5.6d 
Welfare, replace current 
system, 3.22a 
White House Conference on 
Youth, implementation, 6.14, 
10. li 

Women's Caucus, 11.23 
Women's rights, 3.16 
Work environment, 
humanizing, 3.13 
Work opportunities 

automatic expansion tied to 
unemployment, 3.11b 
expand for persons outside 
school system, 3.11 
Work sabbaticals, 3.4c 
Work scheduling, 3.4 
Work Scheduling, Office of, 3.4b 
Work-study programs, 3.1 
Youth employment, opportunities 
lacking, 3.15d 



Private, Non-Profit and 
Volunteer Organizations 



| 

jf 

r 



l 

t 



l 

E 

i. 

1 

'v 

i 

p 

l 

li 



j. 




Recommendations relating to private, non-profit, professional and 
volunteer organizations, both national and local, are listed below. 



Action Corps, endorsement, 1.2b 
Alcoholism, 2.17 
American Bar Association, /.oT 
American Revolution Bi- 

Centennial Commission, lU.ie 
American-Samoan education 
programs, 4.8a 

Appalachian Youth Caucus, 11.6 
Arts, funding, 10.1a 
Asian Caucus, 9.1 
Birth control, 7.6c 
Broadcasting, community 
involvement, 10.3g 
Child care centers, 3.16 
Citizen participation in environ- 
mental planning, 5.6a 
Citizen rights of action, 

environmental planning, o.ob 
Community ecology centers, 5.8 
Community involvement in 
education, 4.5 

Community learning centers, 
Coordinated services, 9.2g 
Council of National Organizations 
for Children and Youth, 11.13 
Counseling, 3.2, 4.4a, 8.2d, 

9.6m, 9.6n . . . 

Cultural exchange, environmental 
protection, 5.14 
Dropouts, 4.4b 
Drug abuse 

education in military, 2-ia 
Drug advertising — - — \ 

ban except in professional 
journals, 2.4d 
role of Consumer Affairs 
Bureau, 2.11b 
Drug education, 2.12 
cultural educational 
centers, 2.12c 
establish National 
Committee, 2.12g 
expert review of training 
materials, 2.12f 
use of para professionals, 2.12c 
Drug education programs, 2.2 
Drug prevention, community 
education and action, 2.3d 
Drug prevention information, 
innovative programs, 2.3d 
Drug production, 2.4 
increase activity, 2.7 
Drug research 

criteria for researchers, 2./ 

Drug treatment 

additional funds, 2.3a 
community organizations, 2.14 
establish "hot-lines” in 
military, 2.1c 
menthadone program 
improvements, 2.3b 
therapeutic counseling in 
military, 2. Id 

unconventional programs, 2.14 
Drugs Task Force, Minority 
report, 2.10 
Education 

alternative systems, 4.4 
bi-lingua!, 8.2h 
community control of 
schools, 8.2b 
employment relevant, 3.1 
exceptional students, 4.7 
expanded use of facilities, 4.5 
experimental and innovative 
systems, 4.1a 
financial aid for equal 
vvStSg&s&r 4.3 b 
higher, 8.2j 
Indian, 8.2g 
national policy, 4.10 
pre-school, 8.2e 
relevant curricula, 8.2f 
testing standards, 8.2i 
vocational, 8.2j 
Educational exchange 
programs, 9.2i 



Euro-American and White Ethnic 
Workshop Report, 9.4 
Family life, 11.7b 
Family planning, 5.4a 
Foreign students Q 

coordinate information, 11.18a 
financing study in U.S., 4.8 
Free Enterprise Caucus, 11.15 
Health care, 8.4 
Housing 

migrant workers, 8.11 
rehabilitation of 
community, 8.11 
Human rights, 6.5 
Hunger, 8.4c 
Illegitimacy, 7.15 
Indian Council statement, 11.3 
Internal Revenue code, amend- 
ment to allow tax-exempt 
organizations to influence 
legislation, 5.3c 
International Delegates 
Caucus, 11.18 
International education, 4.8 
Italo-American Caucus, 9.5 
Juvenile advocate system, 7.23 
Juvenile justice systems 
personnel upgrading, 7.28 
Land use planners, 
competence, 5.6e 
Libraries as multi-media learning 
centers, 10.3d 
Mass media, sex roles in 
children's books, 10.7b 
Mid-East 

people-to-people program, b.oe 
U.N. Conference on Human 
Rights, 6.3g 

National Council for Responsive 
Action, establish, 2.6 
National Educational Oppor- 
tunities Bank, 3.2a 
National Environmental Corps, 
establish, 5.3d 
National Service 

service learning program, l.-a 
reject compulsory, l-zfi 
National Youth Cultural 
Exchange Program, 9.4a 
Neighborhood Youth Corps, 9.4g 
Old Age Assistance, 11.7d 
Palestine refugees, 6.3, 6,3d 
Pollution impact on urban 

areas, 5.6c . _ , „ 

Population stabilization, 5,1, b.4 
Poverty. Indian, 11.3c 
Pubiic~and private lands 
network, 5.7 
Racism, 9.2, 9.4d, 10,1 
understanding cultural 
diversity, 9.2c 
Recreation, 8,5 
Right to life, 8.10 
School lunch programs, 8.2c 
Schools as community 
laboratories, 4.5a 
Service learning _ 

community involvement, 1 . 2 a 
test programs, 1.2e 
Service learning programs, S.b 
Sex education, 5.4c 
Student rights and responsi- 
bilities, 7.9 

Tax deductions for environmental 
pollution cooperative costs, 
3.20 

Tax exemption for consumer 
organizations, 3.18a 
Teacher education, 4.6a 
Teachers, revamp tenure 
system, 4.6b 
Technology, 10.6 

ethical responsibilities of 
producers, 10.6b 
Urban transportation, 5.6d ^ 
Venereal disease control, 7.14 






Private, Non-Profit and 
Volunteer Organizations 

(Continued) 



Vietnam, release of 
prisoners, 6.2e, 6.2f 
Voter registration, 9.3f 
Welfare, replace current 
system, 3.22a 

White House Conference on Youth 
Ad-Hoc implementation 
Committee, 11.5 



eve*y 4'years, 4 -12, 7-18, 

} 1.22 

foM Q W-up activities, 7-19 
implementation, 6.14, 11.8 
Wom e h's rights, 3-16, 7.12 
World Environmental Organiza- 
tion, c reat ic ^ri, 5.5a 
Youth Ombudsman Caucus, 11.24 




| O 

\mc 



Religious Organizations 



Recommendations directed to church and religious organizations 
are outlined below. 



Abortion, 11. 7e 

Age of majority, lower to 18, 7.1b 
Alcoholism, 2.17 
Alternative family life, 10.2b, 

10.4, 10.7c 
guarantee, 10.4b 
minority report, 10.7k 
Asian Caucus, 9.1 
Birth control, 7.6c 
Black Workshop Report, 9.3 
Blacknamization, 9.3a 
Catholic Charities Caucus, 11.9 
Catholic Coordinating 
Committee, 11-7 
Commitment to Education 
Caucus, 11.11 

Community learning centers, 4.5b 
Conscientious objectors, l.ld 
Consenting adults, legal 
rights, 7.6e 

Coordinated services, ?.2g 
Council of National Organizations 
for Children and Youth, 11.13 
Crimes without victims, 7.6 
Drug abuse, therapeutic 

counseling in military, 2.1d 
Drug education, 2.12 
cultural educational 
centers, 2.12c 
establish National 
Committee, 2.12g 
expert review of training 
m&cenals, 2.12f 
use of paraprcfessionals, 2.12c 
Drug education programs, 2.2 
Drug prevention, community 
education and action, 2.3d 
Drug prevention information, 
innovative programs, 2.3d 
Drug treatment 

community organizations, 2.14 
establish “hot-lines” in 
military, 2.1c 
methadone program 
improvements, 2.3b 
unconventional programs, 2.14 
Drug research, increase 
activity, 2.7 
Drugs, 7.6b 
Education 

alternative systems, 4.4 
religious and cultural 
diversity, 10. 5e 
Educational exchange 
programs, 9.2i 



Family life, 11.7b 
Family planning, 5.4a 
Homosexuals, 10.7d 
Human rights, 6.5 
Human rights declaration, 

U.S. sign, 11.171 
Illegitimacy, 7.15 
Inter-racial families, 9.6p 
Italo-American Caucus, 9.5 
Medical consent, 7.13 
Mid-East, people-to-people 
program, 6.3e 

National Council for Responsive 
Action, establish, 2.6 
National Youth Cultural 
Exchange Program, 9.4a 
Neighborhood Youth Corps, 9.4g 
Non-Public education 
Caucus, 11.19 

Non-public schools aid, 11. 7f 
Old Age Assistance, 11. 7d 
Palestine refugees, 6.3, 6.3d 
Poverty, Indian, 11.3c 
Quality of life, 11.7c 
measurements, 3.19 
Racism, 9.4d 
scientific, 9.2 
Religion, 10.5 

avoid sectarian restrictions on 
other beliefs, 10. 5f 
Religious institutions 
responsibilities, 10.5b 
youth representation, 10.5c 
Right to life, 8.10 
Service learning, community 
involvement, 1.2d 
Sex education, 5.4c 
Sex roles and relationships, 10.7 
equal rights, 10. 7g 
institutional responses, 10. 7f 
Sexual responsibilities, 
standards, 10. 7e 
Sexually restrictive legislation, 
repeal, 10. 7h 
Socialist Caucus, 11.20 
Spiritual health renewal, 10.5a 
Technology, 10.6 

ethical responsibilities of 
producers, 10.6b 
Women's rights, 7.12 
Veneral disease control, 7.14 
Vietnam, protests, 6.2g 
White House Conference on 
Youth, implementation, 6.14 




Appendix: 
Conference Staff 

Office Of The 
National Chairman 



Conference 

Operations 

Program 



Task Force 
Coordinators: 



Task Force 

Coordinator 

Assistants 



Delegate Services 



Arrangements and 
Logistics 



Special Events 



Stephen Hess, National Chairman 

Stephen I. Danzansky, General Counsel 

Joseph DelVecchio 

Myrna Gary 

Barry Gidley 

Dorcas Hardy 

William Lieber 

Rayburn D. Hanzlik, Director 
Barbara Sewer 

W. David Knox, Director 
Elizabeth Roberts 
Myra Washington 

Fred Best, Economy and Employment 
Carolyn Boiarsky, Education 
Samuel Bradley, Legal Rights and Justice 
Linnell Broecker, Drugs 
John Cohrssen, Drugs 

Elizabeth Ferree, Values, Ethics and Culture 
i Joy Fleischer, Poverty 
j Richard Fogelsong, Poverty 
Barry Levin, Values, Ethics and Culture 
Steven Pavsner, Economy and Employment 
Andrew Sansom, Environment 

Michael Searles, Race and Minority Group Relations 

Luiz Simmons, Foreign Relations 

Roy Werner, Draft, National Service and Alternatives 

Suzanne Parody 
John Runyan 
Tin-Swe Thant 
Cynthia Walker 

Katherine Ludlow 
Margo Marusi 
Carrie Witherspoon 
Jane Steiber 
Theresa Terrell 

Larry Luck 
Lyn Martin 
D. Lynn Meeks 
Shelley Middleton 
Matthew Phillips 
Cary Porter 
Mary Rees 
Richard Rogan 
Aaron Ruth 
Suzanne Smith 
Karen Ward 



Lillian Cox 
Marcia Henderson 
Dorothy Hitselberger 
Lynne Pace 

Douglas Engmann, Director 
Mary Anne Bestebreurtje 
Theda Cotton 
Rita Davis 
Pamela Doyle 

Kay Kelly, Director 
Richard Andrews 
Mary Bates 
Samuel Bernstein 
Earl Bond 
Dennis Condie 
Delores Francovich 
Carol Gunderson 
Gaynelle Henderson 
Barbara Hynes 
Rosa Johnson 
Michael King 



James Den Boer, Director 
Sharon Mohr 
Frederick Pelzman 



302 



307 



Communications 



Mary Nell York, Director 
Kathy Cleary 
Donald DeMarino 
Franci Eisenberg 
Carol Gidley 
Frank Hunt 



Mimi Johnston 
Hamid Khosrovi 
Renard Kolosa 
Daniel Maldonado 
Franklin Raines 
Helen Shambley 



Photography 



Richard Beliak 
Vernard Gray 



Joan Kelley 
Jane Orr 



Organizations Walter Mazan, Director 

Liaison George Hooper, Congress 

Jerry Inman, International Participants 

Jean Reynolds, State Committees and National Organizations 



Washington, D.C. Office, 
April 18-22 


Neal Blair 
Dorothy Caldwell 
Frances Cochran 
Lillian Davis 
Laurent Delaine 
Dolly Estel 
Sharon Kiley 
Jean Kirkbride 
Marilyn Lee 


Deiores Meade 
Shirley Parks 
Sandra Riley 
Barbara Tatum 
Carol Transou 
William Wall 
Kent Williams 
Milt Wisoff 
Lynn Zoll 


Advisory Task 
Force Members 

Draft, National 
Service and 
Alternatives 


Harry W. Burton 
Alan S. Cameron 
Raymond Eidam 
Marty Elliott 
Antonio Gomez 
Richard Graham 


Roger T. Kelley 

Walter Oi (Adult Co-chairman) 

William A. Steiger 

Dennis Stutzman 

Larry Sumner 

(Youth Co-chairman) 
Norman P. Thomas 


Drugs 


Terry Alarcon 
Jose Cristobal Colon, Jr. 
Jeffrey Donfeld 
Allyce C. Gullattee 
James P. Murphy 
(Youth Co-Chairman) 


Helen Nowlis (Adult 
Co-Chairwoman) 
Richard B. Ogilvie 
Betti Logan Smith 
William Volkman 
Donna Weimerskirch 


Economy and 
Employment 


Caron Lee Balkany 
(Youth Co-Chairwoman) 
Jerry Cook 
Raymond D. Crabbs 
Howard Fitzpatrick 
Carlos Garcia 


Napoleon Johnson, II 
(Adult Co-Chairman) 
Elizabeth Koontz 
Janet Kuhl 
Viola Rodriguez 
Carolyn Suber 
Elmer Winter 


Education 


Susan Randall Albertson 
William Clay 
Robben W. Fleming 
(Adult Co-Chairman) 
Lynda Ford 

Michael Joseph Garanzini 


Steven Kastner 
Billie Kazuka Kurumaji 
Gordon McAndrew 
John Charles Thomas 
(Youth Co-Chairman) 
Stanley B. Thomas 
Christina Vega 



Environment 



Foreign Relations 



Legal Rights and 
Justice 



Poverty 



Race and Minority 
Group Relations 



Values, Ethics and 
Culture 



Consultants 




Robert Cahn 
John Cantlon 

(Adult Co-Chairman) 
Pedro Fontanes 
Jeffrey Gustavson 

(Youth Co-Chairman) 
Julie Lee Lehman 



James Chace 

(Adult Co-Chairman) 
Richard T. Clark 
Charles S. Dennison 
Thomas Gunn 
Peter Henschel 
Susan Jelonek 

Leigh Abernathy 
Richard W. Alexander 
(Youth Co-Chairman) 
Michael Dively 

(Adult Co-Chairman) 
Frederick H. Evans 
Patricia Gillman 

Karol Lee Baker 
James Branscome 
(Youth Co-Chairman) 
Dennis Conners 
Vine Deloria, Jr. 

William Randall Eckels, Jr. 
Jack Geiger 

Warren Carrnouche 
David Hilliard Eaton 
(Adult Co-Chairman) 
Bernard Garmire 
Mary Helen Gilley 
Charles Rhodes Hinman 
Charles T. Marrow 



Barbara Jane Bachtell 
Gordon Boyce 

(Adult Co-Chairman) 
Mary Bunting 
Angelyn Denise Coy 
Randall G. Dostal 
Ralph Emerson 



Capital Systems Group, Inc. 
Bethesda, Maryland 
James Booth 
William Creager 
Paul Dommel 

Carl Byoir and Associates, Inc. 
New York, N. Y. 

Howard Girsky <Op 
Joseph Orlando 



Daniel Lufkin 

•an iVl c Harg 

Corinne Odiorne 

James W. Spensley 

William Clayton Wilkinson, III 

Donald R- Yon 



Judith Kooker 

(Youth Co-Chairwoman) 
Llmef Lower 
Llliott Moorman 
Rjcha r d F. Pederson 
Dary Rosenthal 
~Rot>ert L. Wald rum 

Rita Hauser 
Wendy Holden 
Rdwa r d Imwinkelried 
Kristine Olson 
Donaid E. Santarelli 
James White 



John Leslie Glascock 
Mary Alice Griffin 
joe Maldonado 
Letty Paez 

Alex C. Stephens, Jr. 
Sterling Tucker 

(Adult Co-Chairman) 

Louis Nunez 

David Pesqueira 

Katie Quan 
Wendy Sackett 
Dori 5 Sandoval 

(Youth Co-Chairwoman) 



Boone Hammond 
Philip Hannan 
Lehda Lopez 
Victor Ortiz 
David Petlowany 
Maureen Sullivan 

(Youth Co-Chairwoman) 



309 



Chermayeff and Geismar Associates, Inc. 

New York, N. Y. 

ivan Chermayeff 
Beau Gardner 

Gilbert Youth Research, Inc. 

New York, N. Y. 

George Mihaly 

David Gottlieb 

The Pennsylvania State University 

Institute for Personal Effectiveness in Children 
San Diego, Calif. 

Boris Bagdassarroff 
Therese Livingston 
George Taylor 

Organization :: Response 
Washington, D.C. 

Phillip C. Ritterbush 



Acknowledgements Business Industry Council 

Augustine R. Marusi 

Chairman of the Board and President, Borden, Inc. 
Thomas Hamall 
Richard C. Spitzer 

Colorado Committee on Children and Youth 
Julieanne Haefeli 
Bernard B. O’Hayre 

Radio Corporation of America 
Arlington, Va. 

Sheldon Chesis 

United Air Lines 
Washington, D.C. 

Monte Hedgepath 
David Livingston 

U.S. Department of Defense 

Lt. Col. James Hill, U.S. Army 

U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare 
Stephen Kurzman 

U.S. Department of Labor 
Norman Root 



Photographic Credits 



Richard Bellack 
Vernard Gray 
Joan Kelley 



SQS'- 



Richard Swift 

Roger Uno (Youth Delegate) 



O 

ERIC 



310 



TV U.s. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1971 0—440-023